Closing the Gaps

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					The Role of Community Colleges
 in Closing the Gaps in Access
          and Success

                                              El Centro College
                                                        Karen Laljiani
                                                          Rick Leyva



Presented at the 28th Annual Conference of the Texas Association for
Institutional Research, February 2006, Austin TX.
                 Objectives
•   High Risk Students
•   Where are the Men?
•   Students of Color
•   El Centro Programs
•   Student Engagement at El Centro College
•   Future programs: H.S.I. Grants
           High Risks Students
• Students attending community colleges are three to
  four times more likely than their counterparts in four-
  year colleges and universities to reflect four or more of
  the key risk factors. The risk factors are:
      • being academically underprepared,
      • not entering college directly after high school,
      • attending college part-time,
      • being a single parent,
      • being financially independent,
      • caring for children at home,
      • working more than 30 hours per week, and
      • being a first-generation college student.

                                       CCSSE Survey 2005 Results
A Large Percent of El Centro Students
   Require Remedial Coursework
                         Students Either Planning to or Having Taken a
                                 Developmental Class at ECC



                      80.0%

                                                                  66.1%
        Respondents




                      60.0%
         Percent of




                      40.0%       40.0%
                                                  32.7%
                      20.0%

                      0.0%
                              Dev Reading     Dev Writing      Dev Math




Self Reported on CCSSE, 2005
      Many El Centro Students
     Juggle School and Children
                                   Students Who are Also Parents



                       35.0%
                                           32.1%
                       30.0%
         Respondents




                       25.0%
          Percent of




                       20.0%                                     18.9%
                       15.0%
                       10.0%
                        5.0%
                       0.0%
                               Care for Children at Home   Single Parent




Self reported on CCSSE, 2005
First-Generation Students
   at El Centro College
                       First Generation College Students



               50.0%
                                                          47%
               40.0%
 Respondents
  Percent of




               30.0%              30.2%

               20.0%

               10.0%

               0.0%
                       Neither Parent Entered     Neither Parent
                               College          Completed Bachelors
  El Centro College Students
Contend with Competing Priorities

    Most El Centro Students are Enrolled Part-
                                                  Most El Cento College Students Work
                      Time



                                                                           Students
                                                                           who work
                                      Part Time                            more than
                              75%     Students                         56% 20 hours
                                                                           per week




   Source: El Centro Student Data System             Source: El Centro CCSSE Results
         Closing the Gaps
• Where are the gaps in college access
  and success?
• What are the strengths of the community
  colleges in narrowing these gaps?
The Gender Gap: Where are the men?
            Women outnumber men on
               college campuses

  • Between 1970 and 2001, women went from
    being the minority to the majority of the U.S.
    undergraduate population, increasing their
    representation from 42 percent to 56 percent
    of undergraduates (Freeman 2004).
  • Between 1980 and 2001, women also
    received a majority of associates degrees (55-
    60%) and bachelor’s degrees (50-57%) (Peter
    and Horn, 2005).
The Gender Gap: Where are the men?
             Women outnumber men on
                college campuses

  • The percentage of young men going from high school
    to college today has scarcely changed since 1968,
    hovering around 61 percent. By contrast, the
    percentage of women enrolling in college increases
    every year, reaching 72 percent in 2004.
  • This male-female disparity exists across all racial
    groups. Among white 18- and 19-year-olds in 2002,
    women outnumbered men on campus by about 2
    percentage points. Among blacks, the figure was 6
    percentage points and 5 percentage points for
    Hispanics. In all cases, the gap widens as the student
    population ages.

                           Michael H. Hodges / The Detroit News
    Education of Minority Groups
•   Steve Murdock, State Demographer, says
    Hispanics are fastest growing population in
    Texas, but are not entering college at the
    same high rate.
•   If the education of minority groups does not
    improve, per capita income would drop from
    $23,404 in 2000 to $22,222 in 2020 — a
    decline of $1,182 or 5 percent when adjusted
    for inflation, the study predicts.
                                 Alison Bert
                                 Gannett News Service
  Education of Minority Groups
• ―Over the past decade, the gaps have
  narrowed between whites and other
  ethnic groups in the proportions of
  students earning certificates and
  degrees relative to the numbers enrolled.
  Nonetheless, substantial gaps remain.‖
          » Measuring Up 2004: The State Report Card on
            Higher Education (Texas)
      The Ethnic Gap: Success Rates of
              Students of Color

