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Eradicate Extreme poverty and Hunger

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Eradicate Extreme poverty and Hunger Powered By Docstoc
					International Conference on the Millennium Development Goal Statistics




                      Manila, 1-3 October 2007




  Achieving the Cambodia Millennium
      Development Goals 2005 update




                      Ministry of Planning, Cambodia




                                                                         1
                                        Contents
I.     Introduction

II.    Cambodia Millennium Development Goals


          Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

          Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education

          Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower women

          Goal 4. Reduce child mortality

          Goal 5. Improve maternal health

          Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.

          Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability

          Goal 9. De-mining, UXO and victim assistance

III.   Challenges in achieving the CMDGs


       Annexes

       Benchmarks and target values for CMDG indicators

       Performance against CMDG targets for 2005




                                                                 2
                    Achieving the Cambodia Millennium Development Goals 2005
        I. Introduction
Since 1993 the Royal Government of Cambodia has made important strides in reestablishing political and
economic stability. These achievements are impressive given the suffering that the country and its people
experienced during the past quarter of a century. Most people still lack access to health and education
facilities, potable water, electricity and serviceable roads. Cambodia’s greatest loss was the depletion of its
human capacity by mass genocide and large-scale exodus of the most educated citizens during the years of
Khmer Rouge rule from 1975 to 1979 when institutions were dismantled, the legal system destroyed and
money abolished.
With this legacy of suffering and devastation Cambodia is now one of the poorest countries in the world.
To achieve rapid poverty reduction, the Royal Government of Cambodia was giving the first priority of
the political platform of the Royal Government in the Second and Third Legislature of the National
Assembly that is has shown by Cambodia’s Socio Economic Development Plan (SEDP), National Poverty
Reduction Strategy (NPRS), and Cambodia Millennium Development Goals (CMDGs).


        II. Cambodia Millennium Development Goals (CMDGs)
The Millennium Declaration was adopted in September 2000 by all 189 member states of the United
Nations General Assembly, as the world leaders agreed to a set of time-bound and measurable goals and
targets for combating extreme poverty, hunger, diseases, illiteracy, environmental degradation and
discrimination against women. These goals, which have been part of the global development agenda for a
number of years as endorsed by member countries of the United Nations, are now best known as the
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
Indeed, Cambodia has several challenges to overcome on the road to the MDGs. Despite prolonged
economic growth during the past decade, there are indications that poverty has not declined significantly.
Rural growth has barely kept pace with population growth and unemployment is a considerable challenge.
The Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) is firmly committed to bridge the gap between global
commitments and national progress, and between aggregate national and local development outcomes.
Since the National Election in 1993, by building on these early achievements, the RGC has been
committed to spur more action, greater leadership for results at all levels of society, trusted partnership
and enhanced mobilization of and efficiency in the use of development resources, both domestic and
external, to make the achievement of the MDGs a reality for all Cambodians.
CMDGs are 9 goals, 25 overall targets, and 106 specific targets covering (i) extreme poverty and hunger;
(ii) universal nine-year basic education; (iii) gender equality and women’s empowerment; (iv) child
mortality; (v) maternal health’s; (vi) HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (vii) environmental
sustainability; (viii) global partnership for development; and (ix) de-mining, unexploded ordnance and
victim assistance.
While there has been significant progress over the last decade in implementing pro-poor policies and
reforms aimed at strengthening democracy, rule of law and good governance, the most formidable
development challenge faced by the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) today is to meet the targets
set under the CMDGs. This report reviews progress compared with targets for 2005, which are consistent
with achieving the Goals in 2015.




                                                                                                             3
                        Global MDGs                                      Cambodia MDGs
       1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger            1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
       2. Achieve universal primary education             2. Achieve universal nine-year basic education
       3. Promote gender equality and empower             3. Promote gender equality and empower
       women                                              women
       4. Reduce child mortality                          4. Reduce child mortality
       5. Improve maternal health                         5. Improve maternal health
       6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other             6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
       diseases                                           diseases
       7. Ensure environmental sustainability             7. Ensure environmental sustainability
       8. Develop a global partnership for                8. Forge A Global Partnership For
       development                                        Development1
                                                          9. De-mining, Unexploded ordnance (UXO)
                                                          and Victim Assistance2

Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Cambodia is a poor country with a low per capita income, which has changed very little since the 1990s.
At current prices, per capita US$ 385 in 2005, reflecting earlier slow economic growth in the face of
relative rapid population growth. However, economic growth averaged around 13 percent in 2005. In
recent data show a declining trend in the population growth rate from 2.49% in 1998 to 1.81% in 2004.
Poverty line
The national poverty line varies according to the cost of items in different parts of the country. It is based
on the cost of a food basket of 2100 calories per person per day, plus a small non-food allowance. In 2004
it was 2351 Riel, or about US$ 0.59 in Phnom Penh, CR1952 in other urban areas and CR1753 in rural
areas. The food poverty line is based on only the basket of food of 2100 calories per person per day. For
Phnom Penh it was CR1782 (US$0.45), other urban CR1568, and in rural areas CR1389 in 2004.
According to estimates using recall data on consumption, the proportion of the total population below
poverty line was 34.7% during 2004. There was no comparable estimate for the total population in
1993/94, so we cannot tell by how much poverty has changed for the entire country. However we can
estimate the change in poverty rates for narrower geographically comparable samples. These results are
based on estimates for people living in the same geographical areas that were included in the 1993/94
Socio-Economic Survey of Cambodia (SESC). This covered only 56% of the country’s geographical area;
and 65% of household, excluding many poor and inaccessible areas due to security problems at the time.
These estimates show a strong decline in the poverty rate 39% in 1993/94 to 28% in 2004.
Similarly the percentage of people living below the food poverty line for the entire country was 19.7 in
2004, but earlier country-wide figures are not available. However, using estimated from the same narrow
geographically comparable samples, the proportion of people below the food poverty line also fell
substantially from 20% in 1993/94 to 14.2 in 2004.
The poverty rate for the whole of Cambodia was 34.7 in 2004, compared with the 28% rate for the
narrower geographic area. This implies that areas not covered by the 1993/94 (SESC) have a significantly
higher incidence of poverty. A simple calculation shows that the poverty in these excluded areas was

