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					Office of Force Transformation




                 Network Centric Operations:
                        Air Combat
                       Case Studies

                                 This Briefing is UNCLASSIFIED


                              Col Jack “Ripper” Forsythe
                           OSD Office of Force Transformation
              Overview & Objective
Office of Force Transformation



  Overview:
  • Air-Air Case Study
  • Air-Ground Case Studies
  • Air-Ground Examples
  • Conclusions & Implications

  Objective:
  • Gain an appreciation for the empirical data that supports
    the value of networking to air combat
  • Gain an appreciation of post-Desert Storm air combat
    network and networks systems
              Bottom Line Up Front
Office of Force Transformation


   • Improved Networking for Combat in the Air Domain Resulted in…

       – Improved (Earlier & More Complete) Individual & Shared Situational
         Awareness & Understanding of the Adversary Air “Picture”
       – More Decision Time Available for Flight Leads (& Wingmen)
       – Better Intercept Geometries & Engagement Decision
       – Improved Lethality of Missile Shots & More Shots per Engagement
       – Kill Ratio Improved by Greater Than 2 to 1

   • Network Centric Systems Enhanced Air-Ground Team Combat
     Effectiveness by…

       –    Reduced Kill-Chain Timeline
       –    Improved Situational Awareness on Location of Friendly Forces
       –    Increased Trust and Confidence Between Air-Ground Team
       –    Enabling Ground Force Maneuver
       –    Enhancing Joint Interdependency for Fires
                                                And where’s
                 Tenets of NCO                   that darn
                                                   helo?…The      New Value Chain
    Office of Force Transformation
Hypothesis Regarding Sources of Power
•    A Robustly Networked Force
     Improves Information Sharing             Where are
•    Information Sharing And                      the
     Collaboration Enhances the
     Quality of Information and              friendlies?!
     Shared Situational Awareness
•    Shared Situational Awareness
     Enables Collaboration and Self
     Synchronization and Enhances
     Sustainability and Speed of
     Command
•    These in Turn Dramatically
     Increase Mission Effectiveness
                                                                          Which valley
                                                                             is it?




                                                                          Which cave
                                      Where’s my fire support?!             is it?
                                       What are my options?
                                          Do I trust them?
                 Tenets of NCO
                                        …The New Value Chain
    Office of Force Transformation
Hypothesis Regarding Sources of Power
•    A Robustly Networked Force
     Improves Information Sharing
•    Information Sharing And
     Collaboration Enhances the
     Quality of Information and
     Shared Situational Awareness
•    Shared Situational Awareness
     Enables Collaboration and Self
     Synchronization and Enhances
     Sustainability and Speed of
     Command
•    These in Turn Dramatically
     Increase Mission Effectiveness
                    Historical Example
                                                      …The Battle of Britain
 Office of Force Transformation

                                                                                “Scramble…Dover, Angles 26,
                                                                                50+ bandits, approaching from SE”

                                                                                “The radios became unintelligible
                                                                                once airborne…”


   Chain Home System

                                                   Quality of                      New
                                                     Info                                               Mission
                                                                                 Processes            Effectiveness

“…everything
else is rubbish!”                                                  Shared
                                                 Information     Sit. Aware.
                                     Networked     Sharing
                                       Force                                          Self Synch




                                                                Collaboration




   Bentley Priori
                                  Ftr Group

                                  Ftr Sector

                                  Squadron
               Historical Example
                                                                   …The Battle of Britain
 Office of Force Transformation

Hypothesis Regarding Sources of Power
 •    A Robustly Networked Force
      Improves Information Sharing
 •    Information Sharing And
      Collaboration Enhances the
      Quality of Information and
      Shared Situational Awareness
 •    Shared Situational Awareness
      Enables Collaboration and Self
      Synchronization and Enhances
      Sustainability and Speed of
      Command
 •    These in Turn Dramatically
      Increase Mission Effectiveness


               Quality of                     New
                 Info                                           Mission
                                            Processes         Effectiveness



                               Shared
 Networked   Information     Sit. Aware.
   Force       Sharing                           Self Synch