                                                                        Graduates, Spring 2005
         Ethnic and Gender Distribution, Spring 2005

                                                                                        Hispanic Male
                     Other Students                                   Black Male             3%         Other Male
                          10%               White Female                  5%                                4%       White Female
                                                                                                                         25%
  Hispanic Male 8%                              17%

                                                               White Male
 Black Male 9%                                                    16%




White Male 10%                                                     Other Female
                                                Black Female           11%                                           Black Female
                                                                                   Hispanic Female                        22%
        Hispanic Female                             29%
                                                                                         14%
             17%
      El Centro Demographics

      El Centro 2005FA           El Centro 2005FA Ethnicity
           Gender
                                         10%
                         23%
                                                                  28%


                               28%




77%                                                         34%

         Male   Female               White   Black   Hispanic   Other
El Centro Male Distribution
         El Centro 2005FA Male Ethnicity

                 10%

                                                32%




   30%




                                    28%

         White   African American    Hispanic    Other
    El Centro College Programs for
         ―High Risk‖ Students

•   Brother to Brother Mentoring Program
•   Rising Star
•   TRIO
•   SURGE
•   Other Student Services (CCSSE)
•   Future: Hispanic Serving Institutions Grants
     2005SP to 2005FA Retention
               Rates
 El Centro                            43.4 %



Rising Star                                      60.4%



      TRIO                                      58.9%


Brother to
                                          50%
 Brother


     Surge                                                   75%


              0   10   20   30   40     50      60      70    80
ECC Programs Graduation Rates
  Based On 2001FA Cohort

 El Centro         11%




Rising Star                               27%




      TRIO                 15%



              1   11                 21

                       % Graduates
      Brother to Brother African
     American Mentoring Program

• Encourage academic excellence and success among
  the African American Male Students (ages range from
  18-50 yrs old)
• Mentors work on a volunteer basis with students in the
  program
• Create lasting relationships and support networks
  among African American Men by bringing students,
  staff, faculty, and administrators together in variety of
  programs and activities
          Brother to Brother
            Qualifications

• Must be enrolled at El Centro College
• Invitations were sent via email to all
  African American male students
• Currently, the program is expanding to
  include Hispanic males
            Brother to Brother
                 Benefits

• 1 on 1 Advising with Mentor (encouraged to
  meet with mentor as often as possible)
• Financial Aid assistance- applying and
  answering questions
• Scheduling of Classes assistance
• Build network with other students in program
  (two meetings per semester)
• Assistance finding employment
El Centro African American Male
Population vs Brother to Brother
          Completion
 Percentages

                                                             97
               100         85               88
                      82                                83
                                    78
               80
               60
               40
               20
                0
                     2004FA        2005SP             2005FA
                           ECC Completers        BB Completers
El Centro African American Male
Population vs Brother to Brother
    Success (ABC Grades)
               80
 Percentages

                          72
                                        66             71
                     59           55
               60                                 54


               40

               20

               0
                    2004FA      2005SP          2005FA

                          ECC Success        BB Success
        ECC vs Brother to Brother
           Retention Rates

                                             61
05FA to 06SP
                                                             89




                                  43
05SP to 05FA
                                       50




               0   20        40             60          80        100

                        Brother to Brother        ECC
       Rising Star Program

This Foundation guarantees high
 performing high school students the
 opportunity to earn a two-year college
 education from any one of the seven
 Dallas County Community Colleges with
 tuition covered.
     Rising Star Qualifications

• Graduating from any Dallas County public high
  school or Dallas CAN! Academy
• Meet eligibility guidelines for financial
  assistance
• Graduate in the top 40% of class or have at
  least a "B" average or pass the required skills
  assessment exam (TSI) before enrolling in
  college classes
         Rising Star Benefits
• Academic support services
  – Assigned advisors
  – One on one tutoring
  – Promote student engagement through community
    projects, field trips, new student mentoring, and
    other special programming
• Up to $4,000 for tuition and books (covers two
  years of college)
• Funded by private corporations
• Special introduction to college course for
  Rising Star cohorts
El Centro Population vs Rising Star
           Completion
                         88
               88
               87
 Percentages



                                                     86
               86                     85
               85   84                          84
               84                83
               83
               82
               81
               80
                    2004FA      2005SP         2005FA

                         ECC Completers    RS Completers
El Centro Population vs Rising Star
     Success (ABC Grades)
                          69
               69    68
               68
 Percentages




               67                 66
                                                       66
               66                        65
               65                                 64
               64
               63
               62
               61
                    2004FA      2005SP          2005FA

                           ECC Success        RS Success
ECC Rising Star Students Taking
   Developmental Courses
              100      88                             87
Percentages



