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Isle Royale National Park and No

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Isle Royale National Park and No Powered By Docstoc
					W-SR Wilderness
   Studies
Isle Royale National Park and
  North Woods Ecosystems
           Studies




Notebook and Journal
       2007
 June 19-28, 2007
                                                    Matt Tolan     103 Garner Drive 352-5805
                                                    ragbraitolan@gmail.com
   Isle Royale Adventure                            Nathan Bleadhorn 410 Ashbury Drive   352-5705

     June 19-28, 2007
                                                    Drunnerkid24@mchsi.com

                                                    Ryan Abernathy 306 22nd St, NW 352-6044
                 Instructors                        Kidsnus1@msn.com

Jim Gates       30461 205th Street, Shell Rock      Freshman:
      885-6710 gatesj@waverly-shellrock.k12.ia.us   Carson Kramer 1693 Bishop Ave        276-3358
Darrin Siefken        PO Box 548, Tripoli           nutty4woods@butler-bremer.com
      882-3659 info@crawdaddyoutdoors.com
Mandie Sanderman      1317 190th St      352-0723   Daniel Meyers 1515 E. Bremer Ave     352-1734
sandermanm@waverly-shellrock.k12.ia.us              dannyboyp92@aim.com
Jason Reyerson        430 N Kelley St. Shell Rock
 reyersonj@waverly-shellrock.k12.ia.us 885-4123     Tyler Higgins   403 3rd Ave SW       596-4030
                                                    rjbetsinger@hotmail.com
                   Students                         John Cashman 910 Cedar Lane          352-0986
Senior:                                             scashman@waverlyhealthcenter.org
Courtney Brown 203 Echo Drive     352-4373
dia3ofmonds07@yahoo.com

Sophomores:
Heather Thrasher 109 1st Ave SW        352-4741

Zach Schwake  1213 Charlene St. 939-2286
schwakenator@gmail.com

Tyler Frazee    317 1st St SE          352-2034
clarlwilharm@aol.com
                                                             Maps of Isle Royale
            Table of Contents
Pre-Trip Schedule                                            Background Information
Trip Schedule                                                     Facts
Training Schedule                                                 Isle Royale Background
                                                                  Wilderness Safety and Hiking tips
Pre-Trip Notes Pages                                              Isle Royale Fauna and Flora
Pre-trip session 1 –history of Isle Royale, low impact            Climate Info
                   camping, rules, conduct                        Leave No Trace and Minimum Impact Camping Info
Pre-trip session 2 – first aid, wolf and moose study,             Equipment List
                       ecology                                    Hypothermia
Pre-trip session 3 – equipment, clothing, food, cooking,
                    water purification, handout equipment
Campout-April       Equipment demos, gps, map
                         reading, 1st aid demo, cooking
                         demos, team building
Pre-trip session 4 – finalize trip plans, cover topics not
                    done
Activities
Activity 1 - Astronomy
Activity 2 – Flora of Isle Royale
Activity 3 – Fauna of Isle Royale
Activity 4 – Ecology of Isle Royale, Wildlife Mgmt. and
Research on Isle Royale
Activity 5 – History and Geology of Isle Royale
Activity 6 – Weather of Isle Royale
Activity 7 – Environmental Analysis of Isle Royale
Activity 8 – Sharing Your Experience
Activity 9 - Journal Entries
              Pre-Trip Schedule                                          Trip Schedule
January 22nd-Pre-trip session 1 –History of Isle Royale,     Group 1
low impact camping, rules, conduct-Pre-trip workout          Tuesday June 19-Leave W-SR 6:00 a.m. stay in
schedule 7-9 p.m. HS science room                            Outpost motel
                                                             Wed. June 20—Grand Portage-Rock Harbor-camp
February    -Pre-trip session 2 – Wilderness first aid,      Thurs. June 21-Rock Harbor --day trip to
Isle Royale geology and ecology, Compass and map                           Blake Point
reading/GPS 7-9 p.m. HS science room                         Friday June 22--Rock Harbor-Daisy Farm
                                                             Sat. June 23--Daisy Farm-Chickenbone
March        Pre-trip session 3 – equipment, clothing,       Sun. June 24--Chickenbone-Hatchet
food, cooking, water purification,                           Monday June 25--Hatchet-Desor
 7-9 p.m. Crawdaddy Outdoors                                 Tuesday June 26--Desor-Windigo
                                                             Wednesday June 27-Boat to Grand Portage
April      Pre-trip session 4 – Hand out equipment-                    leaves at 3--Drive to Duluth
food taste testing and meal planning- Yellow River trip      Thursday June 28--Duluth to W-SR
planning                                                      Friday, June 29 Clean Vans and equipment—9:00
7-9 P.M. H.S. ag shop

