Tsunami Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems of Southern Sri Lanka

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					Tsunami Special Report

  Tsunami Impacts on Coastal
  Ecosystems of Southern Sri Lanka

                                                                                                                                                      Photo: Rebecca Tharme
  A closer look at coastal ecosystem damage            The spatial extent, laterally and in terms
  as a result of the tsunami along the coast       of inland penetration, and intensity of im-
  of Sri Lanka has provided much-needed            pact on coastal ecosystems were highly vari-
  impetus for integrated coastal zone man-         able and a complex function of multiple fac-
  agement (ICZM) linked with integrated            tors, from coastal bathymetry to ecosystem
  water resource management (IWRM).                condition. As a result, it could not simply be

                                                                                                                                                      Photo: Mattias Rust
  Mr. Sithara Atapattu and Ms. Rebecca             assumed that where areas showed little or no
  Tharme of the International Water Man-           sign of impact, it was attributable to a high
  agement Institute (IWMI) explain.                degree of protection by natural systems.
                                                   Overall, observations did suggest, howev-
  By mid-January 2005, in the aftermath of         er, that where natural ecosystems and their      across the many types of lagoons present
  the tsunami that devastated much of the          habitats were intact or in good condition,       in the south, from freshwater to hypersa-
  coastline of Sri Lanka, disaster relief agen-    the impact of the waves was reduced, while       line systems. Karagan Lagoon showed an
  cies had provided considerable humanitar-        in areas subject to intensive anthropogenic      increase in surface area, shifts in salinity
  ian support to affected communities, and         modification, impacts appeared greater in         concentrations and the short-term effects
  mapping of affected areas was well under-        magnitude. In some places though, it ap-         of high debris loads. In this lagoon, as in
  way. The majority of attention and resources     peared that nothing would have prevented         others, there was evidence of inputs of ma-
  were directed at assessing and providing for     the devastation that was incurred.               rine organisms, while mortalities of fresh-
  the immediate needs of survivors. In most                                                         and brackish water fish and plants, due to
  areas, removal of human remains and large-       Thailand and Sri Lanka                           elevated salinities or loss to the sea, was re-
  scale clearing of debris were completed.         Many stretches of the southern coastline         corded in other cases.
                                                   are characterised by sand dune systems veg-         Kalametiya Lagoon, situated within the
  Rapid On-site Assessments                        etated with indigenous and alien trees (e.g.     Lunama-Kalametiya Sanctuary, a protect-
  The fi rst environmental assessments of a         Casuarina), shrubs and creepers. Impacts         ed mangrove site, was markedly affected
  range of coastal ecosystems along the south      were less where the foredunes were elevated      and transformed from a closed system pre-
  coast of Sri Lanka were initiated by various     and stabilised with vegetation, forming an       tsunami, separated from the sea by a sand
  organizations, including IWMI, providing         effective barrier protecting adjacent inland     bar, into an effectively open system to the
  some preliminary observations on the na-         areas. There were areas where seawater had       sea – part of the sand bar was removed com-
  ture and scale of the tsunami’s impact on        washed over low dunes or eroded gaps, dam-       pletely and the remaining low bar has the
  their biophysical character.                     aging the dune system. In many areas, the        potential to be breached easily, especially a
      The degree of direct physical damage to      natural cover of Pandanus and Ipomoea was        concern with the upcoming monsoon sea-
  wetland ecosystems was found to be incom-        reduced by up to 75% and marine turtle           son starting in May (Photograph page 10
  parable to the devastation brought about to      nesting sites were damaged, according to a       bottom). These changes are bound to have
  people and their livelihoods, and to settle-     survey by The World Conservation Union,          long-term ecological consequences. More-
  ment infrastructure. However, the assess-        IUCN, Sri Lanka. Coconut plantations and         over, as the lagoon was (and remains) an
  ments were necessarily rapid, limited in         home gardens were also affected where they       important fishing ground, there are serious
  scope and reliant on once-off observations. It   occurred near the beach.                         livelihoods repercussions for the surviving
  is anticipated that more comprehensive bio-         Physical damage to coastal lagoons ap-        members of the neighbouring villages.
  physical monitoring of change, in compari-       peared relatively limited and patchy at first        Estuaries and lower rivers were conduits
  son with pre-tsunami baseline information        evaluation. It is likely that detailed follow-   of water inland, with tsunami-induced waves
  for specific systems, may yield evidence of       up assessments will show changes in eco-         travelling upstream in both large and small
  more pronounced detrimental effects.             logical character from original condition        systems. Physical impact on one or both