                            Collaboration
             Air-Air Networking
                                               …Within a Domain
Office of Force Transformation

OFT / RAND Air-to-Air Case Study
•   Compare Mission Effectiveness of “Voice Only” F-15 Flights
    to Those with Voice & Link 16/JTIDS Capabilities
    – 12K Sortie Look

“So Whats?” of a Common Tactical Picture
•    Info Completeness: “Ownship” & Other Friendly Aircraft
    – Free Time = Ability to Focus on Fight
•   Info Superiority: Quick Awareness & Understanding of Enemy
•    Increased Decision Time
    – More Lethal and/or Survivable Intercept Geometry Decisions
•    Earlier/Better Targeting
    – Improved Shot Lethality
    – Higher Number Shots per Time
•   Battle Manage & Target While Cold (with Same S.A.)

•   Better Ability to Self-Synchronize (“Swarm”)
                      Quality of Individual Info:
                      Voice + Link
                      Voice Only 16
      Office of Force Transformation
                              1                                1
                           0.75                             0.75
                            0.5                              0.5
                           0.25                             0.25
                              0                                0
                                    B    B    B    B                T T T T
   1                               Q1   Q2   Q3   Q4               Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
0.75
 0.5
0.25
  0                                          BLUE 11 / 12
        B    B    B    B                                                         RED 11 / 12
       Q1   Q2   Q3   Q4
                                  AWACS
   1
0.75                                                                                    Q1 Completeness: Detect
 0.5                                                                                    Q2 Correctness: ID
0.25
  0                                                                                     Q3 Correctness: Location
        T T T T                           BLUE 13 / 14
       Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4                                                                      Q4 Correctness: Velocity




                              1                                1
                           0.75                             0.75
                            0.5                              0.5
                           0.25                             0.25                                         RED 13 / 14
                             0                                0
                                   B    B    B    B                 T T T T
                                  Q1   Q2   Q3   Q4                Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
               Quality of Individual Info:
               Voice + Link 16
                     Only
Office of Force Transformation


 B11 (Flight lead)              B12 (Wingman)                   B11/13 (Flt Lds)                  B12/14 (Wings)
80                         80                              80                                80
                                                                                16   15                            16   15



          25   26                                                     25   26                            25   26




269/69                     310/89                          269/69                            272/70
                                                                                28   30                            28   30




B11 (Flight lead)
     Voice Only                       Information                     Awareness           Understanding        Decisions


 Voice + Link 16       Info Awareness Understanding Decisions                   “Combat Reserve”

B12 (Wingman)
     Voice Only                              Information                                              Awareness


 Voice + Link 16      Info Awareness Understanding Decisions?                   “Combat Reserve”

                                                    Time
              The Info Age Road to
              “5th Generation” Networking
Office of Force Transformation




 Radar Warning
                                     PILOT
                                 Becomes a Battle
                                    Manager
         A
                BIT




              BIT




    Radar
                                                                      Under-
                                                    Info Awareness            Decisions
                                                                     standing
          PILOT
  Is a Sensor Operator /
                                 Data Link
        Integrator
                                                                 Time
              Air-Air Case Study Conclusions
Office of Force Transformation

• Application of NCO Value              “Information
Chain Yielded Results                                          Quality of Individual
                                         Advantage”
                                                                  Information
Consistent with Live Flight &                   Quantity of                             Degree of
Pilot Interview Results                        Retrieved Info             0.91     Information Sharing

• Validated Relationships                                1.0                             1.0
Between NCO Capabilities                                                 0.4
Hypothesized for the Air-Air
                                         Degree of                0.08         0.22
Mission                                            1.0     0.5                                       Quality of
                                        Networking                                                  Sensemaking
                                                                                               1.0
                                                                 0.28
   Kill Ratio Comparison                                                 3.10:1
               Voice      Voice +
               Only       Link 16              Quality of                              Quality of
                                              Organic Info                             Decisions
   Day          3.10             8.11                               8.11:1
                                                                    Kill Ratio                  “Cognitive
                                         “Physical                                              Advantage”
   Night        3.62             9.40     Advantage”
                                                                         Voice
                                                                         Voice + Link 16
              Air-Ground Networking
                                                  …Across Domains
Office of Force Transformation