                                                             Group 2
Pre-Trip April    – Yellow River State Forest –              Tuesday June 19-Leave W-SR 6:00 a.m. stay in
Backpacking trip- equipment demos, GPS, map reading,         Outpost motel
1st aid demo, cooking demos, team building                   Wed. June 20—Grand Portage-McCargoe Cove to W.
Leave 8:00 Sat morning April 29th -Return 2:00 Sunday        Chickenbone 2.7 miles
April 30th                                                   Thurs. June 21—W.Chickenbone to Hatchet 7.7
                                                             Friday June 22—Hatchet to Malone Bay 11.3
                                                             Sat. June 23—Malone Bay to S.Lake Desor 11.1
May 11th-FINAL PAYMENT DUE!!!!!!                             Sun. June 24— Desor to Siskiwit Bay 9.9
                                                             Monday June 25— Siskiwit Bay to Feldtmann 10.2
June 5-Final Meeting with parents. Meet at 7:00 at high      Tuesday June 26-- Feldtmann to Windigo 8.5
                                                             Wednesday June 27-Boat to Grand Portage
school to finalize trip plans, cover topics not done, fill
                                                             leaves at 3--Drive to Duluth
out medical release forms, Q and A,                          Thursday June 28--Duluth to W-SR
                                                             Friday, June 29     Clean Vans and equipment- 9:00
Training Schedule
Date    Activity    Distance
Pre-trip session 1 –history of Isle Royale, low   ______________________________________
impact camping, rules, conduct                    ______________________________________
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Pre-trip session 2 – first aid, wolf and moose   ______________________________________
study, ecology                                   ______________________________________
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Pre-trip session 3 – equipment, clothing, food,   ______________________________________
cooking, water purification, handout equipment    ______________________________________
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Pre-Trip Session 4—Food tasting and meal        ______________________________________
planning-Hand out equipment—Yellow River trip   ______________________________________
planning                                        ______________________________________
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Campout April 22-29-Yellow River State Forest –   ______________________________________
Equipment demos, gps, map reading, 1st aid        ______________________________________
demo, cooking demos, team building                ______________________________________
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Pre-trip session 5 – finalize trip plans, cover   ______________________________________
topics not done                                   ______________________________________
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Activity 1 – Astronomy

Identify in the field and diagram in your
journal ten constellations.
   Activity 2 – Flora of Isle Royale

Identify 20 species of plants, trees and flowers found at
Isle Royale. Draw, color and record any pertinent
information that would assist you in identification.
                                                    ______________________________________
  Activity 3 – Fauna of Isle Royale                 ______________________________________
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  Describe species identified on Isle Royale.       ______________________________________
  Describe identifying characteristics as well as   ______________________________________
  what habitat they were found in.                  ______________________________________
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   Activity 4 – Ecology of Isle Royale, Wildlife                  ______________________________________
   Management and Research on Isle Royale                         ______________________________________
                                                                  ______________________________________
                                                                  ______________________________________
Describe the ecology of Isle Royale. Identify predator-prey       ______________________________________
relationships as well as producers, consumers and decomposers.
Describe in detail what wildlife management techniques are        ______________________________________
implemented at Isle Royale. Identify what animals and habitats    ______________________________________
are managed. Discuss the wide variety of research that is
conducted on the island. What is your feeling about the current
                                                                  ______________________________________
research that is being conducted at Isle Royale?                  ______________________________________
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  Activity 5 – History and Geology of Isle                          ______________________________________
  Royale                                                            ______________________________________
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  Describe the history and geology of Isle Royale. Discuss how it
  has affected the topography and landscape.
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Activity 6 – Weather of Isle Royale
Date   Time    Location   Temp.   Wind Speed   Wind        Precipitation   Cloud Pattern
                                               Direction
  ACTIVITY 7. Environmental Conditions of Isle Royale
Date     Time   Location   Temp   Phosphates   Nitrates     Nitrites   Total      Total        pH
                                                                       Hardness   Alkalinity