1
    The localization of global MDG8 into CMDG8 will be finished by Council for Development of Cambodia.
2
    Goal 9 was proposed by RGC.
                                                                                                            4
45.6% in 2004, compared with only 28% for the included areas. Similarly, the food poverty index was
28.7% in excluded areas compared with only 14.2% in the included areas in 20043.
While the success in reducing poverty in urban and more accessible rural areas is commendable given
Cambodia’s recent history, the challenge over the next decade is to vastly reduce poverty in the remaining
more rural less accessible areas. Meeting the CMDG target of halving the poverty rates for the entire
country from the available benchmarks of 1993/94 requires faster economic growth and much better pro-
poor distribution in the next ten years.
Other poverty indicators
While there is evidence of progress in reducing poverty, it seems to have been at the cost of increased
hardship amongst segment of the population. As well as the rural issue, there are also issues of increasing
inequality and its impact on children and women. Contrary to the target of increasing the share of the
poorest quintile in national consumption, inequality in the distribution of real per capita household
consumption increased: the share of the poorest 20% fell from 8.5% in 1993/94 to 7% in 2004.
Nor did the reduction in poverty translate into fewer working children, and possibly has had a less positive
impact on women. The proportion of working children aged 5-17 years has actually risen from 16.5% in
1999 to 22.3 in 2005.
Information from the 2005 Demographic and Health Survey suggests that 37.3% of children under six are
stunting (low height for age) while 7.3% are wasting. Figures for low weight-for-height, 35.6% are
underweight. Despite slow improvement in the proportion of households using iodized salt 72.5% in 2005,
significant progress has been made in moving towards the goal of universal salt iodization in Cambodia.

Table1. Proportion of people below poverty line

    Indicator                                                                            1993-1994        2004
    Poverty gap index (% of population below the national food poverty line)                3.76           4.25
    Poverty gap index (% of population below the national poverty line)                     9.21           9.02
    Poverty headcount index (% of population below the national food poverty                 20           19.68
    line)
    Poverty headcount index (% of population below the national poverty line)                 39          34.68


Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education
Cambodia’s goal is to achieve universal nine-year basic education by 2015. Although the country has
made progress in increasing access to basic education in recent years, there is a long way to reach the
targets set under the CMDGs. Three of the 10 estimates of performance show that Cambodia is actually
going backwards from where it was before, and another two show only minimal progress. Of the
remaining 5 indicators do not show enough progress to reach the 2005 targets.
The net admission rate, which compares actual to potential admissions to graded 1, has small changed
from 81% in 2005 to 82.6% in 2006, against a target of 95%. The survival rate from grade 1 to grade 9 has
actually fallen down from 30.2% in 2004 to 26.5% in 2005 as against a target 52%. Other survival rates-
from grade 1 to grade 5 and to grade 6- have shown the same pattern of survival grade 1 to grade 9. The
net enrollment ratio in primary education has stayed unchanged from 2005 to 2006. However, net
enrollment ration in lower secondary education increased from 26.1% in 2005 to 31.3% in 2006 as against
a target 50%. This leave a big gap compares to the target set for realizing the goal of universal nine-year

3
  With an estimated population share of around 38% in the excluded areas and, assuming x is the poverty index in the
excluded areas in the 1993/94 SESC, for head-count index, 0.62*27.97+0.38*x = 34.68 gives x = 45.63%. Similarly,
for food poverty index, 0.62*14.18 + 0.38*x = 28.65%
                                                                                                                  5
basic education. In 2004, 18.7% of 6-14 years olds remained out of school against a target of 22%. There
was an increasing in adult literacy rat (15-24), rising from 83.4% in 2005 to 84.7% in 2006 against a target
90%.
Another major concern is the issue of bridging the gender gap in basic education, as measured by the
ratios of girls to boys in primary and lower secondary education. Although the target is to achieve full
gender equality at both levels by 2010, actual performance in 2005 shows large shortfalls, especially in
lower secondary education. The ratio of girls to boys in primary education increases from 89.5% in 2005
to 96% in 2006, which is close to target 98%. In lower secondary education the ratio of girls to boys
increased from 63% to 77% over the same period.

Figure 1: Female share in wage employment by sector

                         Fe m ale s hare in w age e m ploym e nt by s e ctor
                 %

                  70


                                                         57.9
                  60
                                                  58.2
                                                                        50.7              50
                  50                                            51.2           50.7            50
                          41.4
                                                  44.5
                  40
                                           39.4
                                 31.9                                          30.6
                  30                                                                           30

                                 23.9                           23
                  20



                  10



                  0
                          1996             1997          1999          2003/ 04       2005 Tar get

                                        Services         Industry         Agriculture


Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower women
Cambodia has made significant progress in promoting gender equality and most of the indicators are close
to targets. However there are major problems, especially in the area of domestic violence where big
challenges exist.
Over the years, gender disparity at upper secondary and tertiary education has been declining and in 2005,
the ratios of females to males in both upper secondary and tertiary education are close to their targets.
The ratio of literacy rates for females to males in the age group 15-24 years is below its target for 2005.
The estimate is 90% for 2005 while 87% in 1998. Similarly the ration of literacy rates for women to men
25-44 years old has increased a little to 80% in 2005 compared with the target of 85% and a bases figure
of 78%. Better progress in this area is largely dependent on the education system. The most noteworthy
feature of women’s empowerment is the increase in women’s share of wage employment in all three broad
sectors, with targets surpassed in both agriculture and industry. Only in the services sector has progress
not met the target. Changes in the status of women in the political sphere have been show. Women still
have little representation in political administrative and other areas. A notable exception is in some senior
public service job such as under secretaries of state for which women’s share has surpassed the 2005
target, albeit to less than 12%.




