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Motorola DCT5100 FAQ The Motorola DCT5100 is a Digital Cable Set-top Box used by Cable TV Companies for Viewing of Analog, Digital, & High Definition Programming that your Cable Company provides. *Please note some of the internet links require Adobe Acrobat Reader, they are noted with (.pdf)* Glossary & Acronyms CSR – Customer Service Rep STB - Set Top Box – Refers to the Digital Cable Box OTA - Over The Air – Refers to the Televisions signals broadcast & picked up with an Antenna SPDIF - Sony/Phillips Digital Interface – Refers to Digital Audio Connections A/V - Audio/Video PQ - Picture Quality USB - Universal Serial Bus HDTV - High Definition Television SDTV - Standard Definition Television EDTV - Enhanced Definition Television Y/Pb/Pr – Refers to Component Video (3 Cable) – Form of Digital Transfer (analog) RGB/HV – Refers to Component Video (5 Cable/VGA) - Form of Digital Transfer (analog) VGA – Refers to Computer Monitor Style Connection (15-pin) - Form of Digital Transfer (analog) DVI-D - Digital Video Interface – Form of Digital Video Transfer - Digital – 20+ pin connector HDCP - High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection – Copyright protection for HDTV GENERAL Where can I get a copy of the DCT5100 Owners Manual? You can get the Product manual & Spec Sheet by going on the web to the Motorola (General Instrument) website: http://gicout60.gic.gi.com/customer_docs/user_guides/495012-001-a.pdf for the Product Manual http://broadband.motorola.com/catalog/product_documents/DCT5100.pdf for the Spec Sheet Or to http://mywebpages.comcast.net/miatasm/HT/5100FAQ.htm that has the direct link to the above sites & is a web based version of this FAQ What are the dimensions of the DCT5100? The dimensions of the DCT5100 are 17" Wide x 12.5" Deep x 2.75" tall REMOTE Is there a setup code list / manual for the supplied 5100 remote control available? You may have received a Setup Guide for your remote control when you had your cable box installed. If not, then you can get a copy online here: http://mywebpages.comcast.net/miatasm/HT/5100remote.pdf INSTALLATION What should I have in order to get ready for the installation of my new 5100? If you are having a Technician install the box all you will need an HDTV, but as a suggestion you SHOULD have a decent set of Component cables (the CATV tech may only be able to provide a set of A/V jumpers [yellow/red/white] to be used as component cables), a wire for digital audio (coax / optical, if you have a Dolby Digital surround sound system) & if possible the owners manual for the TV in case problems arise. You should also have your equipment accessible for the tech, like the TV pulled out and stereo receiver set up. I Picked up & installed my 5100 myself, trying to activate it, the CSR says the box ISN'T RESPONDING, What is wrong with it? When a signal is sent to any 2-way Digital Cable Boxes, the box has to respond back to the Cable Companies’ Head-end in order for it to activate, if it doesn't respond back, the system may disconnect the box, shortly after. This is a fairly new development (needing a response, that is), so a previous Digital Cable Box could've been working fine as long is had never needed a signal sent to it (since response activation was implemented), but now the box has to be able to respond at all times. Anyway, the reason this happens is the return signal path (about 8-12 MHz) is being blocked. Most common reasons for non-responding digital boxes are: -The input cable is looped through a surge protector -The input cable is looped through the TV's Ant A/Converter Out/Ant B (**See attached photo**) RF jacks on the back of your TV. -The input cable is looped through the VCR before the STB -The input cable is running through equipment (amplifiers, splitters, ect.) that is not capable of passing return, and/or doesn’t meet 5 MHz-1000 MHz specs -High pass Filter on cable line designed to block out low band noise -Poorly made fittings, corrosion and/or water in fittings, bad/old cable lines -Too many splitters in-line with the offending STB. (…Installation cont….) If you have a Cable Modem or another Digital Cable Box that is working fine then you can rule out any problems with the cable system itself. Basically you should have nothing but 5 MHz-1 GHz splitters in line from the street to the back of your STB. The only exception is "return capable" amplifiers; most amplifiers installed by the Cable Co. are capable of passing return. It is remotely possible that the box is bad, but I would check these things first. SETTINGS What do 480i, 480p, 720p, & 1080i mean? This relates to the horizontal lines of resolution. When dealing with HDTV & television in general, the more lines of resolution the better. Regular Cable TV (NTSC) is 480i (analog). This stands for 480 horizontal lines of resolution in Interlaced format. Some DVD players and some Broadcasters are using 480p. Which is 480 horizontal lines of resolution in Progressive format. HDTV uses 720p (progressive) and 1080i (interlaced) Interlaced Format only shows you half of the horizontal lines of resolution on every cycle of the displayed picture. Each cycle displays every other line in the picture scan. For Example, 480i you only see 240 lines on every cycle of the picture scan -- First scan would be lines 1-3-5-7-9-11, ect.