Neutrality and a National Navy 1 by fjzhangweiqun


									    Sea Power and Maritime

Lesson 3: The U.S. Navy in the Napoleonic Era,
            Learning Objectives
   Comprehend the influence of European events
    upon American trade and naval policy during this
   Understand and be able to explain the term “Battle
    of Annihilation.”
   Know the causes and operations of the Quasi-War
    with France.
   Know the background of Jefferson’s defensive
    naval strategy including the use of gunboats and
            Learning Objectives
   Know and be able to recall operations against the
    Barbary corsairs during this period.
   Comprehend the main factors of the European war
    and their effect on causing the War of 1812.
   Understand and be able to explain the term
    “Guerre de Course.”
   Know the U.S. and British Naval Strategy during
    the war.
            Learning Objectives
   Comprehend the Great Lakes campaign and its
    importance to the U.S. war effort.
   Comprehend (compare and contrast) the naval
    strategies of Rodgers and Decatur.
   Comprehend the significance of the Washington
    and New Orleans campaigns.
   Know the contributions of the U.S. Navy during
    the war of 1812, and assess the state of the Navy
    after the treaty of Ghent .
    Remember our Themes!
 The Navy as an Instrument of Foreign
 Interaction between Congress and the Navy
 Interservice Relations
 Technology
 Leadership
 Strategy and Tactics
 Evolution of Naval Doctrine
                   A New Nation
   Articles of Confederation
    – Weak central government
          No power of taxation
    – Congress unable to fund a Navy after Rev War.
          1785 - All Continental Navy warships decommissioned
   New maritime trade markets-
    – Large American merchant fleet
    – China and Mediterranean Sea
    – American merchant ships were no longer protected by
      the Royal Navy.
        A word on Neutrality…
   US wanted to trade with anyone, anywhere
    – “Free ships make free goods”
   Belligerents didn’t want US taking their
    trade during war
               A New Nation
   Barbary States -- North Africa
    – Demands for tribute to guarantee safe passage
      in Mediterranean.
   War of the French Revolution -- U.S.
    neutral rights violated.
    – Great Britain - Orders in Council
    – French Privateers seize American merchants
        Naval Policy Debate Begins
   U.S. Constitution - 1788.
    – Stronger federal government with ability to tax.
    – “The Congress shall have Power To provide and maintain a Navy.”
    – “The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and
      Navy of the United States.”
   Federalists: New England -- Alexander Hamilton, John Jay,
    John Adams
    – Proponents of a strong Navy.
    – Ensure neutral rights on the seas and protect vital trade interests.
   Republicans: Middle and Southern States -- Thomas
    Jefferson, Patrick Henry
    – Strong U.S. Navy would provoke European powers.
    – Navies are expensive and imperialistic - a “luxury”.
      Beginnings of the U.S. Navy
   Navy Act of 1794
   Navy is part of the Department of War.
    – Secretary of War Henry Knox.
    – Large 44-gun frigates planned.
          More heavily armed than normal frigates.
          Faster than Ships of the Line.
          1797: United States, 44 and Constitution, 44 completed -- called
           Humphrey’s frigates.
   Marines deployed on Navy ships.
    – Continue tradition of British Royal Marines.
          Protect Captain and officers from the crew.
          Provide musket fire from quarterdeck and “fighting tops”.
        Too Little Too Late
 Pinckney Treaty
 1794 Breakdown Portuguese-Algerian
 1796 Treaty with Algiers
 Treaties with Morocco, Tripoli, and Tunis
 The Med is reopened to American trading
  without a Naval response!
Diplomacy and Naval Policy
                Jay’s Treaty -- 1794
   Spring 1794: Congress finds out about British Orders in
    Council against US shipping

   30-day embargo on all American exports to Britain

   Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton engineer John
    Jay’s appointment as emissary to London

   Hamilton’s Instructions:
    – 1) Do not contravene Franco-American alliance of 1778
    – 2) British West Indies opened to American trade
              The Results
 Britain promises to relinquish northwest
 Opened British East Indies to American
 MFN status to Americans trading in the
  British home Isles
   No headway on neutral rights
    – Seizure of goods bound for France
    – Abandons “Free ships make free goods”
 Restrictions on shipping in British West
 President Washington delays proclamation of
  the treaty until 2 February 1796
          France now the Villain
   Franco-American Alliance
   1796 French seizure of commerce in West Indies
   Eject American minister Charles C. Pinckney

   John Adams calls special session of Congress
    – Non-partisan council to go to France
    – Money for Navy
    – A provisional Army

   Congress answers 1 July 1797
    – United States, Constitution, and Constellation back in the game
               The XYZ Affair
   Talleyrand wants bribe

   XYZ Affair
    – American delegation to Paris insulted - Congress and
      American public outraged.