                                                                                                           6
Figure 2: Child mortality




Goal 4. Reduce child mortality
Estimates of child mortality indicate significant improvement in all available target areas. While these
estimates should be treated with caution due to different survey methods and questions, the under-five
mortality rate is estimated at 83 per 1,000 live births in 2005 compare with 124 in 2000. The target for
2005 was 105. Similarly, the infant mortality rate is estimated at 66 per 1,000 live births in 2005 compared
with its target of 75 and a benchmark value of 95 in 2000. Such indicative trends are consistent with the
rapid decline in total fertility rate 4 in 2000 and 3.4 in 2005. The rapid indicative decline pointed to in
child mortality is consistent with the increase in immunization coverage for both measles and DPT3.
The target for immunization against measles was also achieved in 2005.

Goal 5. Improve maternal health
Recent information on the status of maternal health is insufficient. Data is available on only four of the
nine indicators, in particular, data not available on the most important indicator, maternal mortality ratio.
The total fertility rate has declined from 4.0 in 2000 to 3.4 in 2005 surpassing the target of 3.8. The
proportion of married women using modern birth spacing method has increased significantly. As 2005,
20.1% of married women are accessing modern birth spacing methods via the public sector and
considerably more through social marketing systems and the private sector.
The maternal mortality is still major issue for Cambodia, however, the proportion of birth attended by
skilled health personnel increased from 32% in 2000 to 44 % in 2005. Probing into the Cambodia Inter-
Census Population Survey 2004 data, however, suggests that more than one-fifth of the illness-related
causes of death of women in 15-44 years age group are due to pregnancy-related complication, including
deliveries.

Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.
Cambodia has made significant progress in meeting 2005 targets for achieving the CMDGs through
effective measures to combat HIV/AIDS, the incidence of malaria, dengue and other major diseases such
as tuberculosis, While data on only 11 of the 19 indicators under his goal is available for 2005, many of
these achievements exceed targets.




                                                                                                           7
For HIV/AIDS4, the prevalence rate among adults aged 15-49 has sharply declined from 3.0% in 1997 to
1.9% in 2005, surpassing the target of 2.3% set for the year. Better and more reliable social indicators
emerging from the Demographic and Health Survey of 2005, in particular reducing HIV infection levels
among adults to 0.6% significantly lower than earlier estimates 1.9%5. The HIV prevalence rate among
pregnant women aged 15-24 visiting ANC centers has also declined to 2.1% in 2005 from 2.5 in 1998,
ahead of the 2005 target of 2.4%. Condom use by sex workers is very near the target of 98% and has
improved from the 91% rate in 2002. The percentage of people receiving anti-retroviral combination
therapy is well above target at 45%, up from only 3% in 2002. Over 9,000 people were receiving this
treatment as at the third quarter of 2005.
The malaria case fatality rate reported by public health sector declined from 0.4% in 2000 to 0.36%. The
incidence, as reported by the umber of malaria cases treated in the public health sector per 1,000
populations, however, declined from 11.4% to 7.3% between 2000 and 2005, thus surpassing the target of
9% set the year.
While many of these results are encouraging, complacency cannot be entertained for such deadly diseases
as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. Data from household surveys indicate that these diseases are significant
causes of deaths across all groups of population. Moreover, new areas of concern need to be addressed for
HIV/AIDS, such as increasing parent-to-child and husband-to-wife transmissions. The quiet spill over of
HIV/AIDS into rural areas is a major concern. The conventional intervention strategy to combat the
disease by focusing on urban and high-risk groups needs to be complemented by approaches that address
vulnerability in a range of settings and populations.

Figure 3: Trend HIV Prevalence rate amongst people ageg 15-49

                                              HIV Prevalence rate amongst people aged 15-49

                            3.5
                                        2.9   3
                             3                     2.8   2.7
                                                               2.5
                            2.5                                      2.2                           2.3
                                  2.1                                      2.1                           2
                                                                                 1.9   1.9
                  Percent




                             2                                                                               1.8

                            1.5

                             1                                                               0.6
                            0.5

                             0
                                  1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2005 2005 2005 2010 2015
                                                                                Est CDHS Target Target Target




Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability
While there are major gaps in the information available for this goal, much of the data that can be
analyzed is positive. Recent information on the key issue of environmental sustainability – that is on forest
coverage and management – is not available. The forest depletion process is partly reflected in the high
incidence of fuel wood dependency.



4
    Some of the estimates for base years have been revised due to improved methodology.
5
    Annual Progress Report 2006 on national strategic development plan 2006-2010
                                                                                                                   8
In 1993, 92% of households were dependent of fuel wood. This declined slightly to around 84% in 2005
while the target was 70%. These targets will remain elusive unless serious efforts are taken in both
forestry and energy sectors. The environment for human living conditions has shown significant
improvement. Access to safe water for rural and urban populations has increased to around 42% and 76%
in 2005, exceeding targets of 30% and 68% respectively. Similarly, access to improved sanitation amongst
the rural population has increased to 16% compared with a target of 12% in 2005. For urban populations,
access to improved sanitation is 55%, close to but less than the target of 59% for 2005.