Air-to-Ground Case Studies
• SAIC US Army Division Capstone Exercise Phase I (DCXI)
• OFT / MITRE Western Iraq (JSOTF)
Anecdotal Examples
• Networked-Enabled CAS OIF During MCO Phase
• Networking the Air-Ground Team in Urban Ops / Counter-Insurgency Ops


“So Whats?” of Networking Across Domains
• Net-Centric Systems Enhanced Air-Ground Team Combat Effectiveness by…

   –    Reduced Kill-Chain Timeline (Transaction per Time)
   –    Improved Situational Awareness on Location of Friendly Forces
   –    Increased Trust and Confidence Between Air-Ground Team
   –    Enabling Ground Force Maneuver
   –    Enhancing Joint Interdependency for Fires
                 Typical CAS Flow – Voice Only
                 or How I Learned to Love my Grease Pencil
Office of Force Transformation

 •    Ground Targets Nominated by Ground CC
 •    Two / Four Fighters Check-in w/JTAC
 •    JTAC Gives CAS “9-Line” Brief                                           D/TOC
 •    Flt Ld Relays / Confirms Info w/Wingman
 •    Flt Ld Determines Type Attack, Ordnance, etc.
 •    JTAC Determines Control Measures: Trust
     CLOSE AIR SUPPORT BRIEFING FORM (9 LINE)

     Lines 4, 6 and any restrictions are mandatory read-back items.
                 CLOSE AIR this is__________________
     “JTAC:_______________, SUPPORT CHECK-IN BRIEFING
     Type______________Control______________”
     1. IP/BP:
                 Authenticate, then…
     2. Heading:
     3. Distance:1. Identification/Mission Number:
                 2. Number and Type of Aircraft:
     4. Target elevation:
                 3. Position and Altitude:
     5. Target description:                                                 JTAC
     6. Target location:
                 4. Ordnance:
     7. Type mark:       Code:
                 5. Time on Station:
     (WP, laser, IR) (actual code)
     8. Location 6. Abort Code:
                  of friendlies:
     Position marked by:
     9. “Egress:                                                      No
     Remarks (As appropriate):
                                                                      Fly
     Time on Target (TOT):
     Time-to-Target (TTT): “Stand by_________Plus_________, Hack.”
             OIF CAS Example – Voice Only
Office of Force Transformation
 Scenario: 6 Apr 2003, U.S. Troops Taking Fire from Iraqis on East Side of Bridge
 JTAC Callsign: ADVANCE 33
 A-10 Callsign: DEMOB 71 & 72
 ** Watching DEMOB 72 HUD Tape
 WX: Poor Visibility & Clouds
 Threats: AAA @ Target
 Targets: Tanks, Vehicles, Personnel

    Target Location & ID:
       Poor Quality of Info                        JTAC:
                                                 ADVANCE 33
       Poor Info Share-ability
       Low Shared S.A.
    Blue Air Positional SA:
                                                                  FTRS:
       Low Shared S.A.                                         DEMOB 71 & 72

    Cognitive Loading:
       Poor Info Sharing
       Poor Collaboration
                   DCXI: Nighttime CAS Scenario
                   (Network Centric Warfare Systems vs. Legacy Systems)
  Office of Force Transformation

Nat’l Training Center 2000                                       2 Ship F-16 w/Litening II
                                       2 Ship F-16               (SADL + GBU-12)
4ID – 1st Digitized Division
                                       (SADL+ AGM-65D)
• EPLRS based
ANG Block 30 F-16s
• SADL / EPLRS based



                               UAV

                                                                A/OA-10 w/
                                                              SADL + AGM-65D




                                                                0001010110001100011110


                                                             GFAC
                                                                                         D/TOC
              Air-to-Ground:
              FAC is Networked and Digitized
Office of Force Transformation




                                           Ruggedized Laptop Creates
                                          “Digital CAS” Tasking Messages