                                                                                                                                    Tsunami Special Report
                        banks typically was localised, with scouring                             the impact. Less is known as yet of the effects                             on wetlands has convened a Ramsar Tsunami
                        of bank sediments and removal or damage                                  of the tsunami on coastal sea grass beds.                                   Reference Group comprising Wetlands Inter-
                        of riparian vegetation. In systems structur-                                 Large-scale impacts have occurred to coast-                             national, the World Wildlife Fund (WWF),
                        ally altered by bridges and road culverts, for                           al lagoon fisheries and agricultural lands which                             IUCN, BirdLife International and IWMI
                        example, impacts appeared enhanced, with                                 have triggered new livelihoods dynamics for                                 (
                        the structures allowing accelerated passage                              fishers and farmers alike. Considerable atten-                               Its immediate priority is to coordinate ongo-
                        of water into upstream marshes, rice fields                               tion is now focused, though multi-partner                                   ing rapid assessments of the affected areas
                        and small-scale banana and young coconut                                 proposals, on restoring and/or providing alter-                             and to bring together scientifically sound ad-
                        plantations – flattening vegetation and leav-                             native livelihoods options for coastal commu-                               vice on wetlands in the Asia region, in order
                        ing behind salt and sediments with potential                             nities dependent on natural resources. Support                              to assist governments in choosing the most
                        future effects.                                                          for livelihoods needs to be not only acceptable                             effective response measures and to help in-
                           Mangrove ecosystems have been slightly                                for the local people, but also environmentally                              form settlement and re-development plans.
                        or moderately affected in many areas where                               appropriate and controlled, to best cater for the                               Currently in Sri Lanka, few aid-based plans
                        broad, multi-storey mixed stands of Avicen-                              altered patterns of resource use and access.                                for rehabilitation seem to pay sufficient atten-
                        nia, Ceriops and other species were in good                                                                                                          tion to environmental concerns, either in the
                        condition, for example, along the lower                                  Future Coastal Zone Development                                             short-term or longer-term. There is a high risk
                        reaches of the Madhu Ganga (River), a pro-                               The impacts observed have several impli-                                    of sites being located too close to ecologically
                        tected Ramsar site. At Kalametiya Mangrove                               cations for rehabilitation and future devel-                                sensitive or protected areas – such areas need
                        Sanctuary, which is dominated by stands of                               opment planning of the coastal zone. The                                    to be delineated and prioritised as many peo-
                        Sonneratia, as in other locations, sections of                           south coast of Sri Lanka has evidently had                                  ple are rebuilding homes and businesses on
                        mangrove forest acted as frontline buffers to                            poorly planned coastal developments to date.                                the original sites and some new resettlements
                        the waves; large healthy trees were seen top-                            This situation has made the immediate                                       are already under construction.
                        pled by the tsunami as far inland as several                             coastal area extremely vulnerable to more                                       Much debate has centred on the sig-
                        hundred metres from the beach.                                           frequent natural disasters than tsunamis,                                   nificance and role of natural coastal eco-
                                                                                                 including cyclones and hurricanes. The Sri                                  systems in mitigating the impact of the
                        Coral Reefs Under Pressure                                               Lankan Government is looking at a way                                       tsunami. There has been recognition that
                        Coral reefs, which form as scattered fringing                            forward in terms of future development of                                   natural and human landscapes need to be
                        reefs around the coastline of Sri Lanka, are                             the coastal zone, and a 100 metre buffer                                    managed as an integrated system. In this
                        currently subject to tremendous pressures                                zone for coastal development, with 300                                      regard, the disaster has provided much-
                        due to coral mining and the collection of or-                            metres for certain high-risk areas of the                                   needed impetus for integrated coastal zone
                        namental fish and invertebrates. Coral reefs                              coast, is being mooted at present. There are                                management (ICZM) linked with integrat-
                        were further highly degraded by a bleaching                              of course difficulties inherent in such an                                   ed water resource management (IWRM),
                        event in 1998, which killed many reef areas.                             approach, including the issue of the poten-                                 in Sri Lanka and elsewhere in the region.
                        Some scientists argue that the hardest hit ar-                           tial relocation of towns and entire fishing
                        eas were those that experience the most coral                            communities at sites far removed from their                                 Dr. Sithara Atapattu is a researcher
                        mining. The reef system protected within                                 current sources of livelihood.                                              at the Comprehensive Assessment in
                        Hikkaduwa National Park, which was se-                                      There are numerous initiatives for coastal                               Water Management in Agriculture,
                        verely degraded in 1998, escaped with mini-                              reconstruction underway involving interna-                                  International Water Management Institute
                        mal tsunami damage (localised debris im-                                 tional and local NGOs, local universities and                               (IWMI) in Colombo, Sri Lanka. He
                        pacts, some dislodgement of corals), whilst                              government agencies. These rapidly evolving                                 can be reached at
                        the vast majority of tourist boats and many                              initiatives require practical environmental                                 Ms. Rebecca Tharme is a researcher in
                        shoreline buildings were destroyed. Prior                                guidance, delivered through well-coordinated                                freshwater ecology at IWMI. She can be
                        coral bleaching did not seem to exacerbate                               efforts. For instance, the Ramsar Convention                                reached at          s
                                                                                                                                                     Photo: Rebecca Tharme
                                                                         Photo: Rebecca Tharme
Photo: Rebecca Tharme

