Developmental Reading

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					                     Developmental Reading
                        Assessment 4-8

Modern Curriculum Press ~ Celebration Press ~ Dale Seymour Publications ~ Globe Fearon ~ Pearson Early Learning
           DRA Benefits

• DRA provides ongoing assessment &
progress monitoring that drives instruction &
eliminates the guesswork.
• Enables teachers to determine & prescribe
appropriate instruction for all students.
• Documents student progress over time.
      Purpose & Goals

Teaching/                 Analysis/
Learning                  Reflection

Purpose and Goals
The goal of any reading
 program should be to
 help students become
proficient, enthusiastic
   readers who enjoy
reading for a variety of
    - Joetta Beaver, author DRA
      Purpose and Goals

[As teachers] “ We want to be sure
children are working with materials
that help them take the next step in
learning to read. ” Fountas & Pinnell
       Purpose and Goals

“The books they read should offer
just enough challenge to support
problem solving but be easy
enough to support fluency and
meaning.”              Fountas & Pinnell
     Purpose and Goals

Children should spend _____% of
their time at the following levels:
_____% Independent (acc rate 100-94%)
_____% Instructional (acc rate 94-90%)
_____% Frustration (acc rate 89% >)
   The total should equal 100%!!!
Purpose and Goals
    Students need instruction and
    materials at their independent
       and instructional levels.
85% of everything children read should be
easy for them.
              INDEPENDENT LEVEL (94-100% accuracy)

15% should be a bit of a challenge.
               INSTRUCTIONAL LEVEL (90-94% accuracy)

0% at the difficult level because it provides
no purpose for learning.
                FRUSTRATION LEVEL (< 90% accuracy)

                                       Richard Allington
•   DRA Teacher Guide
•   Benchmark Books (2 copies of 20 titles)
•   DRA Blackline Masters
•   Student Assessment Folder
•   Organizer (1 set of 10 hanging folders)
•   DRA 4-8 Bridge Pack
    (Teacher Guide &
    Benchmark Books:
    2 copies of 8 titles)
       Conducting the
     DRA 4-8 Assessment
1. Student Reading Survey (Packet #1)
   Reading Engagement
2. Student/Teacher One-on-One Reading
   Conference (Packet #2)
   Oral Reading/Fluency
3. Independent Student Work (Packet #3)
   Comprehension Skills/Strategies
4. Analyzing, Documenting, & Sharing the
   Assessment (Packet #4)
     Reading Engagement
Skilled readers
• Enjoy reading.
• Read often.
• Read a wide variety of genres and authors to
  meet multiple purposes.
• Are confident about their ability to read.
• Are aware of their strengths as readers.
• Are goal-directed.
  Conducting the
DRA 4-8 Assessment

       Step 1
   Reading Survey
     Packet #1
(Reading Engagement)
          Conducting the Assessment
Step 1: Student Reading Survey

• Students document what they have
recently read.
• Documents student reading habits.
• Determines levels of engagement.
• May be administered whole class.
• Most students will take approximately 15
minutes to complete this portion.
             Wide Reading
The student’s responses indicate an
Advanced level of wide reading. She
listed multiple titles across genres, is
currently reading different books at
school and home, and identified two
genres she enjoys reading and an author
whose books she finds interesting.
     Wide Reading
Wide Reading Score
The student’s self-assessment, goals and
    plan for improvement reflect an
 Independent level of response. All of
  her responses are directly related to
 reading, but some are rather global in
       Wide Reading

Self-Assessment Score
                 Wide Reading

        Reading Engagement Score
Add together the circled         numbers in
 the section to obtain an Engagement score.
     Oral Reading Fluency
Skilled readers
• Successfully select texts that match their
  reading level, interests, & purposes.
• Read appropriately leveled texts with a high
  level of accuracy.
• Monitor meaning.
• Use a variety of fix-up strategies to quickly self-
  correct miscues.
• Read quickly & smoothly in longer, meaningful
• Read with expression.
  Conducting the
DRA 4-8 Assessment
       Step 2
 One-on-One Student
 Reading Conference
      Packet #2
(Oral Reading Fluency)
               Conducting the Assessment
Step 2: One-on-One Student Reading Conference
  • The teacher chooses the DRA level set of texts
  she thinks is most appropriate for the student.
  • The students selects a text from the set offered.
  • The student reads aloud a designated passage
  while the teacher takes a Record of Oral Reading.
  • The teacher makes judgments about the student’s
  expression, consistency, fluency, & accuracy rate.
  • The conference lasts about 5-7 minutes.
Conducting the Assessment