-- Next scan would be lines 2-4-6-8-10, so on an so forth. Progressive Scan is the ability to produce all of the lines of resolution at the same time. Example, 480p -- you see 480 lines of resolution on every cycle of the picture scan. What are & how do I change the Settings in the DCT5100 for the “TV Type”, “Y/Pb/Pr output”, & “480 Override”? These settings enable the 5100 to know what type of TV you have in order to format the component output of the 5100 to best suit your particular needs. The menu is accessed by powering the 5100 “OFF” then pressing the “Menu” button. (….settings cont….) TV Type 16:9 – For TV‟s that are Widescreen 4:3 Letterbox – For Non-Widescreen TV‟s that wish to view HD feeds with bars @ the top and bottom 4:3 Pan & Scan – For Non-Widescreen TV‟s that wish to view HD feeds in Full Screen but it will crop the sides of the program (basically like a zoom function) Y/Pb/Pr Output 1080i – Will convert all material on designated HD channels to 1080i format 720p – Will convert all material on designated HD Channels to 720p format 480p -- Will convert all material on designated HD Channels to 480p format 480i -- Will convert all material on designated HD Channels to 480i format & will turn OFF the “480 Override” function 480 Override 480i – Will set the output of the box to 480i format when NOT tuned to an designated HD channel 480p – Will set the output of the box to 480p format when NOT tuned to an designated HD channel* Off – Will set the output of the box to whatever format was selected in the Y/Pb/Pr Output section.* *If you set the 480 override to “480p” or “OFF” & view the output of the box on any of the analog outputs (S-video, Composite, RF) The on-screen functions (Guide, Menu, etc.) will NOT be displayed. These will ONLY be displayed on the component outputs. REPLAY TV or other PVR device, isn't controlling the 5100 properly via the IR Blaster? If you set the code for your PVR for the first one listed for Motorola Equipment -- 0276 -- this usually will control the DCT2000 without any problems. The DCT5100 seems to be a little more sensitive to the IR Blast, but using code -- 0476 -- should correct this problem. DECODING My TV has a HD decoder integrated in it, do I still need the DCT5100? Short Answer: Not necessarily. Shorter answer: Most likely. See next 3 questions below for reason. Can the DCT5100 decode OTA HD programming? Yes & No. The DCT5100 can only decode HD programming that your Cable Company sends over the cable lines, which could include some OTA channels, but you CANNOT connect an OTA Antenna to the DCT5100 and have it pick up HD Broadcasts. The reason for this is that the modulation standard for HD broadcasts is 8VSB (Eight Level Vestigial Side Band). Cable Companies use QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation). The 5100 is only able to decode QAM. Can my current HD decoder decode HD signals from the cable company? There are some TV manufactures that have started integrating QAM decoders into their TV‟s. Right now Mitsubishi & Hitachi both have QAM tuners in their “integrated” HDTV's. In the next year or so, conditional access for premium channels will also make it into HDTV's; Panasonic & RCA, along with others, have signed on to make this happen. This will allow you to receive HDTV by connecting your cable directly to your “integrated” Television. I currently have a Scientific Atlanta SA3100HD that my Cable company provided me with for HD & I don’t like it, Can I get a DCT5100 to replace it? Most likely, No. Each cable system uses a different form of addressability to assign cable boxes to customers accounts and activate them for service. This system is different for Motorola & Scientific Atlanta. So if your system currently uses SA gear for Digital Cable it will be the same for HD. This is not saying that that cable system won‟t ever use Motorola equipment, but it is unlikely to happen soon. Where can I find a list of HDTV broadcasters and their programming? The Internet is the best place to find info on programming in HD, TitanTV.com, HDTVgalaxy.com, among others are some websites to check out. These sites usually list, on a day-to-day basis, that particular days HD broadcast. Current DTV Broadcasters are: ABC - 720p Showtime -1080i CBS - 1080i HBO - 1080i NBC - 1080i The WB - 1080i PBS - 1080i Discovery HD - 1080i UPN - 1080i HDNet - 1080i ESPN (March) FOX - 480p Comcast Sportsnet - 1080i When are the rest of the HDTV broadcasters going to be seen on Cable? The Cable Co., in most cases needs to have contracts signed with the Broadcasters. As far as Local broadcasters, in most cases CBS is the only one not on board. (Tennessee does have CBS & ABC but no NBC, I think) The negotiations are on-going, and hopefully will be resolved soon. But it could be tomorrow, or in 6 months. There is no set time table for any particular channel to go live with Cable. AUDIO What type of Audio Output options does the DCT5100 have? The 5100 supports Analog Audio via RF & Left/Right RCA, Digital Audio via SPDIF (Coaxial & Optical). All audio outputs are active at all times, on all channels, regardless of whether the program is in Dolby Digital or not. Why do the HD channels & Digital channels seem quiet, compared to the Analog channels (Ch. 99 and below) when using Digital Audio Output (Optical/Coax)? This has mostly to do with the Dynamic Range of the Dolby Digital Signals. Read through the next question & article (at the end) to get a better idea on what this means. What do the Audio Compression / Matrix Stereo settings mean, in the Audio portion of the Main Menu of the 5100? This refers to the Dolby Reference levels for Audio output on the ANALOG Channels ONLY, when using ANY ANALOG audio output. These settings DO NOT affect the sound when using the Digital Audio outputs (Optical or Coax) & DO NOT affect the sound on the Digital Channels regardless of audio outputs used (Analog or Digital). There was a very good article that explained what each setting meant in the Audio Set-up menu of the DCT5100. It has been attached to the end of this FAQ. VIDEO What type of Video Outputs does the 5100 support? Analog Video transfer can be done by RF, Composite, & S-Video. HD video transfer can be done by Component (Y/Pb/Pr) & DVI-D (DVI enabled boxes started being produced in Jan of 2003). The DVI output is HDCP compliant, which is a copyright protection that disables the ability to record HD programming. At this time it is not active. (3/03) Can I watch a One Digital Channel and Tape another Digital Channel? (The Owners Manual says the 5100 has 3 tuners in it.) The Owners manual does say the DCT5100 does have a unique Triple Tuner in it. These tuners are for different functions of the box, one is for the Video Services, one is for the DOCSIS High Speed Cable Modem (not active), and the other is for the Out of Band Control Channel (communication from STB to Cable Provider). The 5100‟s do NOT have the capability to tune in two different channels at the same time. I have a TV that only has RGB/HV inputs, How can I get the 3 Wire Component output of the 5100 to 5-Wire or VGA(15-pin) RGB/HV? You need a part called a Transcoder. This converts 3-wire Component to 5- wire RGB/HV or VGA (15-pin). This MAY be able to be obtained through your Cable Provider (this will vary from system to system) or they can be purchased online for about $150. This situation seems to only affect “older” (around 99‟-00‟) HD “compatible” TV‟s. *See the TV list at the end of this article. Why does the programming on my HD channels sometimes have bars on the sides & sometimes the top & bottom? There are a couple of reasons that this could be. Some have to do with the TV your watching the HD on, and some have to do with the broadcasts, and some have to do with both. Bars on Widescreen TV: For bars on the sides -- The program that you are watching at that particular moment on that particular HD channel is NOT in High Definition. The Channel you are watching is the Digital feed from that broadcaster. Not all of the programs a broadcaster sends out are in HD. Example: ABC, NBC, & CBS only show selected programs in HD mostly Primetime shows & special events like ER, Alias, CSI, & the Super Bowl. Your cable provider has no control over which shows are in HD; the broadcasters are the only ones that control which programs are in HD. HBO & Showtime have most of their programming in HD, with the exception of older movies & some shows (Real Sports, Arliss, ect.) which will have bars on the sides For Bars on the top & bottom -- HBO & Showtime will some times show movies that are being broadcast in “anamorphic” (2.35:1) format (just as the movie was filmed) these movies will have bars at the top & bottom (letterbox). Bars on 4:3 format TV: For bars on the sides refer to the reason stated above. For bars on the top & bottom -- All of your HD programming will have bars on the top & bottom, unless “TV Type” in the 5100 is set to 4:3 Pan & Scan or your TV supports “Aspect” modification (see next question for more info on this). This is due to