   “Millions for Defense, not one cent for
            Department of Navy
   Department of the Navy established -- 1798.
    – Benjamin Stoddert - First Secretary of the Navy.
    – Increase in naval expenditures for:
          Shipyards
          Ships - completed frigates begun by Navy Act of 1794.

   Stoddert’s Navy
    – 50 ships by end of 1799
    – Wanted fleet navy (ships of the line)
    – Not guerre de course
The Quasi War with France
      Operations of the Quasi-War
   Main theater of war: West Indies.
    – Stoddert orders all Naval ships to West Indies 1798-99
    – U.S. Navy uses British ports.
    – Most of the French fleet blockaded in Europe after defeats by
      Royal Navy.
   Early American naval commanders:
    – Lieutenant William Bainbridge is captured in Retaliation.
    – Commodore Thomas Truxton in Constellation.
    – Captain Edward Preble in Essex to the Pacific and East Indies.
   U.S. naval funding again increased in 1799.
    – Large shipbuilding program increases size of U.S. Navy.
   Treaty of Mortrefontaine - 1800.
    – 1778 Alliance and 1798 Decree nullified, recognizes US neutral rights
       Thougts on Quasi-War
   Washington, Adams, Jefferson: neutrality
    and free trade!

   Guerre de course effective

   British blockade of European ports
    prevented French fleet action
        Republican Naval Policy
   Thomas Jefferson elected in 1800.
   Large reductions in Naval funding.
    – Republicans reduce federal taxation and spending.
   All Navy ships sold except 13 frigates.
    – 7 of the 13 frigates in mothballs.
   Jefferson’s “Gunboat” Navy -- a strictly defensive
    – Static and weak defense of American coast.
    – Floating gun platforms - reduced maneuverability.

Louisiana Purchase

 Lewis and Clark
The Barbary Wars 1801-1805
        Barbary Wars 1801-1805
   Increasing tribute demands of North African states.
    – William Bainbridge forced to sail George Washington under
      Algerian flag with tribute to Ottoman sultan.

   Undeclared war against the Barbary States begins - 1801.
    – Secretary of Navy Smith deploys Commodore Richard Dale to
    Samuel Smith’s Instructions

 Protection of American merchantmen
  vessels from non-European powers
 Blockade would be strategy of choice
 Seizure or destruction of ships- whether
  armed or not
 Solitary American frigate would suffice
      Barbary Wars 1801-1805
   Early Commodores unsuccessful:
    – Robert Dale fails to be aggressive - resigns in 1802.
    – Thomas Truxton turns down command due to lack of a
      captain for his flagship and is dismissed from service.
    – Richard Morris - dismissed for “dilatory conduct”.
   Commodore Edward Preble takes command - Sept
    – Aggressive tactics are highly successful.
    – “Preble’s Boys” will command U.S. ships in the War of

“Preble’s Boys”
         Barbary Wars Operations
   “Hard Luck” Captain William Bainbridge -- Philadelphia
    captured in Tripoli harbor and crew imprisoned.
   Philadelphia held under Tripoli’s guns.
    – Lieutenant Stephen Decatur -- special warfare mission.
        Uses captured Intrepid to board and burn Philadelphia.

        Promoted to Captain at age 25.

   Eaton’s march on Tripoli.
    – Includes First Lieutenant Presley O’Bannon and six Marines.
         Capture of Derna in April 1805.

         Awarded Mameluke sword by Prince Hamet - still used today.

         “The shores of Tripoli.”

         Boost in support for Marine Corps.
   Burning of the Philadelphia

“The most heroic
and bold act of the age.” - Admiral Horatio Nelson
Barbary Wars
Barbary Wars
   French Revolution - 1789
    – French aristocracy overthrown.
    – War with Great Britain resumes in 1793.
    – French Navy leadership adversely affected.
    – French Army leadership relatively unaffected - artillery officers.
           Change in strategy and tactics from more formal and professional armies.