              80                     68


              60

              40

              20

               0
                    2004FA     2005SP          2005FA

                             % Rising Star Students
     ECC vs Rising Star Retention
                Rates

                                                      86
05FA to 06SP
                                          61




                                         60
05SP to 05FA
                              43




               0   20    40             60       80        100

                        ECC        Rising Star
El Centro and Rising Star 2005FA
       Ethnic Distributions
           El Centro Ethnicity                         Rising Star Ethnicity
                                                             3%     3%
            10%

                                  28%                                          31%




 28%




                                         63%
                                 34%


   White     Back   Hispanic     Other         White     Black    Hispanic     Other
El Centro and Rising Star 2005FA
      Gender Distributions

       El Centro College               Rising Star

 31%                             20%




                           69%                              80%

           Female   Male                  Female     Male
 TRIO- Educational Opportunity for
    Low-Income and Disabled
           Americans
The program assists students to overcome class, social
  and cultural barriers to higher education. Individual
  attention is provided to the TRIO student in a
  personalized, supportive relationship with their TRIO
  Advisor who assists the student in setting and
  achieving educational goals.
TRIO services enhance successful retention, graduation
  and transfer outcomes
            TRIO Qualifications

• El Centro student enrolled in at least 6 credit hours
  each semester
• Must meet two of these qualifications:
   – Either low-income, disabled, or first generation college
     students (neither parent has received a bachelor’s degree)
                TRIO Benefits
• One to one or group tutoring assistance
• Advising/Counseling for degree/course selection,
  career and registration
• Assistance with Financial Aid and Scholarship
  Applications
• Transfer planning for 4-year college or university
  including field trips to four year colleges
• Referrals for social services, personal counseling, as
  needed
           TRIO Benefits cont.
• Workshops such as time management and study skills
  as well as cultural events in the arts, music, dance and
  theater
• Monitoring of academic progress and early
  intervention if problems arise
• Special events where students meet and reinforce
  each others' successes including Summer Orientation
• Information via weekly email and bi-annual newsletter
  on activities, trips, scholarships, jobs, etc. available
  only to TRIO students.
              El Centro Population vs TRIO
                       Completers
                   84
              84
                                     83
              83
Percentages



                        82
              82
                                             81          81
              81
                                                              80
              80

              79

              78
                   2004FA           2005SP              2005FA


                            ECC Completers        TRIO Completers
El Centro College vs TRIO
     Success (GPA)
4

3
    2.23     2.31   2.25   2.25    2.24   2.26

2

1

0
    2004FA          2005SP        2005FA

           ECC Success     TRIO Success
              El Centro Population vs TRIO
                 Success (ABC Grades)
                    68
              68
              67                  66
Percentages




              66         65
              65                                  64   64
              64                        63
              63
              62
              61
              60
                   2004FA       2005SP          2005FA

                          ECC Success        TRIO Success
    ECC vs TRIO Retention Rates


                                                    88
05FA to 06 SP
                                          61




                                          59
05SP to 05FA
                              43




                0   20   40           60       80        100

                         ECC       TRIO
      El Centro and TRIO 2005FA
          Ethnic Distributions
         El Centro Ethnicity                          TRIO Ethnicity

          10%                                        9%            7%


                                28%

                                       21%


28%



                                                                                63%


                               34%


 White     Back   Hispanic     Other         White   Black   Hispanic   Other
  El Centro and TRIO 2005FA
      Gender Distributions

      El Centro College               TRIO


31%                             18%




                          69%                         82%

          Female   Male               Female   Male
            El Centro and TRIO 2005FA
                 Age Distributions
               El Centro College                                      TRIO

                  3% 0%                                               3% 0%
                                                                                      13%
                                                         14%
       10%                             27%



19%



                                                  23%


                                                                                              47%
                            41%

      <21   21-30   31-40   41-50   51-60   >60         <21   21-30   31-40   41-50   51-60   >60
  Students in Underrepresented
   Gender Education (SURGE)
             Program
This program offers male students who are in need of
  financial assistance and pursing degrees in male
  underrepresented programs such as:
• Paralegal
• Nursing (LVN, RN or Medical Assisting)
• Interior/Fashion Design
• Office Technology
• Accounting
         SURGE Qualifications
• Financial need- if eligible for FA, they are also eligible
  for financial assistance from this program (Perkins
  Grant money)
• Must have a degree plan on file that shows they are a
  male in a female dominant program
           SURGE Benefits
• $300.00 per semester for books and supplies
• Participation in early intervention program
• Advising by an ARC counselor
El Centro Male Population vs
    SURGE Completion
  100                                     94
        84 88         84 82       83 84
                77          79
  80