the TV needing to show the “Widescreen” view inherent with HDTV broadcasts, and your TV not being “wide” enough to display all of the information. If the “TV type” in the 5100 is set to “Pan & Scan” this will essentially “zoom-in” the broadcast and you will lose some of the material (on the sides) in the HD program you are watching, but it will fill the screen. My TV has the ability to Zoom, Stretch, Expand, etc., why do these not work when tuned to an HD channel? Some TV‟s will NOT allow you to modify the picture when the TV receives an HD signal (720p/1080i). This is a function of the TV not of the Cable Box. Your TV will only be able to use these functions when your TV is receiving a 480i or 480p signal. There are some HDTV's that allow you to stretch HD material (some Mitsubishi, Hitachi, and others), and it seems that more TV manufactures are adding this feature to their newer models. Should I use 720p or 1080i for the Y/Pb/Pr output? This is a judgment call. The 5100 will “scale” the incoming format to whatever is selected in the “Y/Pb/Pr output” selected above. So if you select “1080i”, the box will output 1080i even if the broadcast is in 720p (like ABC), this is called “scaling”. Technically the box should be set to mimic whatever resolution the broadcaster is using, that way the box doesn‟t have to make any changes to the signal. The less interaction the equipment has with the signal, the better. If it makes it easier, most HDTV programming is in 1080i format, (ABC is the only one currently using 720p), and the DCT5100 has a decent scaler in it, so any modifications made to ABC‟s broadcast are done fairly well. Is there anything I can do to improve the picture quality on the non-HD channels (analog) through the component outputs? The Motorola DCT's (non-HD) seemed to have a better picture. Not really. This is a problem that is being worked on by Motorola. The 5100 is “upconverting” the analog signals to the Component (Y/Pb/Pr) Outputs, and there is formula being used that contains an algorithm that controls compression & conversion of these signals. The first part of possibly multiple firmware updates was released recently (2.48). This was to make changes to this algorithm that should make the Analog PQ better, and there are more updates planned to “fine tune” the overall PQ. What are all of the extra connections on the front & back of the 5100, and are they active? The ports you see are for possible future use. As of now, the IR Blaster port, DVI-D video output, Composite Video & Audio inputs, Smart Card, USB ports, & Ethernet (Cable Modem) are all NOT active. These can be activated by firmware updates if your Local Cable Provider wishes to do so. For now, all of the other ports that are blanked over, Firewire IEEE-1394, Printer port, & HPNA ports, will not be provided or supported. Firmware How can I check the Firmware version of my DCT5100? There are a couple of ways to check this. The easiest is by entering the configuration screen by: Press “Menu” then select “Main Menu” select “Setup” select “Cable Box” highlight “See Configuration” & press the right arrow key. The SW & Firmware Versions are listed here. The Latest Version is SW Ver. 51.20 – 1040 & Firmware of 08 - (Philadelphia Region). This enabled the “480 override” functions discussed earlier in this FAQ, and includes the first of the Analog PQ fixes. The other way to check Firmware Ver. is through the Internal Diagnostics Menu; this is accessed by powering the 5100 “Off” & pressing the “select” button within 2 seconds of powering off. After accessing this, Arrow “Down” to “08 Code Modules” and press “select”: This will give you another version of the SW & Firmware. The latest Firmware Version # here is: 2.48. These numbers will vary from system to system & region to region. How do I get updated Firmware for my 5100? You have to wait for your cable provider to send it out. This happens automatically, as soon as the box is hooked to an active cable line and is plugged in. If your firmware isn't updated then it means your area has yet to receive that update from the CATV provider. If you know for sure that your area has been updated and you still have an older firmware version, you need to contact your local office. When a Firmware Download occurs, the 5100 will turn off and the Front Panel Display will read "dl" with a single dash ( - ) that moves in a circular pattern. This process could take anywhere between 5-30min (give or take). During the Download you will be unable to use the box. DO NOT UNPLUG THE BOX DURING THE DOWNLOAD PROCESS. This could cause the box to not function properly once it's rebooted. This was an article posted on an HDTV internet forum @ AVSforum.com. It has been copied here word for word. DCT2000/5100 Sound Levels and Compression In reading this