Tier I Sound Acquisition

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Tier I Sound Acquisition Powered By Docstoc
					     Sound Acquisition
     and the Role of the                                     SLP Responsibilities
      Speech-Language                                    Educate staff and parents about
        Pathologist                                      communication growth and its relationship to
                                                         literacy
San Diego Unified School District                        Consult with staff about instructional
   Transdisciplinary Services                            practices and student performance
             2004                                        Assess students with suspected disabilities
                                                         and intervene if special education services are
                                                         required

                                                                        San Diego Unified School District 2004




      Role Distinctions                                  What is Special Education?
Providing education and consultation to a                Specially designed instruction
school community is the SLPs role within                 Adapts content, methodology or delivery so
general education. No IEP is necessary.                  that students can meet educational standards
                                                         Reserved for students with significant
Assessing students with disabilities and                 disabilities that affect educational
working with identified students is a special            performance
education service for which an IEP is
required.

                San Diego Unified School District 2004                  San Diego Unified School District 2004




When Is a Student Eligible                                 When Is Educational
 for Special Education?                                  Performance Significantly
                                                              Compromised?
Has a federally recognized disability
                                                         The student is at a year, usually more, below
                                                         educational expectancies as established by
The disability significantly affects educational         district standards in one or more academic
performance                                              areas
                                                                              and
The disability cannot be corrected without
special education services                               The educational gap is due to the impairment

                San Diego Unified School District 2004                  San Diego Unified School District 2004




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                                                             What are the general
 Speech/Language Criteria                                  education speech services?
 The California Code of Regulations allows for              New way of providing services to students
 special education speech and language                      who make sound errors that do not affect
 services when a student has an identified                  educational performance and do not require
 speech or language impairment that                         special education services
 significantly affects educational performance
 in articulation, voice, fluency or language.               Students with mild articulation deficits may
                                                            enroll in a Speech Improvement Class


                 San Diego Unified School District 2004                                             San Diego Unified School District 2004




                                                                                                   Roles and Responsibilit ies
                                                                                             Articulation Diffe rences and Disorders



  Shift in Service Provision                                                          Admin istrator, teacher or par ent appr oaches SLP about
                                                                                                     an articulation differen ce.


 Work within general education to change                             SLP Educates

 articulation deficits                                      Gives information in
                                                            workshop or ind ividual
                                                            conference about
                                                                                                             SLP Consults
                                                                                                                                                     SLP Assesses
                                                                                                                                             Evalua tes sp eech prod uction.
                                                                                                                                             Determin es eligibility with
                                                                                                    Gives adv ice and/ or gathers
                                                               • development al norms
 Adhere to special education eligibility                       • difference vs. disord er
                                                               • eligibility requiremen ts
                                                                                                    evidence to determine if there
                                                                                                    is a suspected disability.
                                                                                                        • If yes, proceeds to
                                                                                                                                             team.
                                                                                                                                                • develops 504 or
                                                                                                                                                • develops IEP or
 requirements that require the deficit to                      • classroom/ home
                                                                   strategies
                                                                                                            assessment .
                                                                                                        • If no, offers Speech
                                                                                                                                                • does not find a
                                                                                                                                                    disability
                                                               • Speech Improvemen t
 significantly affect education performance
                                                                                                            Improvement Class                Offers Speech Improvemen t
                                                                   Class
                                                                                                                                             Class.


 Introduce a Speech Improvement Class
                                                                                                       Spee ch Improveme nt Class
                                                                                                     App roximate Duration: 20 hours
                                                                                                •   inten sive sched uling
                                                                                                •   direct instruction from SLP
                                                                                                •   practice from trained a dult
                                                                                                •   evidence-based m ethods
                                                                                                •   hom e program
                                                                                                •   suppo rt from Ar ticulation Resour ce
                 San Diego Unified School District 2004                                             San Diego Unified School District 2004
                                                                                                    Center




                                                                 Age of Sound Acquisition
What Teachers Should Know                                              (Smit, 1993)*
                                                            AGE       CONSONANT SOUNDS
Speech acquisition is a social interactive process
                                                            2–3             p, b, m, h, w, d, vowels
that isn’t complete for some children until the
                                                            3–4             y, n, k, g, t, f (initial)
age 8 years, 5 months (Shriberg et al, 1994)
                                                            4–5             l (initial), th (voiced)
Most kindergarten children are ready to use
                                                            5–6             f (final), v, l (final), sh, ch,
sounds to read and write but must formally learn
                                                            6–7             ng, s, z, consonant and vocalic r
phonic skills
                                                          * Norms give us a general idea of when to expect
Each child follows a unique developmental                   sounds – different norms give us different ages of
timetable                                                   acquisition