     Level 60
Step 2:                  One-on-
   One Student Reading Conference

         Oral Reading Fluency

    Number the miscues not self-
   corrected on the student’s record
   of oral reading to determine the
        student’s accuracy rate.
Step 2:                       One-
   on-One Student Reading Conference

        Oral Reading Fluency

     On the accuracy chart, circle the
   number of miscues not self-corrected
    to determine the student’s accuracy
         Conducting the Assessment
Step 2: One-on-One Student Reading Conference

•     If the student reads the oral reading passage between 97 and 100 percent,
     then the student writes predictions on the first page of the accompanying
     Student Booklet. (Packet #3)
    (Students are not to refer to the text while writing

• If the student reads the oral reading passage below 97 percent accuracy,
    then the assessment is stopped and continued with a lower-grade-level text
    another time.
Step 2:                       One-
   on-One Student Reading Conference
       Oral Reading Fluency
 Use the formula on the Teacher
 Observation Guide to determine the
 student’s oral reading rate and to
 check the level (slow, moderate,
 adequate, very good) that best reflects
 the student’s reading rate on the
                Step 2:

  One-on-One Student Reading Conference

Analysis of the Record of Oral Reading

  On the Record of Oral Reading, note the
types of miscues the student made and decide
   if the miscues interfered with meaning.
 Record your observations about the student’s
 expression and/or phrasing in the comment
     Oral Reading Fluency

Select and circle the descriptor that
  best describes the student’s oral
    reading fluency on the DRA
  Continuum in each of the four
 categories (Expression, Phrasing,
     Rate, and Accuracy Rate).
       Oral Reading Fluency

Add the circled numbers in the
section together to obtain an Oral
Reading Fluency score. Circle the
total score at the bottom of the
Reading Fluency Section.
Comprehension Skills/Strategies
Skilled readers
• Preview texts, making predictions about what
  is likely to happen or identifying topics &
  information that may be included.
• Ask themselves questions prior to & during the
  reading of a text.
• Comprehend what they read.
• Use their own language & key vocabulary from
  the text to identify & organize important
  information into an adept written summary.
Comprehension Skills/Strategies
Skilled readers
• Understand what is explicitly stated in the text.
• Interpret what they read by making inferences
  & making connections.
• Support their responses with information from
  the text and/or personal examples.
• Evaluate what they read, reflect & determine
• Are aware of the strategies they use to
  construct and monitor meaning.
  Conducting the
DRA 4-8 Assessment
         Step 3
Independent Student Work
       Packet #3
            Conducting the Assessment
Step 3: Independent Student Work
  • After students write predictions (without
  the use of the text), s/he reads the entire
  book silently and without assistance.
  • Students respond to questions in the
  Student Booklet. Students may use the
  text for assistance.
  • Most students will take approximately
  35-45 minutes to complete this portion.
Step 3: Independent Student Work

                      Level 60
• A girl named Princess and her
mother were cleaning the attic.
• Princess spied a pretty box in a
carton of old papers.
• She opened the box to find a
golden locket and chain.
• It was her great-grandmother’s
prized possession.
• Her parents were planning to
give her the locket when she got
• Princess wanted the locket right
then. But her mother would not
• Her mother kept the locket in
her bedroom.
•The next morning Princess
sneaked into her mother’s room
and stole the locket.
• On the way to school the clasp
slipped open and the necklace
fell into a mud puddle.
• Before she could find where it
landed, Martin Jones, one of the
weirdest kids, picked up the
necklace. Everyone knew him
as Froggy.
• He would only give the
necklace back if Princess would
hang out with him for one week!
•Princess was furious, but she
had to get her grandmother’s
necklace back!
• Princess invited Froggy to her
house for dinner that evening.
• She learned that he was pretty
• Froggy had three poems
published in Kid Writers
magazine this past year.

• Princess’s friends were
shocked when Froggy joined
their lunch table.

• They thought she was
crazy for letting him follow
her around.
• The next couple of days
Princess realized she didn’t
mind hanging out with

• But she still worried about
the necklace.
• One day after school the kids
began to tease Froggy and

• Princess stuck up for Froggy.

• She also told the kids about
her great-grandmother who
was ugly and rather odd.
• At the age of 82 she started a
school for needy girls. The
governor gave her an award for
all the good she had done. No
one called her ugly or odd then.

• After the kids left, Froggy gave
the necklace back, even though
there was one more day left in
their agreement.

• He had taken it because he
wanted an opportunity to be
friends with Princess.
• Princess and Martin became
long-time friends.

•The locket was returned to the
trunk for safe keeping.
   The student made several reasonable
 predictions, but her first three questions
     simply reiterate her predictions.
 Overall, her predictions and the last two
 questions set a purpose for reading and
  establish a preliminary basis for self-
monitoring her construction of meaning as
            she reads the story.