thread, I notice that a number of people have raised questions about audio levels at the various outputs and the proper use of the "compression" settings in the setup menus. I believe that these issues are identical for the DCT-2000 and DCT-5100 set-top boxes. Furthermore, these issue relate to Motorola's implementation of the Dolby Digital audio standards. I've spent considerable time reading Dolby Labs tech papers on Dolby Digital encoding and decoding and I might be able to shed some light on these issues. It is important to remember that the DCT-xxxx digital cable boxes are licensed Dolby Digital decoders and, therefore, everything they do in terms of audio can be traced to the Dolby Digital feature-set. IMO, the Dolby Digital standard is remarkable in both its capabilities and flexibility. However, those things make it fairly complicated and I think Motorola may have missed one key detail in their implementation that results in many of the volume-level mismatches that show up. The single most important thing to understand about Dolby Digital is that is capable of unprecedented dynamic range. Looking at a high-end Dolby Digital playback system with no compression, with the volume control set to official Dolby Reference Levels: Average dialog levels (from a single channel) will be reproduced at -31dBFS (31 db below maximum full scale digital signal) and the loudest peaks will be reproduced 31dB higher at 0dbFS! The softest sounds could be at the level of audibity, perhaps - 70dBFS. This recording is intended to be played at very high playback levels. Official Dolby Reference playback levels put the average dialog levels at 74 dB and maximum peaks (again from single channel) at a whopping 105 dB). This puts the average dialog at a realistic level for spoken words (as loud as if the actors were in your living room), but the loudest possible peaks are staggeringly loud. Hats off to Dolby for providing this dynamic range. This, BTW, is the "NONE" compression setting on the DCT-xxxx settop boxes and the setting used on Dolby Digital receivers with the no compression setting. However, on lesser systems, this available dynamic range creates problems. If the loudest peaks are too loud for your speakers (or your ears), you can't just "turn it down" or the dialog levels start dropping to the point where you can't hear the actors. Dolby has recognized the need for Dolby Digital to be flexible enough for all kinds of systems: from good to bad. They have incorporated a very, very sophisticated compression system to reduce this dynamic range. One part of the this system would be characterized as "mild" compression and results in the kind of dynamic range you might expect from a VHS Hi-FI recording. This compression mode leaves the average dialog level unchanged at -31 dbFS, but reduces the peak levels by as much as 10 dB and boosts very quiet sounds by as much as 15 dB. When played back at Dolby reference levels, the movie will still sound "loud" by those enormous cannon shots and explosions won't shred your "home theater in a box" quality speakers. This compression setting is commonly known as "midnight mode" on Dolby Digital receivers and I believe this corresponds to the "LIGHT" compression setting on the Motorola DCT-xxxx boxes. This is STILL way too much dynamic range for signals that are being sent by RF modulators to the speakers built into a TV set. These signals will totally overload the RF modulators (for sending a signal from the set-top box to the Channel 3 input on a TV) and will drive TV speakers into gross distortion if turned up loud enough to hear the actors. So, Dolby has designed yet another level of compression into the Dolby Digital standard so that Dolby Digital can be used with these types of low-end systems. In their white papers, Dolby refers to this compression mode as "RF MODE" and it is REQUIRED in set-top box Dolby Digital decoders. This mode limits the loudest peaks to just 10 dB above average dialog levels and boosts quiet sounds to within 25 dB of average dialog levels, for a max dynamic range of just 35 dB -- about what we are used to from over-the-air TV broadcasts. Then, the boost the average dialog level UP by 11 dB to -20dbFS, so that you can hear the actors when the playback volume levels are reduced to what an average TV can reproduce. This highly compressed RF mode is not found on Dolby Digital receivers, but it is the "HEAVY" compression mode on the DCT-xxxx set top boxes. Because the average signal level is boosted by 11 db in RF mode, you would get a huge volume difference when switching between RF heavy compression and the other compression modes on a set-top box. To prevent this, the Dolby Digital decoder is SUPPOSED to kick in an analog pre-amp level attenuator of 11dB (after the Dolby Digital decoder) when RF