Goal 9. De-mining, UXO and victim assistance
Cambodia adopted the target of completing the de-mining of contaminated areas by 2012. Although
significant progress has been made, this target is unlikely to be achieved. The Cambodian Mine Action
and Victim Assistance Authority (CMAA) have re-set the completion year at 2015. The major gap lies in
reducing of the civilian casualties each year. There is an estimated 797 civilian casualties in 2005, more
than two people each day. This compares with the 2005 target of 500 and the 2010 target of 200. The
casualty rate is however much better than the nearly 1,700 casualties in the base you of 1993.
Progress in clearing suspected contaminated areas of landmines and UXOs is very close to target. More
than 50% of such areas have been cleared by 2005, compared with only 10% in 1995. Earlier is was
expected that the casualty rate would fall faster than it has largely in response to decontamination efforts.
However in retrospect, it is possible that the number of deaths will stay high as human habitat approaches
the remaining more densely contaminated areas. The other main reason for the high casualty rate is the
dismantling of UXOs for scrap metal by scavengers. This latter issue also needs addressing.

Figure 4: Proportion of suspected landmine contaminated areas cleared.

                      Proportion of suspected landmine contaminated areas
                                             cleared
                 %
                 60
                                                 50.3                  51
                 50

                 40

                 30

                 20
                             10
                 10

                  0
                            1995                 2005              2005 Target


        III. Challenges in achieving the CMDGs
Achievements and gaps in realizing important CMDG targets are summarized in Table 1. The picture is
mixed, showing limited achievements and critical deficits in the case of many CMDGs. Although
Cambodia is on track to achieve at least 23 of 59 CMDG targets for which information is available, it is
not on track in case of many critical areas relating to food security, poverty reduction, education and
sustainable social and economic development.
Cambodia will not be able to achieve the CMDGs by 2015 unless its national efforts are strengthened al
support. Worse, and reinforces through global support. Worse, Cambodia would then fall further behind
other developing countries in Asia and the Pacific, thereby widening social and economic disparities in the

                                                                                                           9
region. Therefore it is important to work out customized support to address Cambodia’s challenges,
keeping in view its diverse needs. A needs assessment that costs the resources necessary to attain the
CMDGs as against resources available (both internal and external) that can be mobilized would be most
useful in this regard.
With the RGC’s commitment to the principles of social justice, human welfare and empowerment, one of
its important agendas has been to internalize the CMDGs within the government and broader civil society.
Cambodia is striving to develop a broader constituency for the CMDGs seeking to realize the goals
through knowledge-sharing, awareness-raising and information-based partnership building with all
stakeholders.

                   Achievements                                           Shortfalls
      Significant improvements in poverty rates           High rural poverty rates.
       in urban and more accessible rural areas.           Failure to increase net enrolments at higher
      Expansion of primary education to more               levels and achieve high survival rates at all
       children.                                            levels of education.
      Significant reduction in mortality rates for        Limited progress in achieving the goals of
       both infants and undr-5 year olsds.                  universal nie-year basic education
      Improved immunization against major                  particularly those beyond primary
       childhood diseases.                                  education.
      Improved breastfeeding rates                        Gender disparity in secondary and tertiary
      Reduction of gender disparity in most areas          education.
       especially in primary education, adult              Persistent high levels of domestic violence.
       literacy, and wage employment in                    Access to quality health services especially
       agriculture and industry.                            in case of women and maternal health.
      Noteworthy reduction of communicable                Environmental degradation, especially
       diseases, especially GIV/AIDS.                       forest depletion and water resources.
      Improved urban access to safe water and             Persistence of high civilian casualties from
       rural access to improved sanitation.                 landmines and UXOs.




                                                                                                       10
                                          ANNEX 1
                       Benchmarks and target values for CMDG indicators

1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

                            Indicator                                 Benchmarks          Target
                                                                      Value Year   2005   2010 2015
1.1 Proportion of people whose income is less than the national      39     1993   31     25     19.5
poverty line (%)
1.2 Share of poorest quintile in national consumption (%)            7.4    1993   9      10       11
1.3 Proportion of working children aged 5-17 years old (%)           16.5   1999   13     10.6     8
1.4 Prevalence of underweight (weight for age <2SD ) children        45.2   2000   36     29       22.6
under five years of age (%)
1.5 Proportion of population below the food poverty line (%)         20     1993   16     13       10
1.6 Prevalence of stunted (height for age <2SD) children under       44.6   2000   35     28       22
five years of age (%)
1.7 Prevalence of wasted (weight for height <2SD) children           15     2000   13     10       9
under five year of age (%)
1.8 Proportion of households using iodized salt (%)                  14     2000   80     90       90


2. Achieve universal primary education

                           Indicators                                 Benchmarks          Target
                                                                     Value  Year   2005   2010     2015
2.1 Net admission rate (%)                                           81     2001   95     100      100
2.2 Net enrolment ration in primary education (%)                    87     2001   95     100      100
                                                         Male        90     2001   96     100      100
                                                         Female      84     2001   94     100      100
2.3 Net enrolment ration in lower secondary education (%)            19     2001   50     75       100
                                                         Male        21     2001   51     75       100
                                                         Female      16     2001   49     75       100
2.4 Proportion of 6-14 years old out of school (%)                   35     1999   22     11       0
2.5 Survival rate from grade 1 to 5 (%)                              58     2001   77     100      100
2.6 Survival rate from grade 1 to 6 (last grade of primary cycle)    51     2001   73     100      100
(%)
2.7 Survival rate from grad 1 to 9 (last grade of basic cycle) (%)   33     2001   52     76       100
2.8 Literacy rate of 15-24 years old (%)                             82     1999   90     95       100
2.9 Ratio of girls to boys in primary education (%)                  87     2001   98     100      100
2.10 Ratio of girls to boys in lower secondary education (%)         63     2001   96     100      100