                        Sand dunes severely damaged by wave action, fishermen repairing boats and small-scale agricultural lands and wetland areas affected by the wave.

           Tsunami-Induced Coral Reef
         and Coastal Ecosystem Damage
                    in the Indian Ocean

                                                                                                                                                                              Photo: Frida Lanshammar
                                                                          Long-term damage to the coral reefs and coastal ecosystems in the
                                                                          tsunami-affected areas of south Asia is the subject of intensive study.
                                                                          Damage appears to vary from country to country, and even locally. Prof.
                                                                          Olof Linden of the World Maritime University provides an update.

                                                                        coral that have bulldozed the reef, tearing            Severe beach erosion was observed both
                                                                        off the live coral and eroding the limestone        in the east and southwest, but the impact
                                                  Photo: Mattias Rust

                                                                        foundation of the reef, particularly along the      was patchy. Severe damage was observed
                                                                        southern reef margin (Figure 1).                    where illegal coral mining in the sea has been
                                                                            Virtually all remaining live corals have        rampant. While there was evidence that in
                                                                        been damaged, and many Acropora colo-               places where mangroves and coastal vegeta-
                                                                        nies (Staghorn coral) were sheared. Among           tion were less disturbed, the energy of the
The Sida-supported CORDIO (Coral Reef                                   standing thickets, most branches were loose         tsunami dissipated more efficiently. Hence,
Degradation in the Indian Ocean) project                                and moving with the swell. Many tabulate            additional information on how the tsunami
has formed a network of coral reef experts                              and massive corals had been uprooted and            was shaped, deflected, weakened or focused
and managers in 11 countries of the Indian                              toppled over – even some Porites colonies           by bathymetry and shore profile is essential
Ocean. These experts are involved in coral                              (Brain coral) over 2 metres in diameter,            to draw more detailed conclusions.
reef monitoring, targeted research, manage-                             and many colonies of less than 50 centime-
ment and policy issues, education and train-                            tres have been transported large distances.         India, Gulf of Mannar
ing, and research and development of alter-                             Signs of paling and bleaching were evident          Scientist surveyed 11 sites within the Tuti-
native livelihoods for coastal communities                              in remaining massive colonies, which may            corin, Vembar, Keezhakkarai, Mandapam
that no longer can support themselves from                              be caused by sediment stress and abrasion.          groups of islands and one mainland site in
traditional coastal activities such as fishing.                              In many sites, damage was patchy, with          the Gulf of Mannar between January 4 and
These expert groups were already on “stand-                             scars in the reef ranging from less than one        10, 2005. No significant coral damage was