                 San Diego Unified School District 2004                                             San Diego Unified School District 2004




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                 San Diego Unified School District 2004                   San Diego Unified School District 2004




  Speech Differences –
Treatment Not Warranted                                   Speech Deficit or Disorder
Neutral term that refers to sound production
that does not match Standard American                     Atypical sound production that may or may
English                                                   not
  Developmental (e.g., /r/ for five-year olds or            affect communication
  frontal lisps – most children outgrow these)              draw adverse attention
  Dialect (e.g., student who speaks African-                impact educational performance
  American dialect and says /f/ for /th/ as in “baf”
  for “bath”)
  Second language acquisition (e.g., Spanish-             Articulation, Phonology or Apraxia
  speaking student who says /ch/ for /sh/ - no /sh/
  in Spanish)
  Idiosyncratic (mild distortion)
                 San Diego Unified School District 2004                   San Diego Unified School District 2004




    Articulation Deficits                                    Phonological Deficits
Incorrect production: s, z, ch, j, sh, r, l, th           Incorrect production of sound classes
Effect on communication depends on type,                  May significantly affect communication
severity and number of errors                             Substitutions and omissions
Identification age is between 5-8                         Identification between 3-5 years
Most respond well to intervention, lasting                Respond well to early intervention
between 15-20 hours (Jacoby et al, 1994)                  May have a residual effect on reading and
No scientific evidence of impact on                       spelling (Gierut, 1998)
educational performance
                 San Diego Unified School District 2004                   San Diego Unified School District 2004




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                                                               Articulation Disorder
Childhood Apraxia of Speech
                                                                Criteria for an IEP
  Incorrectly produces sounds, sometimes
  consistently, sometimes randomly                            Significantly interfere with communication
  May seriously compromise communication                                                       and
  Substitutions and omissions are common                      Attract adverse attention
  Rate and rhythm are often affected                                                           and
  May impact educational performance in                       Adversely affect educational performance
  reading and spelling
  Require intensive intervention                            *Students must meet all three criteria (very
  Only 4% of children with sound disorders                    few students do so)
  (very low incidence of occurrence)
                  San Diego Unified School District 2004                      San Diego Unified School District 2004




                                                           Deciding What To Do About a
    Classroom Composition                                       Sound Difference
 Many preschool and elementary classrooms                     Ask the SLP general questions:
 have students with sound differences that are:                 What are typical sound differences for my grade?
   Developmental                                                When should I be concerned about a sound
                                                                difference?
   Dialectical
                                                                How could a sound difference affect reading and
   Second Language                                              writing?
   Idiosyncratic                                                What can I do to help my student produce a sound
   Disorder or Impairment (only ones that may                   correctly?
   require treatment)                                           When and how should I talk to a parent about a
                                                                student’s sound difference?
                  San Diego Unified School District 2004                      San Diego Unified School District 2004




      Deciding What To Do                                          Consult or Screen?

 Ask the SLP to consult about a particular                    SLPs can observe, interact and offer advice
 instructional practice or student                            without initiating a formal assessment as
                                                              long as they do not single out a particular
 If your questions are about a particular
                                                              child in any way.
 student, you will need to provide a profile of
 the student’s current educational performance                Consultation is a service to general education
 (ask for teacher questionnaire)                              that does not single out a child.
 Hearing is vital for correct production (Check               Screening singles out a child and begins the
 health records)                                              referral process for special education.

                  San Diego Unified School District 2004                      San Diego Unified School District 2004




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  Classroom Strategies –
  Conversational Recasts                                  More Classroom Strategies
Most powerful strategy – conversational recasts
                                                          Visual cues to pair with sounds (consistent cues
                                                          given by teacher, family and possibly peers)
Provide recasts – repeat what the child said with a
good model (not a correction) (e.g., the child says       Give child more time to respond
“I need an ‘wed’ pen.” You say, “Here’s a red
pen.”) (no need to emphasize the word or sound)           If you cannot understand what the child says, say “I
                                                          need help. Please help me understand…” (take the
                                                          communicative burden off of the child)
Supported by research (Camarata, 1993) –
                                                          Monitor development
effective strategy also for grammatical structures
                 San Diego Unified School District 2004                    San Diego Unified School District 2004




Speech Improvement Class

 For students who have mild speech deficits not
 due to developmental, dialectical or second
                                                                      THANK YOU!
 language factors
 Candidates selected by the SLP
 Classes last 15-20 hours a year (parent
 permission required) and required home
 practice
 Talk to your SLP, if you think a student might
 benefit from the class
                 San Diego Unified School District 2004




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