                                                          Activity 8 – Sharing Your Experience
  Please discus how you will share your experience once   ______________________________________
  you get back home and to school.                        ______________________________________
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Activity 9 - Journal Entries   ____________________________________
Date                           ____________________________________
Location                       ____________________________________
Flora Observed                 ____________________________________
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Fauna Observed
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Other Observations             ____________________________________
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Class/Team Observations
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Narrative
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Activity 9 - Journal Entries   ____________________________________
Date                           ____________________________________
Location                       ____________________________________
Flora Observed
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Fauna Observed
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Other Observations             ____________________________________
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Activity 9 - Journal Entries   ____________________________________
Date                           ____________________________________
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Flora Observed
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Narrative
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Activity 9 - Journal Entries   ____________________________________
Date                           ____________________________________
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Flora Observed
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Narrative
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Activity 9 - Journal Entries           ____________________________________
Date                                   ____________________________________
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Flora Observed
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Other Observations                     ____________________________________
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Activity 9 - Journal Entries                 ____________________________________
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Narrative
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Activity 9 - Journal Entries   ____________________________________
Date                           ____________________________________
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Activity 9 - Journal Entries   ____________________________________
Date                           ____________________________________
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Activity 9 - Journal Entries   ____________________________________
Date                           ____________________________________
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Flora Observed
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Activity 9 - Journal Entries   ____________________________________
Date                           ____________________________________
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Activity 9 - Journal Entries   ____________________________________
Date                           ____________________________________
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Activity 9 - Journal Entries   ____________________________________
Date                           ____________________________________
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                                                                            To prevent campsite erosion, do not dig trenches or otherwise disturb
       Isle Royale National Park –                                          the soil. Backpacking stoves are lightweight, dependable, efficient,
                                                                            and have less impact on the environment than campfires.
        Background Information
                                                                                                       Solitude
                                                                            Among Isle Royale's important backcountry values are its natural
               A Wilderness Park                                            sights and sounds. You can enhance your own and other's solitude by
                                                                            keeping quiet in campgrounds and on docks and trails, traveling in
                                                                            small parties, and avoiding unnecessary noise like sing-alongs or the
Isle Royale National Park was authorized by Congress in 1931 "to            use of radios and tape decks. Refrain from group games like Frisbee
conserve a prime example of North Woods Wilderness." The park was           and tag, which often lead to shouting and extra noise. Enjoy the
designated part of the National Wilderness Preservation System in           natural sights and sounds of the island around you. One of Isle
1976, under the Wilderness Act, and remains today as an example of          Royale's greatest gifts is the healing meditative solitude available
primitive America. In fact, over 98% of the land in Isle Royale is          there.
designated wilderness.
Further honors were bestowed in 1981, when Isle Royale was
designated an International Biosphere Reserve by the United Nations,                               Natural Fire
giving it global scientific and educational significance.
                                                                            Lightning-caused forest fires are a natural and historic part of the Isle
Wilderness is managed for preservation and solitude. We need such           Royale environment. Some plant and animal species require fire to
natural places for study, measuring the forces of natural change and        survive, such as jack pine. Some, such as moose, actually thrive in
dynamics, and as a place to renew the human spirit. Isle Royale has         recently burned areas. Therefore, the park's policy is to closely
established rules and regulations governing group size, fires,              monitor natural fires if certain qualifying conditions are met. Fire is a
sanitation, and basic conduct to help protect its varied resources as       powerful force. Help protect the island from human-caused fires by
well as the quality of experience for                                       being careful with cigarettes, campfires, and camp stoves.
users. Help preserve wilderness by following these guidelines.