   War between France and continental European powers.
    – Britain forms a series of five “Coalitions” with continental
      powers to counter the French - continues Pitt’s Plan.
   Early failures by British and allies while French counter-
    revolution threatened republicans.
   French Empire established under Emperor Napoleon.
            Napoleonic Wars Naval
   Fleet engagements between Royal Navy and French
    Navy and French allies’ navies:
    –   Battle of the “Glorious” First of June -- 1794
    –   Battle of Cape St. Vincent -- February 1797
    –   Battle of Camperdown -- October 1797
    –   Battle of the Nile -- 1 August 1798
    –   Battle of Copenhagen -- 2 April 1801
    –   Battle of Trafalgar -- 21 October 1805
   Admiral Horatio Nelson
    – Highly successful through the use of melee tactics.
    – “Concept of Operations” to ship captains prior to battle.
       British Victory at Trafalgar
   Great Britain secures command of the seas.
    – French threat to invade England ended.
    – Great Britain’s overseas commerce flourishes.
    – Royal Navy gains ability to threaten U.S. commerce
      with France and other countries.
   French Navy declines in strength.
    – Napoleon’s army still supreme on European continent.
    – Continental System established in Europe to isolate
      Great Britain.
   Napoleonic Wars continue until Napoleon is defeated
    by Britain’s Duke of Wellington at Waterloo - 1815.
    Causes of the War of 1812
 British at war with France
 British begin to seize U.S. Ships
 Neutral rights categorized
 Visit and search of merchant men by naval
 Ports closed in peacetime
 Impressment
    Neutral Rights of U.S. Shipping
   Great Britain at war with the French Empire
   British seize U.S. merchant ships.
   Dispute over neutral rights:
    –   Blockade
            United States: Must be effective to be legal.
            Great Britain: “Paper blockades” are binding.
    –   Visit and search of merchants by naval vessels.
            United States: Only in restricted areas.
            Great Britain: Virtually anywhere on high seas.
    –   Ports
            United States: Can be open to neutral trade during war.
            Great Britain: Must remain closed.
    –   Impressment
            United States: Search of neutral vessels for British subjects is illegal.
            Great Britain: Search of neutral vessels for British subjects is okay.
     Chesapeake - Leopard Affair -- 1807
   Impressment

   USS Chesapeake attacked by HMS Leopard.

   Issues
    –   Sanctity of a warship as part of national territory.

    –   American commanders unready to fight.

   Result
    –   American public opinion increases against Great Britain.

    –   Jefferson imposes embargo on American merchants.
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair - 1807
Gunboat Navy

                 The Road to War
   President Madison - 1809
    – Begins to move naval policy away from building gunboats.
    – Responds to Congress’ wish to build up frigate Navy
          Jeffersonian

   1 May 1811: HMS Guerrière impresses American seaman
    within sight of New York

   10 May 1811: USS President vs. HMS Little Belt
    – John Rodgers
    – Destroys British sloop-of-war
           The Road to War
   12th Congress: the “War Hawks”
    – Henry Clay of Kentucky
    – John C. Calhoun of South Carolina

   Madison was onboard
    – coastal fortifications
    – limited activation of gunboats
    – offshore operation of frigates
    – recommendations for military augmentation
            Congress Answered
   Navy receives funds to refortify
    – dockyard for frigate repair
    – refused proposal for 10 new frigates and twelve

   Opponents of new Construction
    – Same arguments as before- but they’re valid
             The Road to War
   War in Europe turns in France’s favor -- 1812.
   U.S. Declaration of war against Great Britain -
    June 1812.
    – Neutral rights, impressment, and Indian relations.
    – Minimal U.S. Army and Navy strength.

   US is unprepared
    Napoleonic Wars -- 1812-1815
   Continental Europe
    – Napoleon’s France (Land Power) versus Coalitions.
   Maritime Europe
    – Great Britain (Sea Power) versus France (Severely weakened at
        sea by defeat at Trafalgar in 1805).
   Naval Strategies
    –   Britain blockades French ports.
    –   French use “Continental System” as a blockade of British trade.
    –   “Guerre de Course” -- Commerce Raiding
            Practiced by both sides.
            Includes privateering.
    –   Global war:
            Atlantic, West Indies, Mediterranean, Indian Ocean, Pacific
   Strategy
                                   U.S. Naval Policies
    –   Rodgers: Proponent of squadron operations.
    –   Decatur: Proponent of single-ship operations.
    –   Commerce Raiders
          Atlantic   Ocean
             –   English Channel
          USS Essex     in the Pacific Ocean -- Captain David Porter
             –   Raids on British whaling fleet.
          Letters   of marque issued to privateers.
   Naval Administration
    –   Small organization.
    –   Inadequate coastal defenses.
    –   Limited resources available.
          Funding increases     significantly during the course of the war.
         Course of the War -- 1812
   Cruise of Commodore Rodgers' squadron unsuccessful.
   Single-ship engagements won by Americans:
    –   USS Constitution versus HMS Guerriere
            Captain Isaac Hull
    –   USS United States versus HMS Macedonian
            Captain Stephen Decatur
    –   USS Constitution versus HMS Java
            Captain William Bainbridge
    – Superiority of U.S. ships, training, and commanders is evident.
   Naval victories increase morale and support.
    – Congress authorizes expanded naval building program.
   Unsuccessful American invasion of Canada.
    – Detroit occupied by British and Indians - threat to NW Territory.
USS Constitution versus HMS
USS Constitution
“Old Ironsides”
         Course of the War -- 1813
   British Strategy
    –   Victories in Europe allow movement of ships and troops
        from Europe to America.
          Increase   blockade on American ports.