by” when the tsunami took place and as a                                to several meters across, but often far apart.      recorded at any of the sites (Figure 2). Within
consequence could secure data regarding the                             Large coral boulders that had been killed by        the Tuticorin and Keezhakkarai Groups a
impact of the tsunami on coastal ecosystems                             the el Niño-related bleaching in 1998 had           few table corals (Acropora cytherea) were
quite soon after the event. CORDIO-teams                                been turned over by the tsunami wave and            tilted and few branches of Acropora interme-
of marine biologists started assessments in Sri                         caused the scars in the surrounding reef.           dia and A. nobilis were broken by the strong
Lanka, India, Maldives, Seychelles and Ken-                             Also, rubble that had been formed by dead           waves of the tsunami. In the Vembar and
ya and were in the field within days after the                           coral from the 1998 bleaching had been              Keezhakkarai Groups, sea grass and seaweed
catastrophe. Additional teams started diving                            shifted by the wave and was now partly cov-         entangled corals and had also been washed
in Thailand just four days after the event.                             ering large stands of Acropora coral reef.          ashore. The gravel sand seafloor near the reefs
                                                                            Litter and debris from land included tex-       was replaced by layer of fine sand about one
Thailand and Sri Lanka                                                  tiles, plastics, tree branches and logs, parts of   centimetre thick, but was not smothering
In Thailand and Sri Lanka coral reefs at                                boats and household items. Some smother-            branching and massive corals. At the main-
several hundred sites along the entire Anda-                            ing of corals was observed, but it appears to       land site, the tsunami filled 25 to 30% of the
man Sea coast of Thailand and the south,                                be primarily from re-suspended marine sedi-         cup-shaped colonies of Turbinaria sp., which
southwest and east coast of Sri Lanka were                              ments rather than terrigenous matter. Dam-          dominate this reef, with 4 to 5 centimetres of
surveyed. The tsunami impact varied dra-                                age to sea grass beds was minor and, where          fine sand. Except for a few displaced colo-
matically between sites, with damage rang-                              present, was mostly due to shifting rubble.         nies, no damage was recorded within a 60
ing from almost unaffected in about 50% of                                  Although some impact on fish popula-             m2 area that has been artificially restored by
the sites to severe. Extreme mechanical dam-                            tions of the reef areas was noted during the        SDMRI using coral fragment transplanted
age was seen on approximately 15 to 30% the                             acute phase, notably on small fish such as           on cement slabs. There was no sand deposi-
sites. On the reefs of Trincomalee in eastern                           gobies, butterfly fish and wrasse, long-term          tion on this site and the faunal assemblages
Sri Lanka, the damage was particularly bad.                             studies are necessary to assess whether these       had not changed.
Here, nearly half the reef area was turned                              impacts will be of significance. Notably,                No impacts on the fish community were
into fields of rubble and sand. More than                                the problem of overfishing in the affected           recorded at any site and no significant im-
75% of the remaining reef has been severely                             coastal areas is by far the most important          pact to sea grass beds was recorded at any of
damaged by large coral blocks and dead                                  issue in coastal management.                        the sites surveyed.

