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Land Use Planning and Environmental Protection

VIEWS: 14 PAGES: 6

									                                                                                Unit I, Lesson 2
                                                      Watershed Education Manual, Land & Water
                                                                               September 2004
________________________________________________________________________


              Land Use Planning and Environmental Protection
             (Unit I: History of Land View & Land Use Lesson 2)



Title: The Lenape of Lenapehoking: Native American Culture, Natural Resource
       Use and Environmental Impact

                                          Content

Review/finish exercise/lecture/overheads/discussion/group exercise/homework
assignment/optional speaker                                             (40 minutes)

I.     Lesson 2 Overview: In lesson 2 the educator will finish the in-class/homework
       exercise distributed at the end of the previous class (Lesson 1), review important
       concepts (Lesson 1) and take a big step back in time to our Native American
       (Lenape) predecessors. Studying Native American culture is often overlooked in
       our history course work. However, these chapters in our history provide an
       important framework for understanding how culture and consumption of our
       natural resources are linked. This lesson also sets the groundwork for Lesson 3,
       which involves comparing and contrasting the Lenape and European cultures, and
       particularly their ideas about land ownership and natural resource consumption.

       A.      Materials For Lesson 2: Overhead 1, Lenapehoking (See Appendix,
               Unit I), The Indians of Lenapehoking (1991, Herbert C. Kraft & John T.
               Kraft). Note: Materials may be obtained from the Delaware Canal State
               Park Land & Water Loan Box Program.

       B.      Alternatives to Lesson 2: Combine Lessons 2 & 3 by inviting a guest
               speaker. Provide the speaker with guiding questions from Lessons 2 & 3
               before his/her class presentation. Another idea is to use guiding questions
               as a short introduction and complete the homework assignments from
               Lessns 2 & 3 during one class session. Note: A list of speakers may be
               obtained from staff at the Delaware Canal State Park.

II.    Lesson 2 Plan (Step-By-Step):

       A.      Quick Review of Lesson 1 Concepts: The educator/students can either
               begin with the completion of the Timeline Brainstorm exercise (and
               review concepts at the same time) or begin with a review of the following
               concepts from Lesson 1:

                                  LP-11
____________________________________________________________________
Delaware Canal State Park/HDCIC/Heinz Foundation Funding
Forbes Environmental & Land Use Planning
                                                                                Unit I, Lesson 2
                                                      Watershed Education Manual, Land & Water
                                                                               September 2004
________________________________________________________________________



               a. Review the geographic region of study (map)
               b. Define land use planning, land use, environmental planning, and
                  community.
               c. Review the idea that our built community and the way we live are
                  reliant upon local and international resources as well as an extensive
                  network of production and transport.
               d. Discuss again that the look, the pace, and the pattern of community
                  growth is based upon a variety of factors (e.g., culture, economics,
                  geographic features, political structure, history, weather, natural
                  resources etc).

       B.      Introduction:
               Guiding Questions ~ How many students have studied local Native
               American Culture? What Native American tribe was present in our region
               before European settlement?

               Introduce the idea that most of us have not had the opportunity to learn
               about the Native Americans living in our region. Many of us have started
               our history lessons at the time when the first European explorers, and later
               European Colonists made contact with Native Americans.

       C.      Native American Land View:
               Guiding Question ~ Why is studying Native American Culture important
               to further our understanding about our relationship with natural
               resources and our environment?

               It may not be apparent to your students that there is a link between
               studying Native American life, natural resource consumption, and
               environmental impacts and land use planning. Therefore, you may need to
               make those links for them. Ask your students if they know why studying
               Lenape culture is important (Answers: Different peoples choose different
               ways of interacting with their environments. The Lenape lived and
               prospered in our region well-before the arrival of European explorers.)

               Many colleges offering majors in land use planning, environmental
               studies, and landscape architecture require courses that explore how
               different peoples choose different ways of interacting with their
               environments.




                                  LP-12
____________________________________________________________________
Delaware Canal State Park/HDCIC/Heinz Foundation Funding
Forbes Environmental & Land Use Planning
                                                                                Unit I, Lesson 2
                                                      Watershed Education Manual, Land & Water
                                                                               September 2004
________________________________________________________________________

                This is a slightly revised excerpt from required reading for one such
               course:

                     History should extend its boundaries beyond human
                     institutions (economics, politics, rituals) to the natural
                     ecosystems that provide the context for those institutions.
                     Different peoples choose different ways of interacting with
                     their surrounding environments, and their choices ramify
                     through not only the human community but the larger
                     ecosystem as well.

                     (William Cronin, Changes in the Land: Indians Colonists
                     and the Ecology of New England, 1983)

       D.      Introduction to the Lenape of Lenapehoking:
               Guiding Questions ~ How long did Native Americans reside in our region
               before the arrival of European traders and settlers? Did Native Americans
               have a well-established culture and land view before the coming of the
               Europeans? Did Native American culture significantly differ from
               European culture? How did the cultures differ regarding natural resource
               consumption and the natural world around them?

               Native American culture existed on the North American continent before
               the Dutch and English explorers arrived on the east coast Archeological
               evidence indicates that ancestors of the Lenape crossed into Alaska in 15,
               000 BC and arrived in this region in 10, 000 BC. The tribe living in the
               Delaware Valley in 10, 000 BC were the Lenape. If you have a guest
               speaker to assist for this particular lesson, introduce him/her at this point.

       E.      Local Archeological Digs:
               Guiding Questions ~ How do we obtain information about people living
               many years before us? Do we know of any local archeological digs and
               discoveries associated with them?