          Raid   American coasts.

   USS Chesapeake versus HMS Shannon

   Great Lakes Campaign

“Don’t give up
  the ship!”
USS Chesapeake versus HMS
        Great Lakes Campaign -- 1813
   British supply forces via St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes.
    – Control of communications routes on the lakes is necessary.
   Lake Ontario
    –   Commodore Isaac Chauncey and Commodore Sir James Yeo.
    –   Shipbuilding race and lack of initiative lead to stalemate.
   Lake Erie
    –   Oliver Hazard Perry
            Flagship: Named USS Lawrence in honor of fallen friend.
    –   Defeats British fleet in the Battle of Lake Erie.
            “We have met the enemy and they are ours .”
    –   British forces cut off from supplies.
            General William Henry Harrison receives Perry’s message, recaptures
             Detroit, and defeats British and Indians at the Battle of the Thames.
            Indian leader Tecumseh is killed and NW Territory secured for U.S.
Great Lakes Campaign

Lake Erie Squadron

Lake Erie Squadron
Perry’s Battle Flag - USS Lawrence
                    Battle of Lake Erie
Battle of Lake Erie
 - Perry transfers flag
   from Lawrence to
 Battle of Lake Erie             10 September
“We have met the enemy and they are ours.”
                             - Oliver Hazard Perry
             Course of the War -- 1814
   British blockade of American ports - highly effective.
    –   American Navy unable to sortie.
    –   U.S. economy in decline due to reduced maritime commerce.
   Washington Campaign
    –   British forces raid Chesapeake.
    –   Washington burned.
    –   Baltimore -- Fort McHenry - Star Spangled Banner.
    –   Militia and gunboats very ineffective for coastal defense.
   Battle of Lake Champlain near Plattsburg.
    –   Commodore Thomas MacDonough
            Remembers Nelson’s tactics at the Battle of the Nile.
    –   British invasion of New York from Canada.
    –   British defeated and retreat to Canada.
   Battle of
Lake Champlain
   Battle of Lake Champlain
11 September 1814
USS Lake Champlain CG 57
                 Peace and Aftermath
   Great Britain agrees to peace.
    – American victories at Lake Erie and Lake Champlain.
    – American privateers capture British merchants.
   Treaty of Ghent -- 24 December 1814
    –   “Status Quo Ante Bellum”
    –   British end impressment of American seamen.
   Battle of New Orleans -- 1815
    –   Occurred after peace treaty signed.
    –   Gunboats delay British at Lake Borgne.
    –   British defeated by General Andrew Jackson’s makeshift army.
            Victories in Creek War and at New Orleans - emerges as national hero.
Battle of New Orleans
Andrew Jackson
Battle of New Orleans
   Victory on the lakes:
                                Naval Contributions
    –   Lake Erie: Restores American control of Northwest Territory.
    –   Lake Champlain: Prevented invasion of New York.
    –   Created stalemate.
   Commerce Raiding
    – Ultimately ineffective.
    – BUT - Plays a factor in British agreement to peace.
   Single ship engagements:
    –   Superiority of American shipbuilding and command.
    –   Boost to national morale.
    –   BUT - Ineffective against British blockade.
   British sea power’s effectiveness increased throughout
    the war as French were defeated on continental Europe.
         Summary -- War of 1812
   British view as a “Limited War”.
   Americans view as:
    –   A struggle to end British-supported Indian attacks.
    –   An attempt to acquire Canada.
    –   An assertion of the nation’s neutral rights against
        British interference.
   Main Theatres
    – Atlantic
            Effective British blockade of US ports.
            Gunboat policy fails to prevent British raids.
    – Great Lakes
            U.S. wins control of sea lines of communication.
            British forced to retreat.
Next time: The United States Navy, 1815-1860:
Power projection and technological revolution

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