  60

  40

  20

   0
        2004FA        2005SP       2005FA

         ECC     Males In Prog   SURGE
 El Centro Male Population vs
SURGE Success (ABC Grades)
   80        77 72                          71 74
   70
        68               66 69         64
                                 58
   60
   50
   40
   30
   20
   10
    0
        2004FA           2005SP        2005FA

             ECC     Males In Prog    SURGE
 ECC vs SURGE Retention Rates

                                   61
05FA to 06SP
                                             89




                             43
05SP to 05FA
                                        75




               0   20   40        60    80        100

                        SURGE     ECC
      El Centro and SURGE 2005FA
           Ethnic Distributions
              El Centro Ethnicity                              SURGE Ethnicity

              10%                                                             10%

                                           28%                                              20%



                                                 40%
28%




                                     34%                                            30%

      White    Back    Hispanic     Other              White    Black   Hispanic    Other
       El Centro and SURGE 2005FA
             Age Distributions
               El Centro College                                       SURGE

                  3% 0%                                                9%

       10%                             27%              9%                                      28%



19%


                                                  18%




                            41%                               9%                         27%

      <21   21-30   31-40   41-50   51-60   >60         <21    21-30    31-40   41-50   51-60   >60
Other Services: CCSSE Data

                       58.0



                        56.0



                        54.0                                 56.9
                                       55.5
                        52.0
                                                                    Active and Collaborative Learning
                                               53.0                 Student Effort
                        50.0
                                51.1                                Academic Challenge
                                                                    Student-Faculty Interaction
                         48.0                                       Support for Learners

                                                      49.3
                         46.0



                         44.0




El Centro College scored               El Centro College

among the 2005 high
performing colleges in our size
category on Student Effort
and on Support for Learners
                                Student Effort
                  • Key Findings 2005 : El Centro College students were
                     significantly more likely than the national average, medium
                     colleges, and the Texas Small College Consortium students
                     to use these services:
                          Percent of Students Who Sometimes or Often...

                                      0    10     20      30         40        50   60     70        80

                    Used peer or                                33
                    other tutoring                     22
                       services                          26

                                                                          44
                   Used skill labs*                              36
                                                                          43

                  Used a computer                                                               72
                                                                                      61
                        lab                                                         57
* Significantly
 different from                           El Centro    Medium    Texas Small
other Medium
Sized Colleges
      Only
                  Support for Learners at
                       El Centro
                  A significantly higher percentage of El Centro College students
                    than the other groups said that they used these services...
                                    Sometimes or Often...

                                                     28
            Used career                                   33
        counseling services*                         27
                                                               38

            Used academic                                                     54
                                                                             53
           advising/planning
                                                                             53
              services **                                                          59

                               0   10       20       30        40       50         60   70
*P<0.001 different from
medium sized colleges.              El Centro    Medium   Texas Small   All Colleges

   ** P<0.001 different
from medium and Texas
  Future Programs for Closing the
 Gaps- Hispanic Serving Institution
              Grants

• Institutional Grant (Closing the Gaps)
• Cooperative Grant with NLC
• Totaling $6,250,000
       HSI- Institutional Grant

• Strengthening Institutions Grants (Title III and V)
• 5 Year Grant
• Hispanic Serving Institution- over 25% FTE
  Hispanic and at least 50% low income
• Coordinating Board plan to increase enrollment-
  Closing the Gaps
               Financial Aid
• The chances of staying in school and getting a
  degree by age 24 are more than 8½ times less
  likely for a needy student than one whose
  family has a combined income of more than
  $95,000, according to Postsecondary
  Education Opportunity.
• "One of the greatest problems in need-based
  financial aid is that the poor are the least able
  to understand what is available and how to get
  it.‖
                            Doug Guthrie / The Detroit News
        El Centro HSI Grant
• Hiring an additional financial aid person
  for student follow up
• Hiring student ambassadors (ftic student
  recruiters)
• Increase minority male recruitment
• Pilot assigned advisor program
• Summer activities for h.s. students
  (Xtreme Camp)
      HSI Cooperative Grant with
          North Lake College

• 5 Year Grant for Hispanic Serving Institutions
• Career Pathways
  –   NLC is our satellite for Nursing
  –   We have strong Urban Education program
  –   They want to improve their Education program
  –   They have strong transfer program
  –   We want to improve our transfer program
       • E.g., New ―Transition Center‖
      Any Questions?


                Thank You



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