                                                                                                                 Tsunami Special Report
    On Thalaiyari Island in the Keezhakka-                                     reef, and coral colonies occurring on the reef    over. A contributing factor was that the cor-
rai Group, trees were uprooted as a result of                                  edge have been pushed out to deeper water,        al reef had been weakened by the extensive
soil erosion. Soil erosion was also noticed                                    perhaps up to 20 metres. Broken branches of       mortality during the 1998 El Niño and sub-
between the mainland and Krusadai Island                                       Acropora and Hydnophora rigida have been          sequent bioerosion. In these areas significant
in the Mandapam Group. It is worth men-                                        scattered over the reef, the fish abundance and    amounts of reef rubble was moved by the
tioning that mining of both living and of                                      diversity decreased, and tree logs and other      wave and deposited on live coral colonies. In
dead corals in the reef areas of the Gulf of                                   land-based debris originated is found over        contrast to the reefs on coralline substrates,
Mannar is extensive.                                                           large parts of the reefs.                         the corals on the granitic seabed around
                                                                                                                                 Mahe showed much lower levels of impact,
Andaman and Nicobar Islands                                                    Seychelles                                        generally below 10%. The limited damage
Reef Watch Marine Conservation carried                                         In the Seychelles coral reefs on coralline sub-   on Mahe is due to the shelter provided by
out assessments of the impact of the tsunami                                   strates such as on the northern islands clus-     the outer northern islands and dissipation of
on coastal marine biodiversity starting in late                                tered around Praslin (including Curieuse, La      wave energy as the tsunami travelled over the
January 2005. The turtle nesting beaches of                                    Digue, Felicite and the rocks of Isle Coco and    greater distance of shallow water from the
South Andaman, Little Andaman and the                                          St. Pierre) showed very high levels of dam-       outer edge of the banks to Mahe.
Nicobar Group of islands have almost disap-                                    age (approaching 100%). The assessments
peared as the tectonic activity that initiated                                 showed that the reef framework in these ar-       Prof. Olof Linden of the World Maritime
the tsunami has caused the subduction of                                       eas was too loosely consolidated to be able       University (WMU)/International Mari-
these islands by 1 to 4 metres. This will affect                               to withstand the force of the tsunami wave.       time Organization (IMO) is a member of
the reproductive potential of Leatherback,                                     The consequence was very dramatic damage          the CORDIO network. He can be reached at
Green Sea, Hawksbill and Olive Ridely tur-                                     to the corals, which broke loose and turned                              s
tles which use these islands as nesting sites.
    The tectonic movement also affected the
coral reefs in Nicobar and south Andaman
and resulted in a subduction so that the reefs
suddenly were located up to 4 metres deeper
in the water. The opposite was the case for
the reefs of north Andaman, where some
reefs were lifted 4 meters above their previous
position. Other physical effects (breaking of
branches) were caused by wood logs and other
debris from land. In most of the reefs, the larg-
er colonies of Porites were toppled. Previously
the coral reefs in the area were dominated
                                                      Photo: Rebecca Tharme

mainly by the genus Porites followed by Acro-
pora. If there is substantial damage to Porites,
then entire reefs in that particular region are
likely to become unstable and may be unable
to withstand further environmental stress.
    Coral reefs in several areas in Nicobar and                                Kalametiya Lagoon, Sri Lanka, with remains of sand bar. The sensitive Mangrove vegetation has
south Andaman (for example Jolly Buoys,                                        been seriously affected.
Redskin and Alexandra) has been extensively
damaged. In the reef flats sand and silt has
been deposited on the coral reefs. Large coral
colonies (larger than 2 metres in diameter)
have been uprooted and scattered all over the

 More Reading
 on the Web
 CORDIO, IUCN and scientists from different
 research institutions reported the initial impacts
 of the tsunami based on rapid assessments by
 scientists. “Rapid Assessment of Tsunami Dam-
                                                         Photo: Mattias Rust

 age to Coral Reefs in Sri Lanka: Interim Report
 19 January 2005” by NARA/CORDIO/IUCN/
 GCRMN., and other reports, regular updates and
 tsunami-coral reef resource materials, can be
 obtained from the CORDIO (
 and IUCN ( websites.                                             Cottages upturned by the waves.

Tsunami Special Report

Long-term Implications
of the Tsunami in Aceh, Indonesia
Before                                                               After