                                                                                                       Hazards
       Minimum Impact Camping
                                                                            Beware of open mine pits at Island Mine, Todd Harbor, Siskowit
Isle Royale may seem rugged, but it is also fragile. To help preserve it,   Mine, Daisy Farm, Minong Mine, and other areas throughout the park.
follow low-impact camping practices wherever you go. By learning            Be prepared for rapid and dramatic changes in weather. Know signs
and using leave-no-trace principles, your impact on the wilderness and      and symptoms of hypothermia and heat-related emergencies. It is
other peoples experiences will be reduced. Using equipment of subtle        often hot and dry on the ridges, even when it is cool down by Lake
natural tones instead of bright colors and hanging clothing and gear        Superior. Carry plenty of drinking water and drink it! Watch your
out of sight of others will lessen your visual impact. To help minimize     footing on wet and slippery trails, rock surfaces, and roots. There are
erosion, walk in the middle of trails and do not shortcut switchbacks.      88 three-sided sleeping shelters on Isle Royale. They provide a
convenient source of shelter, especially during bad weather, and the
front of each shelter is screened to provide relief from the biting                                        Noise
insects. Availability is on a first-come, first-served basis. We
encourage you to do your part in keeping these shelters in good               Quiet hours at all campgrounds and docks are 10:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m.
condition. Vandalism such as carving and writing on the walls and             EDT. This will insure that all campers can have a restful experience,
ceilings is illegal. To prevent damage to the screens and the doors, be       enjoying the natural sounds of the wilderness.
careful with your camping gear, and close doors softly. Sweep them
out with the brooms provided before you depart, so they will be clean
for the next user.
                                                                                                         Wildlife
                                                                              Keep wildlife wild. Feeding wildlife upsets the natural food chain and
                           Camping                                            makes animals dependent on humans. It also causes them to lose their
                                                                              fear of humans and approach more and more closely. Finally, an
Three types of camping are available at Isle Royale: three-sided              animal such as a fox, otter, or squirrel may bite a human and have to
shelters (maximum 6 people), tent sites (maximum 6 people) for one            be destroyed, all because someone started the vicious cycle by feeding
to three tents, and group sites (for parties of 7 to 10 people). Long-        them. It has
term campground stays are not permitted. To ease overcrowding,                happened here before. Respect the needs of birds and other animals
campgrounds have varying limits on consecutive night stays.                   for undisturbed territory. Feeding, touching, teasing, trapping,
                                          -                                   molesting, or intentional disturbance of any wildlife or of their homes,
                                                                              nests, or activities is prohibited and detracts from the wilderness
                                                                              character of Isle Royale. Fishing requires knowledge of the Isle
                     Human Waste                                              Royale fishing regulations.