     SADL Radio transmits “Digital CAS”                MK VII Laser
     Messages to SADL-equipped Fighters                Range Finder
              Air-to-Ground: “Tactical Picture”
              Enabled by Networking of Air and Ground Forces
Office of Force Transformation


                                                          A/OA-10 FAC
                      GFAC to Fighter                        at 13K
                         Info Tool




                                        SADL WINFAC
                                        assigned target

                                                                              F-16’s at
                                                                               FL 210




                                                                        Friendly
                                                                        Positions
                                                                        (EPRLS)
                                             CAS 9 Line Brief:
                                              Transmitted to
                                               Pilot’s HUD
              Air-to-Ground:
              SADL F-16 Pilot Heads-Up Display
Office of Force Transformation

                                       SADL Tactical
                                       Awareness Displays



Digital Message
Created &
Sent By GFAC
               Air-to-Ground:
               SADL F-16 Pilot Tactical Picture
Office of Force Transformation

 Ground                          Wingman’s                SADL Tactical
 Friendlies                      Radar Contact            Awareness Displays




Ground
Target


                          H
                         15



JTIDS
Surveillance
Track
                                                 Wingman’s Fuel
                                                 & Weapons
                       Ownship         Wingman
               Air-to-Ground:
               SADL F-16 Pilot Heads-Up Display
 Office of Force Transformation

                                            SADL Tactical
                                            Awareness Displays

     Ground                       Wingman
     Friendlies




Ground
Target
              Air-to-Ground:
              SADL F-16 Pilot Weapon Picture
Office of Force Transformation


DCX I: 0200 Local Time                            SADL Tactical
                                                  Awareness Displays


No Friendly
Replies in FOV




                                         2 Battalions
                                      Combat In-Effective!


                                 Column parked
                                 Along road
              Degree of Effectiveness: DCXI
Office of Force Transformation

                                 Quality of Individual
     “Information                   Information
      Advantage”                         0.0, 1
                                                              Degree of
           Degree of
          Information
                                          *              Information Sharing
                                                                .02, 1
          Share-ability
             0.0, 1              *                  *
        Degree of
       Networking         *             *
                                       ** ** *
                                                               Quality of
                                                              Sensemaking
          .03, 1
                                     *  *                              “Cognitive
                                                                       Advantage”
             Quality of                     *             Quality of
            Organic Info
               .5, .5                   *
                                      Overall Combat
                                                          Decisions                          *
                                                                                    Non-networked
           “Physical                   Effectiveness                                            *
            Advantage”                                                              Networked
                  OIF Western Theater
                  Battlefield Characterization
  Office of Force Transformation



• CFACC Supported Commander
• Missions: TBM, ISR, CSAR & Counter-Land
• Special Ops / Air Force Focus
• Non-contiguous & Non-Linear Battlespace
• Economy of Land Force (500 US : 10,000 Iraq)

Non-Traditional Linkages of Infrastructure
Networks Supported…

         COIs Which Supported…

                    Non-Traditional Missions & TTPs
                      • XATK & NTISR

XATK: On Call Attack
NTISR: Non-Traditional Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance
COI: Community of Interestx
                Networking Networks
                w/Deployable Gateways
 Office of Force Transformation


GB
SATCOM                                                                                                                              ISR
                                                 SADL                                       LINK-16
                                                Network                                     Network

       Request for
        support
                                                 BUG-E as ROC




                          TOC                                   BUG-E                             Request for
                                                          BUG-E combines targeting info
   SOF                                                     with SOF position already on           Platform to
                                                                hand (no-latency)                engage target




  Blue Force                                                                                                      Target Track
                                                  SOF                                     ADSI    GCCS
                                                 Broker
    Position
                                                                   SIPRNET
                              GCCS-AF / TBMCS

                                    W-JFACC                                               410th AEW AOC
 GB: Grenadier BRAT                                GCCS: Global Command and Control System               ROC: Remote Operations Center
 TBMCS: Theater Battle Management Core System            ADSI: Air Defense System Integrator             TOC: Tactical Operation Center
             Networking Networks:
             Link-16/ SADL / EPLRS
Office of Force Transformation