The northern tip of Sumatra in Indonesia,          7% of rural population, while the rest were      by tides. There is no guidance or proce-
and the provincial capital of Banda Aceh           getting their water from shallow fresh wa-       dures for appropriate solid waste disposal;
in particular, bore the brunt of the 2004          ter wells. In tsunami-affected areas, wa-        waste is being dumped (in which its com-
tsunami. Dr. Sutardi Sutardi of Indo-              ter supply networks (80% damaged) and            position is not known) 5 to 10 kilometres
nesia’s Ministry of Public Works, and              water treatment plants and pumps (65%)           inland from Banda Aceh along the road-
also Program Secretary of the Indonesia            were hard hit. Shallow freshwater wells for      sides. Some sites are near rivers or tempo-
Water Partnership, examines the full               household use are now saline, with water ta-     rary settlements, with the focus being on
impact of the event across several sectors,        ble around 5 metres deep and contaminated        speed and ease of deposition. Transpor-
and what remains ahead.                            by potentially infections sludge.                tation for waste collection is inadequate,
                                                       Water and sanitation impacts are a con-      delaying clean-up and prolonging the in-
Of all the countries in South and South-east       cern at temporary camps; there are no waste      fectious period. Hospital waste has been
Asia affected by the Asian tsunami, Indone-        disposal collection or disposal system, and      washed into open public areas; there is no
sia was perhaps hardest hit. According to the      no proper storage facilities for food or wa-     organized collection or safe disposal of
National Board of Coordination for Disas-          ter (small containers only good for 1–2 days     such materials.
ter Management, as of March 7, 2005, more          supplies). Inadequate numbers of latrines is        There are fears of leakage of toxic mate-
than 125,766 people are known to have lost         also a widespread concern. Obviously, long-      rials (oil leaks, pesticides from warehouses
their lives in Sumatra alone, with some 94,494     term access to fresh, safe drinking water is     and shops in and around Banda Aceh) and
people still considered missing. Sadly, the true   a concern. Emergency measures by the lo-         airborne transmission of infectious organism
number of perished may never be know.              cal and national governments as well as the      from dust and dry sludge, and during the col-
    The northern tip of Sumatra and the            international community are providing safe       lection and transportation of gathered wastes.
provincial capital of Banda Aceh in particu-       water supply and proper sanitation for tem-      Pollutants of many types are being trans-
lar bore the brunt of this tsunami. Satellite      porary camps and the affected people. The        ported and deposited in other areas causing
imagery shows that 49 km2 , or 80% of the          rehabilitation and reconstruction phases         problems to be transferred from one location
built up area of Banda Aceh city, was either       will be focused on rehabilitating the broken     to another. Open burning of solid waste and
totally destroyed or extremely damaged.            water supply and sanitation infrastructure,      debris poses a serious health hazard.
Outlying villages were likewise devastated;        and possibly the extension of service to newly
while loss of life there may not have been as      reconstructed areas/settlements.                 Food
severe, infrastructure, housing and liveli-                                                         The tsunami and earthquake caused serious
hoods have been lost on a wide-scale.              Health                                           damage to irrigation structures, canals and
                                                   Significant quantities of waste have accu-        embankments, and flood protection facilities
Water Supply and Sanitation                        mulated on land, in canals, and even been        along the river mouth. Many farmers report
Pre-disaster, water supply networks served         washed back to sea. Debris (including            lost rice harvests, and rice paddies have been
about 35% of urban population and about            corpses) is still being deposited on beaches     contaminated by salt water and sludge.

                                                                                                                            Tsunami Special Report
   All irrigation systems near the coast of
Aceh were severely damaged by the tsu-
nami, where the damage was greater in
secondary and tertiary canal systems than
in headworks and main canals. The total
irrigation area damaged is estimated at
28,000 ha in Aceh province (9.6% of the
total irrigated area of 290,680 hectares) and
about 3,700 ha (1.1% of total irrigated area
of 327,224 ha) in North Sumatra province.
Damage to irrigation systems and rice fields
may cause a loss of about 143,000 ton of rice
production per year. Two to three years may
be needed to bring productivity back.