Use pit toilets provided at campgrounds to dispose of human waste. If
not available: select a spot at least 100 feet from trails, streams, lakes,                               Insects
or dry stream beds and dig a hole six inches deep. Cover the hole
tightly with duff after use. Carry out sanitary napkins and tampons.          Expect mosquitoes, black flies, gnats, and other insects to peak in June
                                                                              or July. They are part of your Isle Royale experience. Bring plenty of
                                                                              insect repellent and netting or other skin barriers. Think in terms of
                               Trash                                          being able to cover all exposed skin on your body from biting insects.
                                                                              Insects can bite through thin clothing. Make sure your tent has
Trash is a continual problem in the park. The rule is simple; CARRY           mosquito netting and that it has no holes. Bring materials to repair
OUT WHATEVER YOU CARRY IN! There are no trash cans in the                     damaged mosquito netting.
backcountry. Do not bury, burn, or scatter trash and do not put it into
pit toilets. As you hike, help maintain a pristine backcountry by
picking up litter dropped by other visitors.
                                                                          case the one where you plan to stay is full. At peak times, double up
                                                                          with another party using available tent pads, rather than camping
                               Pets                                       outside established sites and causing campground sprawl, soil
                                                                          compacting, and trampling. Campers must stay in established
                                                                          campground unless they make arrangements for off-trail hiking and
Dogs, cats, and other pets are not allowed within the park boundaries,    camping when the camping permit is issued. Off-trail hiking and
including pets on boats. Visitors bringing pets to Isle Royale will be    camping is difficult at Isle Royale and recommended only for
required to leave immediately. Pets can disturb wildlife and be a         experienced campers.
source of disease (such as canine parvovirus), particularly for park
wolves.
                                                                                                  Campfires
                         Weapons                                          Opportunities for campfires are limited; a self-contained fuel
                                                                          (backpacking) stove is needed. Backpacking stoves are dependable,
Firearms, fireworks, or any implements designed to discharge missiles     easier to use, and less damaging to the park than wood fires.
in the air or water are prohibited.                                       Backpacking stoves are also lightweight and eliminate the need for
                                                                          hatchets, axes, or saws. White gas is available at the camp stores at
   Wheeled Vehicles or Devices                                            Rock Harbor and Windigo (core season) or from the visitor centers
                                                                          (shoulder seasons) from mid-May through the end of September.
                                                                          Where campfires are allowed, a metal fire ring is provided. Never
Wheeled vehicles (except for wheelchairs) or other mechanical forms
                                                                          build your own ring. Use only wood that is dead and down. Please do
of transportation are not allowed on trails. This includes bicycles and
                                                                          not peel bark or cut live trees or branches. Always extinguish your
canoe portage devices.
                                                                          campfire completely before you depart the area. Water at Isle Royale
                                                                          deserve special care to avoid polluting it and exposing yourself or
                           Permits                                        your party to diseases.

All campers and boaters are required to obtain a camping permit on
the Ranger III vessel or at Rock Harbor or Windigo upon arrival.
                                                                                                     Alcohol
When leaving the park, return the permit, with itinerary corrections
                                                                          Open containers of alcoholic beverages are prohibited at Siskiwit Bay
noted.
                                                                          and McCargoe Cove Campgrounds, on their associated docks, and
                                                                          while on board boats at their docks.
                   Where to Camp
Campsites cannot be reserved, except for group campsites by groups                     Hiking-Backpacking
of seven to ten. Shelters cannot be reserved. Individual sites are
available on a first-come, first-served basis. The number of tent or      A backpacking trip into the wilderness requires careful planning to
shelter sites are limited. Be prepared to travel to an alternate          make it a successful and enjoyable adventure. Your dreams of a
campground in
pleasant experience can easily be shattered by an overloaded pack,       There are 165 miles of trail on the island, offering a variety of options
forgotten or inadequate pieces of equipment, or sore muscles and         for trip length and difficulty. Trails are generally well-defined and
blistered feet.                                                          easy to follow. Most hikers average a two mile-per-hour pace and find
                                                                         a ten mile day to be plenty. Check with rangers when registering for
                                                                         advice on routes and trail conditions. Rainy weather may require
                              Maps                                       hikers to wade through
                                                                         wet, muddy areas. Off-trail travel is very difficult and much less
We recommend an Isle Royale Topographic Map for all hikers.              distance can be covered. Ponds and swamps must be frequently
Information on trails is available through maps and booklets sold by     crossed and vegetation is thick. North- facing slopes are steep.
Isle Royale Natural History Association, Isle Royale National Park,
800 E. Lakeshore Drive, Houghton, MI 49931, 1-800-678-6925.              Communications