F-16C Horizontal
Situation Cockpit
     Display                          UAV

          GFAC                       Friendly EPLRS
                                        Positions

                                         GFAC
        UAV SPI
                                     9 line Target

                                       A-10 FAC
         LINK-16
         Air Track
                                         Link-16
                                          Land
                                          Track
      SADL Flight
       Member
             Western Iraq Case Study:
             Summary
Office of Force Transformation

 • Western Iraq was the most “networked” theater of operations,
   operationally and tactically, in the history of warfare.
 • 2nd largest conventional + coalition SOF operation in the history
   of warfare (after OEF)
 • Largest scale use of data-linked tactical aircraft in history of
   warfare
 • Largest scale deployment of aircraft performing non-traditional
   ISR mission
 • Only area of operation in Iraq where Blue Force Tracking
   information on SOF + conventional ground forces was provided
   via data link to fixed wing combat aircraft.
 • Demonstrated capability for networking to decrease the response
   time for time sensitive targeting
 • Zero Fratricide:
     – Only area of operations in Iraq where air-to-ground fratricide was
       eliminated
            OIF MCO Example – Voice + Data
            (Network Centric Warfare Systems vs. Legacy Systems)
Office of Force Transformation



                                                               2 x 2 Ship F-18s
                      UAV


                                                                 “Target Coords &
                                                         UHF     Target Talk-On”



                                                                     GFAC



                                                 Legacy Systems:
                                                 • 29 Mar – Nasiriyah, Iraq
                                                 • Two Sections F-18s -- Voice Only
                                                 • 30 Minutes per 2 Ship
                                                 • Unable to Positively ID Target
                                                 • 0% Mission Success!
             OIF MCO Example – Voice + Data
             (Network Centric Warfare Systems vs. Legacy Systems)
Office of Force Transformation



                                                                         2 Ship Harriers
                      UAV                                                (Litening II Pod)




                                                                   “Target Coords”
                                                                       “Move Cursor
                                                                       Down & Left”


                                                                    GFAC




                                 Network Centric Systems:
                                 • 30 Mar -Harriers w/Litening II Pod + Pioneer Video Feed
                                 • FAC with Pioneer Mobile Receiving Station
                                 • FAC Sees What Pilots See: Common Picture
                                 • Target Destroyed in Less Than 9 Minutes from Check-In
              OIF Urban CAS Example – Voice + Data

Office of Force Transformation



                                                                                              UHF




                                                 00010101100010110001111011000111010
                                                                                       UHF




 Nellis AFB, NV

• Pilot
• Sensor Operator
                           CAOC

                                             ROVER
                                             Laptop
                    • C2 + Weapons Release
                                                                                       JTAC
                                                   • C2 + Weapons Release
             OIF CI Example – Voice + Data
                                                              … “Squirter Ops”
Office of Force Transformation

                                     Air Support to CI
                                    • Pre-Coord w/Ground Commander
NTISR                               • Execute Through JTAC                       NTISR
                                    • NTISR or CAS                               + CAS




                                                              UHF




                                         UHF
  ???




                               Ground          JTAC
                             Commander                ROVER
             Conclusions
Office of Force Transformation


 • The Use of Relatively Robust Network Centric Warfare Systems Exhibits
   Improvements in the Tenets of NCO Value Chain by Providing a Measurable
   Improvement in the Confidence and Trust of the Warfighters and Ultimately,
   Improved Combat Effectiveness

 • Network Centric Systems Enhance Combat Effectiveness in CAS Engagements
   – Reduce Kill-Chain Timelines as a Result of Higher Participant SA
   – Increase Trust and Confidence
   – Enable Ground Force Maneuver
   – Enhance Interdependent Joint Fires

 • Services Used Network Centric Systems Extensively for Situational Awareness and
   Collaboration Among Their Tactical Units

 • OEF & OIF: Most Collaboration Between Units at the Tactical Level from Different
   Services Depended Exclusively On Voice Communications (Legacy Systems)
             Situational Awareness…
                           Is It Overrated?
Office of Force Transformation

				
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