Public Infrastructure Damage
All flood control and coastal structures near
the coast of Aceh were severely damaged                                                       Ecosystems and Groundwater Degradation
by the tsunami, including up to 271 kilo-                                                     Many natural ecosystems (mangroves, coral reefs, near shore zones in-
metres upstream within five major rivers.                                                      cluding fish farms, freshwater reservoirs and the coastal strip) have been
The Krueng Aceh River flowing in Banda                                                         heavily damaged, leaving them more vulnerable to possible future events
Aceh was especially hard hit. Similarly, the                                                  such as high tides.
tsunami damaged completely the seawall                                                           Due to wide-scale infusion of saline water and possible contami-
off the west coast.                                                                           nants (e.g. from sewage) groundwater and shallow freshwater wells are
   The number and severity of destroyed                                                       now saline and contaminated by sludge. Observation of the shallow
public facilities are massive. Two major ports                                                groundwater for provision of water supply for temporary shelters shows
in Banda Aceh and Meulaboh are complete-                                                      no obvious signs of improving; therefore water shortages are reported
ly out of function. About 1,078 kilometres                                                    from some settlements. In this situation, the emergency restoration of
of road were destroyed and 181 bridges col-                                                   domestic water supply through the drilling of deep wells, provision of
lapsed, hindering relief efforts. Similar con-                                                portable water treatment plants and the repair of domestic water systems
ditions plague electricity and telecommuni-                                                   are required.
cations service delivery, as well as the drain-
age system and urban water supply facilities.                                                 Core Principles for Spatial and Zoning Plan
Damage to government offices and hospitals                                                     Cities in coastal areas will need to be maintained with some adjustments
hindered a coordinated response during the                                                    on local aspects, protection from earthquakes and tsunami, and protec-
first month of emergency relief.                                                               tion on conservation areas. Measures needed include:
                                                                                              • Construction of an arterial road from western to eastern parts of Aceh
Livelihoods                                                                                      Province.
The livelihoods of hundreds of thousands                                                      • Construction of an access road to link the southern and northern
of people have been affected. Examples in-                                                       parts of Aceh.
clude:                                                                                        • Development of buffer zones, fish farms and parks in locations not
• An estimated 37,000 hectares of prawn/                                                         considered feasible for settlements from geological and environment
   fish farms along the coast have been lost,                                                     points of view.
   diminishing investments and opportu-                                                       • Determination of environmental and building codes for zones with limited
   nities for small-scale businesses.                                                            development, and building escape facilities for protection from earthquake
• Land tenure is now uncertain for many                                                          and tsunami.
   families who used to live in the coastal                                                   • Development of man-made constructions and natural/vegetation
   strip.                                                                                        buffer zones in coastal areas.
• Uncertainties regarding the future of
   rice farming, coconut plantations, fish
   farms and open sea fishing (due to dam-
   age of fishery equipments).
• Lost assets, belongings and livelihood
                                                  Photo: Mattias Rust (small); SIWI (large)

   security possibilities, especially along
   the coastal strip, all of which may re-
   sult in higher dependency on natural

Guidance is necessary to enable communi-
ties to be better informed of the likelihood
of natural disasters happening, and to en-
able them to prepare better for future even-