                                                                                                        11
3. Promote gender equality and empower women

                          Indicators                               Benchmarks                Target
                                                                  Value   Year        2005    2010    2015
3.1Rtion of girls to boys in upper secondary education (%)       48      2001         59     80       100
3.2 Ratio of females to males in tertiary education (%)          38      2001         50     70       85
3.3 Ratio of literate females to mates 15-24 years old (%)       87      1998         95     100      100
3.4 Ratio of literate females to males 25-44 years old (%)       78      1998         85     100      100
3.5 Female share in wage employment in agriculture (%)           35      1998         50     50       50
3.6 Female share in wage employment in industry (%)              44      1998         50     50       50
3.7 Female share in wage employment in service (%)               21      1998         30     37       50
3.8 Proportion of seats held by women in national assembly (%)   12      2003         17     24       30
3.9 Proportion of seats held by women in Senate (%)              13      2003         17     24       30
3.10 Proportion of female Minister (%)                           8       2003         9      12       15
3.11 Proportion of female Secretaries of State (%)               6       2003         8      15       18
3.12 Proportion of female Under Secretaries of State (%)         5       2003         8      17       20
3.13 Proportion of female provincial governors (%)               0       2003         3      6        10
3.14 Proportion of female deputy provincial governors (%)        1       2003         4      8        15
3.15 Proportion of seats held by women in commune councils       8       2003         8      15       25
(%)
3.16 Population percentage aware that violence against women            n.a.          25     50       100
is wrongful behavior and a criminal act (%)
3.17 Proportion of cases of domestic violence counseled by              n.a.          20     50       100
qualified personnel (%)
3.18 Laws against all forms of violence against women and                             
children are developed and implemented according to
international requirements and standards
3.19 Statistics to monitor violence against women collected                           
annually
3.20 A prevention plan developed and implemented                                      


4. Reduce child mortality

                          Indicators                              Benchmarks                 Target
                                                                  Value  Year         2005    2010    2015
4.1 Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)            124    1998          105    85       65
4.2 Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)                95     1998          75     60       50
4.3 Proportion of children under 1 year immunized against        41.4   2000          80     85       90
measles (%)
4.4 Proportion of children aged 6-59 months receiving Vitamin    28            2000   70     80       90
A capsules (%)
4.5 Proportion of children under 1 year immunized against        43            2000   80     85       90
DPT3 (%)
4.6 Proportion of infants exclusively breastfed up to 6 months   11.4          2000   20     34       49
of age (%)
4.7 Proportion of mothers who start breast-feeding newborn       11            2000   28     45       62
child within 1 hour of birth (%)



                                                                                                           12
5. Improve maternal health

                          Indicators                              Benchmarks           Target
                                                                 Value   Year   2005    2010    2015
5.1 Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births)          437     1997    343    243      140
5.2 Total fertility rate                                        4       1998    3.8    3.4      3.0
5.3 Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel   32      2000    60     70       80
(%)
5.4 Proportion of married women using modern birth spacing      18.5    2000    30     44       60
methods (%)
5.5 Percentage of pregnant women with 2 or more ANC             30.5    2000    60     75       90
consultation from skilled health personnel (%)
5.6 Proportion of pregnant with Iron Deficiency Anemia (%)      66      2000    50     39       33
5.7 Proportion of women aged 15-49 with BMI<18.5Sq.meter        21      2000    17     12       8
(%)
5.8 Proportion of women aged 15-49 with Iron Deficiency         58      2000    45     32       19
Anemia (%)
5.9 Proportion of pregnant women who delivered by Caesarean     0.8     2000    2      3        4
Section (%)




                                                                                                     13
6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

                           Indicators                                  Benchmarks           Target
                                                                      Value   Year   2005    2010 2015
6.1 HIV prevalence rate among adults aged 15-49 (%)                  3.0     1997    2.3    2.0    1.8
6.2 HIV prevalence rate among pregnant women aged 15-24              2.5     1998    2.4    2.0    1.5
visiting ANC (%)
6.3 Condom use rate among commercial sex workers during              91      2002    98     98    98
last commercial sexual intercourse (%)
6.4 Percentage of young people aged 15-24 reporting the use of       82      2002    85     90    95
a condom during sexual intercourse with a non-regular sexual
partner (%)
6.5 Proportion of condom use reported by marred women who            1       2000    2      5     10
identified themselves at risk (%)
6.6 Percentage of HIV infected pregnant women attending              2.7     2002    10     35    50
ANC receiving a complete course of antiretroviral prophylaxis
to reduce the risk of MTCT (%)
6.7 Percentage of people with advanced HIV infection                 3       2002    25     60    75
receiving antiretroviral combination therapy (%)
6.8 Malaria case fatality rate reported by public health sector      0.4     2000    0.3    0.2   0.1
(%)
6.9 Proportion of population at high risk who slept under            24      1998    80     95    98
insecticide-treated bed nets during the previous night (%)
6.10 Number of malaria cases treated in the public health sector     11.4    2000    9      7     4
per 1 000 population
6.11 Proportion of public health facilities ale to confirm malaria   60      2002    70     80    95
diagnosis according to national guidelines with 95% accuracy
(%)
6.12 Number of dengue cases treated in the public health sector      1       2001    0.8    0.6   0.4
per 1 000 population
6.13 Dengue case fatality rate reported by public health             1.5     2003    1      0.5   0.3
facilities (%)
6.14 Prevalence of smear-positive TB per 100 000 population          428     1997    321    214   135
6.15 TB deaths rate per 100 000 population                           90      1997    68     45    32
6.16 Proportion of all estimated new smear-positive TB cases         57      2002    70     >70   >70
detected under DOTS (%)
6.17 Proportion of registered smear-positive TB cases                89      2002    >85    >85   >85
successfully treated under DOTS (%)