            Tell your students or have the speaker share with your students that there
            are hundreds of locations in Bucks County where Native American
            artifacts were found, but only a few sites have been explored with
            scientific care and intensity (BC Historic Society). Examples of the latter
            include Henry C. Mercers two surveys at Point Pleasant, the Overpeck
            Site near the Delaware River in Bridgeton Township, a cluster of digs
            called the Pidcock Sites in Washington Crossing Historic Park, several
            digs along the Neshaminy Creek in Lower Southampton Township, a
            woodland Lenape village site at Playwicki Farm Park along Turkey Run in
            Lower Southampton, and a Temple University archeological site on
                                        LP-13
____________________________________________________________________
Delaware Canal State Park/HDCIC/Heinz Foundation Funding
Forbes Environmental & Land Use Planning
                                                                                Unit I, Lesson 2
                                                      Watershed Education Manual, Land & Water
                                                                               September 2004
________________________________________________________________________

               Hendricks Island in the Delaware River (Delaware Canal State Park).
               There are several photographs and information about the Hendricks Island
               project in the appendix that you can show to your students.

       F.      Map of Lenapehoking:
               Guiding Question ~ What was the geographic extent of the Lenape people
               and the Lenape culture?

               Show your students the overhead (Appendix, Overhead 1, Lenapehoking).
               Lenapehoking means land of the Lenape. The Lenape people were once
               sovereign over a vast domain stretching along the Middle Atlantic coast
               from New York Bay to the Delaware Bay between the Hudson and
               Delaware River Valleys.

       G.      A Few Terms and Definitions:
               Guiding Questions ~ Why was it common for the Europeans to rename
               areas? Were there different cultures within the Lenape geographic
               region?

               The word Lenape means common people or ordinary people. Early
               colonists called the Lenape people the Delawares and named the waters
               the Delaware River after the governor of Virginia (Sir Thomas West or
               Lord De la Warre). The correct name to use is Lenape not the Delawares.
               Using the map again, show that there were two related, yet distinct, groups
               living along the Delaware River. Lenape living above the Raritan
               River/Delaware Water Gap spoke a Munsee dialect of the Eastern
               Algonquin language while those living south spoke the Unami dialect. If
               you have a guest speaker that knows either dialect, ask for a language
               demonstration.

       H.      Lenape Beliefs:
               Guiding Questions ~ Was the Lenape way of life, and in particular their
               relationship to the natural environment, much different than the European
               way of life and relationship with the natural environment? What were the
               differences? Do you think these differences created problems?

                A good portion of our information about Pre-Columbian (before the
               arrival of Christopher Columbus) Lenape life is extrapolated from
               archeological digs and artifacts found from them. Much of our
               information about Lenape after the arrival of European explorers is from
               both archeological digs, written accounts from the first explorers/settlers,
               and verbal history passed down from one Lenape generation to the next.


                                  LP-14
____________________________________________________________________
Delaware Canal State Park/HDCIC/Heinz Foundation Funding
Forbes Environmental & Land Use Planning
                                                                                Unit I, Lesson 2
                                                      Watershed Education Manual, Land & Water
                                                                               September 2004
________________________________________________________________________

               The information sources show us that the Lenape developed a way of life
               that was both appreciative of and reliant upon the natural resources around
               them. Share the following Lenape cultural information with the students:

               a. The Lenape creation story is filled with references to natural resources
                  (Turtle Island).
               b. The Lenape believe that the care of all living things is the
                  responsibility of sprit beings known as Manetuwak.
               c. The Lenape hold that plants, animals, stones and all natural features
                  possess a spirit.
               d. The Lenape view themselves as an integral part of the natural world
                  with a spirit no less important than the resources around them.

       I.      Native American Time Periods:
               Guiding Question ~ What are the time periods (created by archeologists
               and paleontologists) for studying Native American culture through time?

               As life was evolving in other parts of the world, so was Native American
               life on the North American continent. Explain that archeologists have
               created the time periods for studying Native Americans. Also note that
               Lenape technology and their use of natural resources changed during these
               time periods. More information on these changes will be the subject of the
               take-home assignment (See Appendices).

               a. Paleo Indians: 10, 000 BC - 8, 000 BC

               b. Archaic Hunters & Gatherers
                      i. Early Archaic: 8, 000 - 6000 BC
                     ii. Middle Archaic: 6000 - 4000 BC
                    iii. Late Archaic: 2000 - 1000 BC
                    iv. Terminal Archaic: 2000 – 1000 BC

               c. Woodland Period
                     i. Early Woodland: 1000 – 0 BC
                    ii. Middle Woodland: 1 – 1000 AD
                   iii. Late Woodland: 1000 – 1600 AD

               d. Early Historic Period: 1600 AD- 1758

       J.      Extra Time: Extra time has been left in lesson 2 to allow for the speaker
               to provide information about the Hendricks Island archeological dig,
               additional Lenape cultural information, videos or other selected
               information.

                                  LP-15
____________________________________________________________________
Delaware Canal State Park/HDCIC/Heinz Foundation Funding
Forbes Environmental & Land Use Planning
                                                                                Unit I, Lesson 2
                                                      Watershed Education Manual, Land & Water
                                                                               September 2004
________________________________________________________________________

       K.      Homework/Exercise: Finish reading in the Kraft publication entitled The
               Indians of Lenapehoking (pp 21 - 39 Kraft). Distribute and go over the
               homework assignment contained in the appendices.




                                  LP-16
____________________________________________________________________
Delaware Canal State Park/HDCIC/Heinz Foundation Funding
Forbes Environmental & Land Use Planning

								
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