Tsunami Special Report
tualities. Future resettlement plans – spatial      trol and coastal protection. Three phases                                  The general principles of the implemen-
planning issues, sanitation, water and waste        will be necessary: the emergency phase,                                tation program of the recovery plan in the
collection/disposal facilities – need appro-        rehabilitation phase and reconstruction                                water resources sector are as follows:
priate development.                                 phase.                                                                     Rapid participatory damage and needs
                                                        The emergency phase, a six-month pe-                               assessment: Emergency and recovery plans
Restoring Lives and Livelihoods                     riod starting immediately after the disas-                             should be based on the rapid participatory
This process has begun with machine and la-         ter, includes emergency restoring of water                             field damage and needs assessment, and the
bour intensive public works to remove thou-         resources infrastructure. The focus is on                              recovery works should be based on the priori-
sands of corpses and to clean up waste mate-        supplying clean water to drink by means                                tisation drawn from the damage and needs
rials, debris and sludge. Barracks have been        of drilling of deep tube wells, repairing do-                          assessment. Attention should be paid to
provisioned and equipped with multipurpose          mestic water supply systems and improving                              prioritisation of those works that should be
spaces, water supply, sanitation and access via     living conditions by drainage of wet areas.                            based on the needs of the local population.
roads. Other needed measures:                           Following the emergency phase, a                                       Recovery plan: The prioritisation is given
• Provide the opportunity for families to           1.5-year long rehabilitation phase will be                             to: (a) improving the local working and living
    rebuild their own homes with the sup-           needed. Domestic water supply and sani-                                conditions ; (b) emphasizing labour intensive
    port of construction materials and de-          tation facilities need to be rehabilitated up                          infrastructure recovery works to be carried
    sign standards and building codes.              to pre-disaster levels of service. Flood con-                          out by local people, (c) maximum stimulus
• Support families and communities where            trol will need rehabilitation to minimise                              for revival of local economic activity.
    displaced people have taken refuge.             damage against possible future floods, and                                  Spatial Planning: Recovery of coastal
• Provide transparent compensation, even if         river structures/stretches must be normal-                             protection facilities should depend on the
    past experience shows that this is the area     ized to at least a minimum level. Finally,                             condition of the area to be protected. Where
    of greatest difficulty, legally speaking.        rehabilitation of coastal structures to pro-                           the protection areas are devastated, or the
• Focus on land offices and dispute-reso-            tect against tidal waters will be needed.                              coastal geography was changed and the lo-
    lution procedures, including institu-               The reconstruction phase, a four-year                              cal people have shifted, the recovery works
    tions and staffing.                              period starting 2006, will need to see that                            should be carried out in consideration of the
                                                    domestic water supply and sanitation facili-                           result of spatial planning.
Restoring the Economy                               ties have increased the coverage of service
Restoring the economy will require a number         levels, targeted new settlement areas. Irriga-                         Financial Challenges
of measures, including (but not limited to):        tion facilities will need to recover the func-                         A cost estimate for the recovery of public
• Recognise labour intensive infrastruc-            tion of irrigation systems to enable farmers                           infrastructure (excluding private holdings)
   ture investment, and purchase and hire           to produce the paddy and other agricultural                            has been made based on a grouping of three
   locally.                                         production to the existing commanding                                  sectors under the Ministry of Public Works.
• Recapitalize household enterprises with           areas (before tsunami), and incentives and                             These are 1) Cipta Karya, consisting of wa-
   grants rather than loans.                        systems for sustainable maintenance need                               ter supply, sanitation, drainage facilities and
• Move quickly to re-establish banking              to be introduced. For flood control, flood                               construction of barracks; 2) Bina Marga,
   services (including proof of identity pro-       management structures need to be recon-                                consisting of roads and bridges; and 3) Sum-
   cedures).                                        structed to the original condition, if not                             ber Daya Air, consisting of irrigation, flood
                                                    better, and public and private assets must                             control and coastal protection facilities. To-
Recovery of Water Resources                         be protected from possible flood damage in                              tal funds required to recover three sectors
Infrastructure                                      all river systems. Finally, coastlines must be                         of public infrastructure (including fund re-
The recovery of water resources infrastruc-         secured against tidal waves in order to pro-                           quired for spatial planning) under the Min-
ture is critical, including domestic water          tect public and private assets at the original                         istry of Public Works alone is estimated at
supply and sanitation, irrigation, flood con-        level or more based on spatial plan.                                   usd 827.5 billion.
                                                                                                                               This amount will stretch Indonesian
                                                                                                                           financial capacity, since it is twice the an-
                                                                                                                           nual budget for all three sectors for the entire
                                                                                                                           country. Therefore, special arrangements in
                                                                                                                           terms soft loans or grants from international
                                                                                                                           donors is required to fund the recovery of
                                                                                                                           public infrastructures. Otherwise, it the pace
                                                                                                                           of development of public infrastructures for
                                                                                                                           the rest of the country will be hindered.
                                                                                                                               Funds required for each phase and pe-
                                                                                                                           riod of implementation plan are as follows:
                                                                                                                           • Emergency Phase: usd 89 billion
                                                                                                                           • Rehabilitation Phase: usd 143 billion
                                                                                                     Photo: Mattias Rust

                                                                                                                           • Reconstruction Phase: usd 596 billion

                                                                                                                           Dr. Sutardi Sutardi is with the
                                                                                                                           Directorate General of Resources, MSRI,
The recovery of water resources infrastructure is critical, including domestic water supply and                            in Jakarta, Indonesia. He can be reached at
sanitation. Here, a toilet is visible, partly covered with sand.                                                                      s


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