Prediction Score
   The student demonstrates an adequate
  understanding or the story. She uses her
own language to compose a summary that
includes important characters’ names, many
 of the important events, as well as some of
 the supportive details and vocabulary from
                  the text.

Summary Score
          Literal Comprehension
    The student’s response to the literal
question is accurate. It is evident that she
 used some information from the text to
   infer that Froggy is misjudged by his

Literal Comprehension Score
The student’s response to the interpretation
 question reflects an Instructional response
  because she really doesn’t focus on how
    princess feels. She does support her
 response with the ending statement in the
story. In general, this response lacks depth.
Interpretation Score
 The student’s reflection response represents
  an independent level. She cited what she
thought was an important event in the story
   and justified her decision with a relevant
  statement. Her response could have been
                more thoughtful.
        Metacognitive Awareness
    This response reveals the student’s
awareness of the use of one strategy. Her
    example clearly explained how she
responded emotionally. This represents an
       Independent-level response.
Metacognitive           Awareness
Comprehension Skills/Strategies Score

   Note: Students are
   considered to be on the DRA
   level in which they
   demonstrate an
   INDEPENDENT level of
   comprehension (17-22). If a
   student scores below 17,
   he/she is NOT considered to
   be on grade level.
   TRG p.54
  Conducting the
DRA 4-8 Assessment

       Step 4
Documenting, & Sharing
      Packet #4
Analyzing, Documenting, &
Sharing the Assessment
The Teacher will:
• Determine students’ scores and DRA Stage.
• Analyze performance.
• Chose a focus for future instruction.
• Document progress on the Student Assessment
  (Generally takes 10-12 minutes.)
            DRA Total Score
To determine student’s DRA Stage, add
the numbers from the following 4
sections: DRA Text Level, DRA Reading
Engagement Score, DRA Oral Reading
Score and DRA Comprehension
Skills/Strategies. The sum will give the
DRA Total Score and appropriate DRA
                          Focus for Instruction

•   Use the information on the Teacher Observation Guide and the Continuum
    to determine and identify the student’s strengths and needs.

•   Determine what the student needs to learn next. Any behaviors or responses
    that fall in the intervention or instructional levels should be a primary focus
    for instruction.
                          Focus for Instruction

•   Select three to five learning activities that will enable the student to become
    a better reader.
               Introduce & Model (I)
               Teach & Support (T)
               Reinforce & Extend (R)
        Teacher Analysis
  In the Wide Reading section,
 Literature circles was selected to
     reinforce and extend this
student’s engagement with books
          and other texts.
          Teacher Analysis
Support revision of reading goals and
Develop a plan of action to fulfill
reading goals were selected in the
Self-Assessment/Goal-Setting section
to broaden the student’s awareness of
reading skills and strategies she could
consider when establishing goals and
developing a plan of action.
          Teacher Analysis
Readers’ Theater (Expression) in the
Oral Fluency section and Make
inferences about time, characters,
outcomes (Interpretation) in the
Comprehension Skills/Strategies
section were selected.
               Documenting and Sharing the Assessment
    The Continuum and Student Assessment Folder document the students’ levels
     of achievement

•    Reflects individual students current performance level
•    Documents progress over time
•    Reports results to students and parents
•    DRA Reporting forms and DRA Online Management System are used to
     report results to administrators.
6 60 96   Mid Sch
The shaded area on
the graph represents
  Z / 80      Eighth Grade

  Z / 70      Seventh Grade

 V-Y / 60      Sixth Grade

 S-W / 50      Fifth Grade    94-95-96-97-98-99-100-101-102-103
                                   V-W            X-Y
 O-T / 40     Fourth Grade

L-P / 30-38    Third Grade    INDEPENDENT LEVEL 60
                              INSTRUCTIONAL LEVEL 60
H-M / 18-28   Second Grade
“…providing appropriate texts is only
the beginning. The critical element is
the skillful teaching that helps young
readers learn the effective strategies
they need to become independent.”
Fountas & Pinnell
“We need to understand the patterns
in our readers’ behaviors and the logic
behind what they are doing so that the
moment-to-moment decisions we
make can be informed by our
understanding of individuals as
readers.” Lucy Calkins
“. . . it is important to assess all our
readers, . . . [it] is not a wise way to
proceed if it means that we race
through these assessments and then
have no time to develop instructional
plans for any of these children.
Assessing readers cannot mean
merely collecting data.” Lucy Calkins
   “. . . we need to take into account
the range of development within our
classrooms, designing a curriculum
that meets all our children where they
are and takes each child further. ”
Lucy Calkins
Developmental Reading Assessment for Grades 4-8