mode compression is activated -- therefore the average signal level will be unchanged when you switch compression modes. I'm fairly certain that Motorola overlooked this requirement and failed to implement the offsetting 11db analog attenuation stage with their RF mode. That's why there is such a HUGE volume difference when you go from "HEAVY" compression mode to either "LIGHT" or "NONE". All of this just applies to the decoded analog signals at the RCA line outputs or the RF coax outputs. I don't believe that it applies to the optical or coax digital audio outputs on the DCT-2000 or DCT-5000. Those should be supplying a pure pass- through of the incoming Dolby Digital bitstream which will be decoded by your Dolby Digital receiver at one of its digital inputs. As near as I can tell on my DCT-2000, the digital audio outputs are not effected by the compression (or volume) settings on the set-top box. So why are analog stations so much louder than the digital stations, even at the digital audio outputs? Well, digital stations have a Dolby Digital encoded audio track (whether it is 5.1 or stereo or mono). Dolby Digital encodes these at a fixed (and known) level with average signal levels at -31dBFS. But, the analog stations cannot have a Dolby Digital audio track -- their audio is plain old analog MTS stereo. The DCT-xxxx must run this analog stereo signal through an analog-to-digital converter and send it out the digital audio outputs as a Dolby Digital 2.0 PCM bitstream. The levels of this converted signal are clearly much higher than the officially prescribed levels of the Dolby Digital audio tracks on digital stations. So what does this mean? If you have a Dolby Digital receiver, you should connect the digital audio output (optical or coax) from the DCT-xxxx to a digital input on your receiver. Then, make sure that you activate the digital audio input rather than the analog input on your receiver. If you want less than full dynamic range, use your receiver's compression settings. There is no need in the above situation to connect the analog audio RCA outputs from the DCT-xxxx at all. But, if you do so, then you need to set the audio parameters on the DCT-xxxx properly. For good audio performance from a home theater surround system, you should choose either "NONE" or "LIGHT" compression settings. You should also chose the "Matrix Stereo" setting so that your receiver can decode the stereo signal properly with Dolby Pro Logic decoding. That's the way I see it. Hope this helps! Understanding Common TV situations/problems Panasonic Models affected: “Newer” 4:3 RPTV‟s Problem: TV will not stay on 16:9 Format, when TV is turned off and back on, it defaults to 4:3 mode, on the HDTV input. Solution: This is a function of this TV and there is no way to change this. It seems that this is Panasonics‟ way of helping prevent “burn-in”. Mitsubishi Models affected: RPTV‟s with the “Integrated” HDTV decoder Problem: When tuning into an HD channel from an analog channel, the Television takes a long time to “sync” on HD signal. Solution: This seems to be a problem with the TV. I have encountered 4 “newer” integrated Mitsubishi TV‟s and they all exhibited this same exact problem. Nothing can be done to fix this as of now. Non integrated TV‟s are NOT affected. Models affected: Most RPTV HDTV‟s Problem: After connecting the 5100 into the “DTV” input on the back of the TV, the picture is Mostly “Green” in color. After connecting the 5100 into the “DTV” input on the back of the TV, there isn‟t a selectable “DTV” input using the TV‟s remote “input” button. Solution: These problems happen when the TV‟s DTV input is set to “RGB” or “Off”. Mitsubishi TV‟s can accept RGB/HV & Y/Pb/Pr into the “DTV” input and they can also turn off select inputs. These are selectable via the TV‟s Menu. To fix, go into the TV‟s “Menu” select “Setup” select “Input assignment” arrow to “DTV” you will see it say “Off” or “RGB” select “Y/Pb/Pr”. (….TV „s cont…..) AKIA, Samsung, Phillips Models affected: Some Problem: When trying to view Analog channels through the HD input on the TV the picture is distorted, or doesn‟t come in at all. Solution: These TV‟s only accept 480p & 1080i on their HD input. To fix this you must set the “480 override” to “480p” & not “480i”. *Remember that when you set this to 480p, the on-screen info will NOT be displayed on the Analog outputs. Certain High-End Displays (Typically Plasma, Projectors, LCD, ect.) Problem: The Inputs on the back of the TV only has BNC style connectors instead of RCA style. Solution: You need to either get adapters that convert Male-RCA to Male-BNC, or get cables that have RCA style connectors on one end & BNC on the other. Radio Shack is probably the best place to find these adaptors.
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