Three basic RC airplane aerobatic maneuvers

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Three basic RC airplane aerobatic maneuvers Powered By Docstoc
					   RC airplane
Aerobatics Maneuvers
                  Indice

1.    Inside loop
2.    Outside loop
3.    Avalanche
4.    Aileron Roll
5.    Barrel roll.
6.    Snap Roll
7.    Stall turn(Hammerhed)
8.    Tailslides (Caida de cola)
9.    Immelmann Turn
10.   Split-S
11.   Spin
12.   Cuban 8:
13.   Reverse Cuban 8
14.   Half Cuban 8
15.   Reverse Half Cuban 8
16.   Trébol leaf
17.   Lazy eight
18.   Chandelle
             RC airplane aerobatic maneuvers
1.   The inside loop:

The inside loop is the easiest of all stunts to pull off, and any rc air-
plane with elevators is capable of looping.




Start by flying straight and level into wind.
Put the throttle to full power and at point A in the picture above, pull
back on the elevator stick - not too suddenly, be gentle but definite.
Keep the power on.
The airplane will go into a vertical climb, let it keep going until it starts
to roll over onto its back - point B in the picture. At this point, close the
throttle and keep holding the elevator stick back.
At point C in the picture, level out the airplane by returning elevator to
neutral and increase power to fly straight and level again.

2.   The outside loop:

The outside loop is, you probably won't be surprised to learn, an inside
loop but with the airplane inverted.




Your airplane must be inverted (ie rolled through 180 degrees) at the
start of the loop (point 'A'). The danger here is to remember to use
down elevator to get the airplane to climb. Accidentally applying up
elevator at this point will send the airplane crashing in to the ground!
Keep holding in down elevator and let the airplane do a full loop. At the
top of the outside loop (point 'B'), your airplane will be right side up.
Continue the loop back down towards the ground, and at point 'C' roll
through 180 degrees to bring the airplane right side up to exit the ma-
neuver.

An outside loop can also be started from the top, by flying straight and
level at a good altitude, then applying and holding in down elevator all
the way round the loop.

3.   Avalanche:

This is the basic loop with a roll (usually a snap roll or aileron roll) at the
top of the loop. The roll has to be centered at the top of the loop.
4.    The aileron roll:

The roll requires ailerons, but if your airplane only has rudder then you
might be able to pull off a larger, somewhat untidier 'barrel roll'. A roll
with ailerons, though, is a very smooth maneuver, and not difficult.




Same start as the loop, fly straight and level on about half throttle. To
begin a roll, apply a very small amount of up elevator and left or right
aileron (or rudder) together. No need for full power this time, keep the
throttle stick where it is throughout the roll.


As you apply elevator and aileron, the airplane will start to roll over.
Keep the aileron stick in the same position, but you will probably have
to adjust the elevator to keep the roll tidy. If you can think about it, ap-
ply a tiny amount of down elevator when the airplane is inverted, this
will    prevent    any     loss    of     altitude    during    the     roll.
Once the airplane is right-side up again, return the sticks to neutral and
resume straight and level flying.
5.   The Barrel roll:

The Barrel Roll is a not competition maneuver. The barrel roll is a com-
bination between a loop and a roll. You complete one loop while com-
pleting one roll at the same time. The flight path during a barrel roll has
the shape of a horizontal cork screw. Imagine a big barrel, with the air-
planes wheels rolling along the inside of the barrel in a cork screw path.
During a barrel roll, the pilot experiences always positive G's. The
maximum is about 2.5 to 3 G, the minimum about 0.5 G.
6.   The Snap roll:

Snap or flick rolls also have to be flown normally on a straight line. A
snap roll is similar to a horizontal spin. It is an autorotation with one
wing stalled. Figure 3 shows the symbol for a regular snap roll, figure 4
for an outside snap. In the regular snap, the plane has to be stalled by
applying positive g forces. In an outside snap, the plane is stalled by
applying negative g. In both cases rudder is then used to start autorota-
tion just like in a spin.
7.   The Stall turn (Hammerhead):

The stall turn, also called a 'hammerhead', makes use of the airplane's
rudder, and is a simple maneuver to perform.