                                                                                                       14
7. Ensure environmental sustainability

                          Indicators                                 Benchmarks            Target
                                                                   Value     Year   2005    2010    2015
7.1 Forest coverage as a percentage of total area (%)             60        (a)     60     60       60
7.2 Surface of 23 protected areas (million hectares)              3.3       1993    3.3    3.3      3.3
7.3 Surface of 6 new forest-protected areas (million hectares)    1.35      1996    1.35   1.35     1.35
7.4 Number of rangers in protected areas                          600       2001    772    987      1,200
7.5 Number of rangers in forest protected areas                   500       2001    500    500      500
7.6 Proportion of fishing lots allocated to total communities (%) 56        1998    58     60       60
7.7 Number of community-based fisheries                           264       2000    364    464      589
7.8 Surface of fish sanctuary (thousand ha)                       264       2000    581    581      581
7.9 Fuel wood dependency (% of household)                         92        1993    70     61       52
7.10 Proportion of rural population with access to safe water     24        1998    39     40       50
source (%)
7.11 Proportion of urban population with access to safe water     60        1998    68     74       80
source (%)
7.12 Proportion of rural population with access to improved       8.6       1998    12     20       30
sanitation (%)
7.13 Proportion of urban population with access to improved       49        1998    59     67       74
sanitation (%)
7.14 Percentage of land parcels having titles in both urban and   15        2000    16     32       65
rural areas (%)
(a) The benchmark is the average forest coverage in the last decade (1992-2002)

9. De-mining, UXO and assistance

                          Indicators                              Benchmarks             Target
                                                                  Value  Year       2005 2010 2015
9.1 Annual numbers of civilian casualties recorded               1691   1993        500  200    0
9.2 Percentage of severe/high/medium/low suspected               10     1995        51   77     100
contaminated areas cleared (%)
9.3 A comprehensive victim assistance framework developed                       To be developed and
and implemented                                                                    implemented
9.4 Numbers of landmine/UXO victims receiving an assistance      n.a.                To be set
package and integrated into the society.




                                                                                                         15
                                              ANNEX 2
                               Performance against CMDG targets for 2005

This annex presents the performance index to CMDG indicators for which 2005 data is available. The
CMDGs consist of nine goals and 106 specific targets. However, if we exclude Goal 8 (Forge a Global
Partnership for Development), then the remaining eight CMDGs have 89 specific targets, Estimates for
2005 are available for 59 of these targets.

Where appropriate, estimates for 2005 are based on analysis and extrapolation of 2004 survey figures.
However, some especially critical data is estimated using 2004 figures, where change is difficult to predict
- such as for the poverty rates. Other data such as education figures are current for 2005.

Some data from sources such as CAMInfo may differ with these estimates. Most of these differences are
due to different definitions of what is being measured, or to different surveys. Where significant, this is
noted in the tables.

Performance Index (PI 2005)
The target values for 2005 in this study are consistent with the CMDG target of 2015 that were set in 2003
by the RGC6. for each indicator, the Performance Index (PI 20050 is measured by the ration of the
estimated value in 2005 to the target value in 2005 expressed as a percentage, where the aim is to increase
the value of the indicator. Where the aim is to reduce the value of the indicator, the index is calculated in
reverse.

A value of 100 of the PI2005 indicates the exact achievement of the target value in 2005 target.
Conversely, a value of more than 100 indicates over-achievement of 2005 target.

 Status                                                Meaning
A          Improving and better than target
           Current performance is likely to more than achieve the 2015 target if the present trent can be
           maintained.
B          Improving and on target
           Current performance is likely to achieve the 2015 target if the present trend can be maintained.
C          Improving, but below target
           Current performance is unlikely to achieve the 2015 target, but the situation has improved
           compare with base year.
D          Static, little change
           Current performance is highly unlikely to achieve the 2015 target and the situation has changed
           little compared with base year.
E          Worsening
           Current performance is highly unlikely to achieve the 2015 target and the situation has
           worsened compared with the base year.




6
 These values are provided in Cambodia Millennium Development Goals Report 2003, Ministry of Planning,
Kingdom of Cambodia, November 2003.
                                                                                                          16
1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

                      Indicator                            Benchmarks
                                                          Value   Year        Target       Est.       PI       Status
                                                                               2005       20057      2005
1.1 Proportion of people whose income is less            (39)8       1993     31         34.79      89            C
than the national poverty line (%)                                                       (28.0)
1.2 Share of poorest quintile in national                7.410       1993     9          (7.0)      78            E
consumption (%)                                          (8.5)11
1.3 Proportion of working children aged 5-17             16.5        1999     13         22.3       58            E
years old (%)
1.4 Prevalence of underweight (weight for age            45.2        2000     36            ...        ...        ...
<2SD) children under five years of age (%)
1.5 Proportion of population below the food              20          1993     16         19.7*      81            C
poverty line (%)                                                                         (14.2)
1.6 Prevalence of stunted (height for age <2SD)          44.6        2000     35           ...         ...        ...
children under five years of age (%)
1.7 Prevalence of wasted (weight for height              15          2000     13            ...        ...        ...
<2SD) children under five year of age (%)
1.8 Proportion of households using iodized salt          14          2000     80         31.5       39            C
(%)




7
  All estimates for this goal are based on CSES 2004 data, except 1.3 which is from CIPS 2004
8
  For 1.1 and 1.5 the figures in brackets give the poverty rate for the population in the same geographical areas that
were included in the base year (1993/94) Socio-Economic Survey of Cambodia which covered only 56% of the
geographical area and 65% of households due to security problems during the period.
9
  This is the estimated poverty rate for the whole of Cambodia, based on recall data from the Cambodia Socio-
Economic Survey (CSES 04). For the performance index and status, we have compared this with the target derived
from the benchmark to reflect the Royal Government’s strong determination of reducing poverty. However, if the
comparable value is used, this will show a performance index of 111 and 113 for 1.1 and 1.5 respectively and a status
of ‘A’ for both.
10
   For 1.2, this is the original benchmark for which no comparable data is available for 2005.
11
   For 1.2, this is an unofficial benchmark that is comparable with the 2005 esimate
                                                                                                                   17
2. Achieve universal primary education

