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					            ANNEX III

Questionnaire on bunker fuel emission calculation in the EU

Questions                                                           Final answers / Finland

Which organisations/institutes are responsible for the calculation of domestic airborne and waterborne transport and bunker fuel emissions?

            National Inventory Agengy                               Statistics Finland / GHG inventory unit
            CRF 1A Fuel Combustion                                  Statistics Finland / GHG inventory unit
            CRF 1A3 Transport                                       VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
            CRF 1A3a Civil Aviation                                 Finnish Civil Aviation Administration (FCAA)
            CRF 1A3d Navigation                                     VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
            CRF 1A4c Fishing                                        VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
            CRF 1A5 Other / Military                                Statistics Finland / GHG inventory unit
            Bunkers / Aviation                                      Statistics Finland / GHG inventory unit
            Bunkers / Navigation                                    Statistics Finland / GHG inventory unit
            Other relevant sectors, which?

            Off-road machinery                                      VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

Contact information (for actual bunker emission calculation)

            Name                                                    Kari Grönfors
            Organisation                                            Statistics Finland / GHG inventory unit
            Postal address                                          P.B. 6 A
                                                                    FIN-00022 Statistics Finland
            Telephone                                               + 358 - 9 - 1734 2728

1.   What legal arrangements are there to ensure data collection and calculation of bunker fuel emissions?

                                                                    Voluntary fuel data collection by Finnish Oil and Gas Federation (FOGF); no
                                                                    written agreement.
                                                                  Agreements on domestic transport emission calculation between Statistics
                                                                  Finland and other organisations will be written during 2004.

2.   Main features of the calculation system

          Which level of IPCC Tiers does the calculation
          follow?                                                 Tier 1 calculation (emissions are calculated from total bunker fuels by fuel type).

          Are bunker emissions calculated within the same         No. Domestic transport emissions are calculated by VTT and FCAA, with
          system as emissions from domestic transport?            separate models.
          Is the Tier (or level of details) same in domestic      No. Calculation of domestic transport emissions is much more detailed (country
          and bunker fuel calculation?                            specific models, mostly following Tiers 2 and 3).
          What are the basic data sources for bunker
          emission calculation?                                   Total bunker fuel sales (by fuel type).

                                                                  FOGF collects bunker fuel data from oil delivering companies. (Total fuel sales of
          How bunker fuel data is collected?                      oil products separated to domestic and bunker shares)
          Are there problems in data collection in some sub-
          categories of domestic transport or bunkers (e.g.
          fishing, military, leisure boats) or in some parts of
          the MS?                                                 Fuel consumption in inland waterways is not available.
          Is there a need for common EU level data sources        Depends on the allocation method, at the moment no need for EU level data
          (e.g. Eurocontrol data)?                                sources.
          How could these (EU level data sources) be used         EU level data could be used for verification (it is totally independent from the
          in the inventory preparation?                           present calculation system)

3.   Separation between domestic/international fuels

          What definitions have been used to separate
          between domestic and international (bunker)
          emissions (IPCC / other)?                               Basically IPCC definition (with the exception Åland, see 5).
          What is the basis/method for separation between
          domestic and bunker emissions (traffic control          In the fuel sales data collection bunker fuels are separated from domestic fuels
          data, fuel sales data, something else?)                 by different fuel code.

          Is the separation done before, within or after the      Separation is done before emission calculation (domestic and bunker emissions
          emission calculation?                                   are calculated with different systems).
          Is the same separation used in energy balances
          and international energy questionnaires
          (IEA/Eurostat JQs)?                                      Yes, the same fuel data is reported to IEA/Eurostat JQs.
          What are major problems in separating between
          domestic/bunker fuels?                                   No identified problems, some checking needs to be done.
          Are there any country-specific problems in
          separation?                                              Yes, ships going to Sweden via Åland (see 5).
                                                                   No identified problems in military or fishing.

4.   What emission factors (EF) have been used for calculation of bunker emissions?

                                                                   For most gases the emission factors for bunker emission calculation are taken
                                                                   from domestic transport calculation (average EFs).
                                                                   N2O and CH4 emission factors are selected from Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines
          Are there national studies or measurements on
          EFs, that could be used by other MS (e.g. EFs in
          navigation)?                                             None in aviation, some in navigation (especially NOx EFs)

5.   Country-specific issues

          Which parts of the country are included in               Mainland and islands are included in domestic emission calculation (except the
          domestic transport / bunkers (territories, economic      case of Åland mentioned below). Domestic aviation transport includes domestic
          region)?                                                 flights within the Flight Information Region (FIR).
          Is EU-domestic transport separated (possible to
          separate) from bunkers?                                  Not within the present bunker calculation.
          Are there country-specific problems?                     The case of Åland is a problem in navigation:
                                                                   At the present system the whole trip from Finland to Sweden via Åland has been
                                                                   treated as international, because over 90 % of the passengers are going to
                                                                   According to IPCC Guidelines, the trip should be divided to domestic and
                                                                   international segments, while some passengers are dropped or picked up from
                                                                   the Åland.
                                                                   If this separation is done in the emission calculation, the fuel data will be
                                                                   inconsistent with the IEA/Eurostat data, because it is not possible to make such
                                                                   separation in the fuel data collection.
6.   QA/QC

         Is there a documented QA/QC system established
         in transport / bunker emission calculation?         No. QA/QC systems for each part of the calculation are under development.

         What bunker-specific QC checks are conducted?       No documented QA/QC procedures at the moment.
                                                             Bunker fuel consumption is based on the official energy statistics data.

7.   Future plans

         What changes have been planned to calculation
         system, separation method, data collection,
         emission factors?                                   EF's will be checked to follow better the fleet used in international transport.
                                                             Recalculation of time series (some of the early years have been calculated using
                                                             different EFs, also some fuel data needs to be updated).

         What changes are needed to allow calculations, if   Higher tier method or EU level method is needed, if certain allocation methods
         some of the allocation methods are chosen?          are chosen.

         What issues in transport / bunkers emissions
         need to be discussed at the EU level?

8.   Other issues

                                                             Another calculation method for international transport emissions is included in the
                                                             VTT and FCAA models for transport emissions. In these models international
                                                             transport is defined as incoming and outgoing traffic within the Finnish Exclusive
                                                             Economic Zone (EEZ). This definition does not follow the IPCC definition, and
                                                             therefore the results of these calculations have not been used in GHG
                                                             inventories. However, they have been reported as international transport
                                                             emissions for other purposes, e.g. in national discussion. In these models
                                                             international transport emissions are calculated following the same Tiers 2/3 as
                                                             domestic transport calculation.

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