As before, fly straight and level. At point A in the picture above, in-
crease throttle slightly and apply up elevator, putting the airplane into a
vertical climb.


Adjust the rudder and elevator as necessary to maintain the vertical
climb without going into the beginnings of a loop. Let it climb for a
couple of seconds and then, at point B, reduce throttle, release the ele-
vator stick back to the neutral position and - here's the important
part - apply full rudder to the left or right. If the airplane doesn't look
like it's going to turn on its tail, give the throttle a small blip.


Once the airplane has spun round on its tail, return the rudder to neutral
and let the airplane go naturally into a brief vertical dive for a second or
so.

At point C, apply both motor power and up elevator to pull out of the
dive and resume straight and level flying.

If you want, you can use the wind direction to help you perform this
stunt by flying crosswind. Fly at 90 degrees to the wind (crosswind) and
turn the airplane into the wind at the top of the turn. The wind on the
fin   helps    the   model     round    for   the   perfect   maneuver!
The picture below shows this:
8.   The Tailslides.

These maneuvers involve bringing the airplane to a complete stop in a
vertical attitude and then sliding back a visible amount. The airplane
must then tip over and fall through a vertical down position. The left fig-
ure indicates a tailslide with the wheels down during the flip, the right
figure is a tailslide with the wheels up (inverted) during the flip. Going
into the figure and coming out, the same rules apply as for other figures
(quarter loops of constant and equal radius, vertical lines).
9.   The Immelmann Turn:

Named after the German WWI fighter ace Max Immelmann, this aero-
batic maneuver is a modified and simplified version of his attack ma-
neuver that he used during dogfights.




Commence the maneuver as if performing a standard inside loop ie en-
ter the maneuver from straight and level flight at point A, with full pow-
er. Let the airplane complete its vertical climb and roll over onto its
back, then at point C use aileron to roll through 180 degrees.
Level the airplane out once it has rolled over, and exit the maneuver on
a straight and level course, higher than and in the opposite direction to
your initial entry course.




10. The Split-S:

The Split-S is essentially an inverted Immelman turn, if you like.
Starting with straight and level flight at a higher altitude, the airplane is
rolled through 180 degrees at the start of the maneuver. Up elevator is
applied as soon as the airplane is inverted, and the throttle reduced. The
airplane then enters an 'inverted' dive and is flown towards the ground.

Keeping up elevator applied, the airplane is pulled out of the dive and
returned to straight and level flight to exit the Split-S maneuver. No roll-
ing out is necessary, as the airplane will already be the correct way up.




11. The Spin:

The spin is a favorite rc airplane aerobatic maneuver, and spins can go
very well or disastrously wrong, depending on how much altitude you
leave yourself to recover! During a spin, the airplane flies vertically
downwards while rotating about it's longitudinal axis (ie about its fuse-
lage). Ailerons are needed for a smooth spin, trying to spin your air-
plane with rudder only will more than likely result in nothing more than
a wishy-washy 'spiral dive'.
Enter the maneuver into wind, flying straight and level but at a slow
speed and with plenty of altitude (point 'A'). Slow your airplane further
by reducing throttle completely and applying up elevator - not too
much, but just enough to initiate a stall. The timing here is quite critical,
you need to apply full rudder and full aileron (both in the same direc-
tion) just as the airplane stalls, point 'B' on the picture.

If you've got it right, the airplane will continue its stall while entering a
spin. Keep both rudder and aileron fully deflected for as long as you
want to hold the spin. Recovery is simply a case of returning rudder and
aileron to neutral while applying up elevator and throttle to pull the air-
plane out of the dive (point 'C').




Cuban 8 RC airplane aerobatics

This page will show you how to fly the 'Cuban 8' rc airplane aerobatic
maneuvers; the Cuban 8, half Cuban 8 and the reverse half Cuban
8.