                        Indicators                          Benchmarks
                                                           Value Year          Target      Est.         PI         Status
                                                                                2005      200512      2005
2.1 Net admission rate (%)                                 81        2001     95         81          85              D
2.2 Net enrolment ration in primary education              87        2001     95         91.9        97              C
(%)
Male                                                       90        2001     96         93          97              C
Female                                                     84        2001     94         90.7        96              C
2.3 Net enrolment ration in lower secondary                19        2001     50         26.1        52              C
education (%)
Male                                                       21        2001     51         27.1        53              ...
Female                                                     16        2001     49         24.8        51              ...
2.4 Proportion of 6-14 years old out of school             35        1999     22         18.7        118             A
(%)
2.5 Survival rate from grade 1 to 5 (%)                    58        2001     77         59.2        77              D
2.6 Survival rate from grade 1 to 6 (last grade of         51        2001     73         53.1        73        D
primary cycle) (%)
2.7 Survival rate from grad 1 to 9 (last grade of          33        2001     52         29.3        56        E
basic cycle) (%)
2.8 Literacy rate of 15-24 years old (%)                   82        1999     90         83.4        93        D
2.9 Ratio of girls to boys in primary education            87        2001     98         89.5        91        C
(%)
2.10 Ratio of girls to boys in lower secondary             63        2001     96         77          80        C
education (%)




12
     All estimates for this goal are Education Ministry figures (EMIS 2004-2005), except 2.4 and 2.8 (CIPS 2004)
                                                                                                                     18
3. Promote gender equality and empower women

                     Indicators                        Benchmarks
                                                      Value   Year        Target    Est.         PI        Status
                                                                          2005     2005         2005
3.1Rtion of girts fo boys in upper secondary          48          2001   59        59.9        101         B
education (%)
3.2 Ratio of females to males in tertiary education   38          2001   50        45.6        91          C
(%)
3.3 Ratio of literate females to mates 15-24 years    87          1998   95        90          95          C
old (%)
3.4 Ratio of literate females to males 25-44 years    78          1998   85        80          94          C
old (%)
3.5 Female share in wage employment in                35          1998   50        52.5        105         A
agriculture (%)
3.6 Female share in wage employment in industry       44          1998   50        53.5        107         A
(%)
3.7 Female share in wage employment in service        21          1998   30        27.0        90          C
(%)
3.8 Proportion of seats held by women in national     12          2003   17        17.1        105         B
assembly (%)
3.9 Proportion of seats held by women in Senate       13          2003   17        14.0        82          C
(%)
3.10 Proportion of female Minister (%)                8           2003   9         7.1         79          E
3.11 Proportion of female Secretaries of State (%)    6           2003   8         7.1         89          C

3.12 Proportion of female Under Secretaries of        5           2003   8         11.9        149         A
State (%)
3.13 Proportion of female provincial governors (%)    0           2003   3         0           0           E

3.14 Proportion of female deputy provincial           1           2003   4         1.7         43          D
governors (%)
3.15 Proportion of seats held by women in             8           2003   8         8.7         109         A
commune councils (%)
3.16 Population percentage aware that violence             n.a.          25        4.5         18          E
against women is wrongful behavior and a criminal
act (%)
3.17 Proportion of cases of domestic violence              n.a.          20              ...         ...         ...
counseled by qualified personnel (%)
3.18 Laws against all forms of violence against                                   ...         ...         ...
women and children are developed and
implemented according to international
requirements and standards

3.19 Statistics to monitor violence against women                                 ...         ...         ...
collected annually
3.20 A prevention plan developed and implemented                                  ...         ...         ...




                                                                                                                 19
4. Reduce child mortality

                        Indicators                              Benchmarks
                                                               Value Year           Target     Est.       PI        Status
                                                                                    2005       2005      2005
                                                                                                   13

4.1 Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)         124        1998      105        82         128          A
4.2 Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)             95         1998      75         66         114          A
4.3 Proportion of children under 1 year immunized             41.4       2000      80         80         100          B
against measles (%)
4.4 Proportion of children aged 6-59 months                   28         2000      70              ...     ...        ...
receiving Vitamin A capsules (%)
4.5 Proportion of children under 1 year immunized             43         2000      80         83         104          A
against DPT3 (%)
4.6 Proportion of infants exclusively breastfed up to         11.4       2000      20              ...     ...        ...
6 months of age (%)
4.7 Proportion of mothers who start breast-feeding            11         2000      28         29.3       105          A
newborn child within 1 hour of birth (%)


5. Improve maternal health

                        Indicators                             Benchmarks
                                                               Value Year           Target     Est.       PI        Status
                                                                                    2005       2005      2005
                                                                                                   14

5.1 Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births)         437        1997      343            ...     ...        ...
5.2 Total fertility rate                                       4          1998      3.8
5.3 Proportion of births attended by skilled health            32         2000      60             ...     ...        ...
personnel (%)
5.4 Proportion of married women using modern                   18.5       2000      30        (20.1)     67           (C)
                                                                                              15
birth spacing methods (%)                                      (11.5)
5.5 Percentage of pregnant women with 2 or more                30.5       2000      60        (47)16     78           (C)
ANC consultation from skilled health personnel (%)             (25.4)
5.6 Proportion of pregnant with Iron Deficiency                66         2000      50             ...     ...        ...
Anemia (%)
5.7 Proportion of women aged 15-49 with                        21         2000      17             ...     ...        ...
BMI<18.5Sq.meter (%)
5.8 Proportion of women aged 15-49 with Iron                   58         2000      45             ...     ...        ...
Deficiency Anemia (%)
5.9 Proportion of pregnant women who delivered by              0.8        2000      2         0.8        40           D
Caesarean Section (%)