Cuban 8 based aerobatic maneuvers are a lot of fun, and look smooth
when pulled off well. They're not difficult to learn, but an airplane with
ailerons is preferable to one without, as all the Cuban 8 maneuvers in-
volve rolling the airplane.




12. The Cuban 8:

The Cuban 8 is the largest of the 3, and takes up a fair bit of airspace.
Fly straight and level into wind and at point 'A' apply power and up ele-
vator to enter a climb, as if starting an inside loop. Let the airplane go
into its vertical climb and roll over onto its back at the top of the loop,
point 'B'. Continue with the loop, but at point 'C' apply aileron to
smoothly roll through 180 degrees, bringing the airplane right side up.
Use elevator to maintain the 45 degree dive.

Continue the brief dive and level out at the altitude at which you entered
the maneuver. As soon as you've leveled out, point 'D', begin a second
loop and repeat the process of letting the airplane roll over onto its
back, point 'E', before applying aileron at the start of the dive,, point 'F',
to roll it through 180 degrees. Continue the 45 degree dive and start to
recover at point 'G', to resume straight and level flying at your original
altitude.

To test your accuracy, successive Cuban 8s can be flown while trying to
keep the cross-over point in the same place in the sky, and both loops
equal size.
13. The reverse Cuban 8




Like the Cuban Eight, a Reverse Cuban Eight can be formed by flying
two Reverse Half Cuban Eights back to back.
14. The Half Cuban 8:




A half Cuban 8 can be performed by completing the first loop and roll-
out of the Cuban 8, but returning to a straight and level course in the
opposite direction to your entry-course, instead of going into the second
loop.
                    15. The Reverse Half Cuban 8:




A reverse half Cuban 8 is performed thus... fly straight and level and
enter the maneuver by commencing a 45 degree climb, point 'A'. After a
couple of seconds climbing, smoothly roll through 180 degrees to invert
the airplane, point 'B', and use up elevator to perform what is, in effect,
the back half of an inside loop, point 'C'.

Fly the airplane out of the loop and return to straight and level (point
'D'), in the opposite direction to that which you entered the maneuver.
                  The Half Cuban 8 and Reverse Half Cuban 8 rc air-
                  plane aerobatic maneuvers are both ideal end ma-
                  neuvers, a flashy alternative to just turning the air-
plane around 180 degrees in a normal turn to fly back the other way.




16. Trébol leaf
17. Lazy eight




Like the Chandelle, the Lazy Eight is not a competition maneuver but is
required for the power commercial pilot test. The aerobatics version of
the Lazy Eight is two wingovers back to back.


The FAA commercial pilot version is similar but the maximum bank is
only 45 degrees instead of 90 degrees. The name Lazy Eight comes
from the fact that the nose of the airplane is following a figure 8 on its
side on the horizon
18. Chandelle




The Chandelle is not a figure for aerobatics competition. On the FAA
power commercial pilots test a Chandelle is defined as a maximum per-
formance climbing turn through 180 degrees while maintaining a con-
stant turn rate. The idea is that this is a "plan ahead" maneuver. You
first establish a medium bank depending on the performance of your
aircraft.


Then a smooth pullup is started. The angle of bank stays constant dur-
ing the first 90 degrees of turn, while the pitch angle increases steadily.
At the 90 degree point the plane has the maximum pitch angle which
should be close to the critical angle of attack.
During the second 90 degrees of turn, the pitch angle is held constant,
while the bank angle is smoothly decreased to reach 0 degrees of bank
at 180 degrees of turn with the airspeed close to the stall speed. The
plane should not settle during the last part of the maneuver and the re-
covery.


The decreasing bank angle during the second half of the Chandelle will
maintain a constant turn rate together with the decreasing airspeed. The
turn needs to be kept coordinated by applying the right amount of rud-
der. A Chandelle to the left is quite different than one to the right be-
cause of the ever increasing amount of p-factor in the second half of the
maneuver.

				
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