13
   Estimates for this goal are based as follows: 4.1: CIPS 2004;4.2 CIPS; 4.3, 4.5 and 4.7: CSES 2003/04
14
   Estimates for this goal are based as follows:5.2:CIPS; 5.4, 5.5 and 5.9: Ministry of Health 2004
15
   For 5.4 and 5.5 figures is brackets are public sector figures only. The base figures and targets also include private
sector provision.
16
   Ditto as above
                                                                                                                       20
6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

                    Indicators                         Benchmarks
                                                      Value   Year   Target    Est.    PI     Status
                                                                      2005    2005    2005
6.1 HIV prevalence rate among adults aged 15-49       3.0    1997    2.3      1.9     121     A
(%)
6.2 HIV prevalence rate among pregnant women          2.5    1998    2.4      2.1     114     A
aged 15-24 visiting ANC (%)
6.3 Condom use rate among commercial sex              91     2002    98       96.7    99      C
workers during last commercial sexual intercourse
(%)
6.4 Percentage of young people aged 15-24             82     2002    85         ...     ...       ...
reporting the use of a condom during sexual
intercourse with a non-regular sexual partner (%)
6.5 Proportion of condom use reported by marred       1      2000    2          ...     ...       ...
women who identified themselves at risk (%)
6.6 Percentage of HIV infected pregnant women         2.7    2002    10         ...     ...       ...
attending ANC receiving a complete course of
antiretroviral prophylaxis to reduce the risk of
MTCT (%)
6.7 Percentage of people with advanced HIV            3      2002    25       45      180     A
infection receiving antiretroviral combination
therapy (%)
6.8 Malaria case fatality rate reported by public     0.4    2000    0.3      0.36    83      C
health sector (%)
6.9 Proportion of population at high risk who slept   24     1998    80       49      61      C
under insecticide-treated bed nets during the
previous night (%)
6.10 Number of malaria cases treated in the public    11.4   2000    9        7.3     123     A
health sector per 1 000 population
6.11 Proportion of public health facilities ale to    60     2002    70         ...     ...       ...
confirm malaria diagnosis according to national
guidelines with 95% accuracy (%)
6.12 Number of dengue cases treated in the public     1      2001    0.8      0.84    95      C
health sector per 1 000 population
6.13 Dengue case fatality rate reported by public     1.5    2003    1        0.74    143     A
health facilities (%)
6.14 Prevalence of smear-positive TB per 100 000      428    1997    321        ...     ...       ...
population
6.15 TB deaths rate per 100 000 population            90     1997    68         ...     ...       ...
6.16 Proportion of all estimated new smear-positive   57     2002    70       61      87      C
TB cases detected under DOTS (%)
6.17 Proportion of registered smear-positive TB       89     2002    >85        ...     ...       ...
cases successfully treated under DOTS (%)




                                                                                                    21
7. Ensure environmental sustainability

                       Indicators                             Benchmarks
                                                            Value   Year            Target    Est.17    PI      Status
                                                                                     2005     2005     2005
7.1 Forest coverage as a percentage of total area     60        Average             60         ...      ...         ...
(%)                                                             value
7.2 Surface of 23 protected areas (million hectares) 3.3        1993        3.3                 ...      ...        ...
7.3 Surface of 6 new forest-protected areas (million 1.35       1996        1.35                ...      ...        ...
hectares)
7.4 Number of rangers in protected areas              600       2001        772                 ...      ...        ...
7.5 Number of rangers in forest protected areas       500       2001        500                 ...      ...        ...
7.6 Proportion of fishing lots allocated to total     56        1998        58                  ...      ...        ...
communities (%)
7.7 Number of community-based fisheries               264       200018      364               375      103      A
7.8 Surface of fish sanctuary (thousand ha)           264       2000        581                 ...      ...        ...
7.9 Fuel wood dependency (% of household)             92        1993        70                83.9     83       C
7.10 Proportion of rural population with access to    24        1998        39                41.6     139      A
safe water source (%)
7.11 Proportion of urban population with access to 60           1998        68                75.8     112      A
safe water source (%)
7.12 Proportion of rural population with access to    8.6       1998        12                16.4     137      A
improved sanitation (%)
7.13 Proportion of urban population with access to 49           1998        59                55       93       C
improved sanitation (%)
7.14 Percentage of land parcels having titles in both 15        2000        16                  ...      ...        ...
urban and rural areas (%)
(a) The benchmark is the average forest coverage in the last decade (1992-2002)

9. De-mining, UXO and assistance

                       Indicators                              Benchmarks
                                                            Value    Year            Target   Est.19     PI     Status
                                                                                      2005    2006      2005
9.1 Annual numbers of civilian casualties recorded         1691       1993           500
9.2 Percentage of severe/high/medium/low                   10         1995           51
suspected contaminated areas cleared (%)
9.3 A comprehensive victim assistance framework                                       Not       ...       ...        ...
developed and implemented                                                            avai-
                                                                                     lable
9.4 Numbers of landmine/UXO victims receiving              n.a.       n.a.           To be      ...       ...        ...
an assistance package and integrated into the                                         set
society.




17
   7.7: Department of Fisheries, and 7.9-7.13: CPIS 2004
18
   In 2000 there were no community-based fisheries, therefore the base figure is for 2002
19
   Both estimates are based on CMAA data
                                                                                                                22