                  Come Prepared                                          Channel 16 marine band radio is monitored by Mott Island Ranger
                                                                         Station Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Windigo
                                                                         Ranger Station monitors channel 16 daily from 9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m.
There are no medical facilities on Isle Royale. Sick or injured people   from June through August.
may be stranded for days before assistance arrives. Be in good
physical condition. Come fully equipped. Know your limitations.
Carry a good first aid kit. Inexperienced backpackers should do a
couple of "break-in" overnight trips BEFORE coming to the island.                                      Water
Test your equipment. Develop your endurance and confidence.
                                                                                Drinking water can be a source of great pleasure on a
                             Boots                                              wilderness journey or it can ruin your trip. Water-borne
                                                                                diseases may not be a problem at Isle Royale, but harmful
                                                                                bacteria and other microscopic creatures may contaminate the
Sturdy water-resistant foot gear is a must. Be sure your boots are              water.
completely broken in BEFORE you come to the island. Expect blisters
and prepare for them. Bring extra socks, moleskin, and foot powder to    WARNING! Water not obtained from spigots in Rock Harbor or
help keep feet dry and comfortable.                                      Windigo must be considered contaminated with intestinal bacteria and
                                                                         the eggs of the hydatid tapeworm. Boil water for at least two minutes
                         Backpack                                        or filter through an adequate filter (0.4 microns for bacteria; 25
                                                                         microns for tapeworm). Halizone tablets, bleach, and other chemical
                                                                         purifiers WILL
Keep it light. With lightweight gear, food, and sensible packing, your
                                                                         NOT kill tapeworm eggs although they may be effective against
backpack weight should be more tolerable.
                                                                         bacteria if used properly. PLAY IT SAFE!

                             Trails                                      Take time to read this basic information about how you should care
                                                                         for your drinking water at Isle Royale National Park.
                        Sanitation                                          User Fees - Part of the Solution
The same techniques you use to avoid water-borne disease will also         Normally, most fees collected at National Park Service sites are
help prevent it from spreading from you to others.                         returned to the U.S. Treasury. Under the Recreation Fee
                                                                           Demonstration Program, 80% of the revenue is spent at the collecting
Always use pit toilets when provided, and at other times perform your      park. Parks may use this money for the backlog of repair and
toilet needs AT LEAST 100 feet from any water or wet ground. Use a         maintenance projects, visitor services, signs, facility improvements,
plastic trowel and buy human waster four to ten inches deep. Take          resource preservation, interpretation, and visitor safety. The remaining
your toilet paper to the next privy; it doesn't’t decompose easily and     20% will be used to fund priority maintenance and visitor service
spring and autumn frosts can bring it to the surface. Wash your hands      projects throughout the National Park system. These special fee
afterwards!                                                                moneys must be spent by September 2002. Isle Royale National Park
                                                                           estimates that over the three-year demonstration period, the park will
Wash yourself and your dishes away from lakes or streams to avoid          directly benefit from approximately $500,000 in user fees. These
contaminating the park’s water. Take your water to camp and scrub          funds will primarily go toward dock repair or replacement and trail
and rinse there. Even biodegradable soap is a stress on the                maintenance on the island. User fees collected at Isle Royale in 1998
environment. Wash with as little soap as possible. Dispose of used         will be available for project funding in 1999. Funds collected in 1997
water at least 100 feet from any water source, wet ground, campsite,       were at work during the 1998
or water spigot. Don’t wash dishes at water spigots!                       summer season at Isle Royale.

Be careful to avoid contamination of food from careless handling of        Why is Isle Royale National Park collecting a user fee? Isle Royale is
infected soil that may be on your hands, clothing, or boots.               one of approximately 100 National Park Service sites nationwide
                                                                           selected to participate in this new fee demonstration program. The
NOTE: The diseases mentioned are unlikely to prove fatal, but can          park’s user fee is needed to address funding
cause extreme distress.                                                    shortages which have accumulated for some time. Without this new
                                                                           revenue, park infrastructure, visitor services, and resource protection
                  Recreation Fees                                          will continue to deteriorate. For example, lack of appropriated funds
                                                                           had already resulted in:
Year of inflation and budget shortfalls have resulted in the
postponement of over four billion dollars worth of needed building,           A 75% cut in trail maintenance employees. Only 4 trail crew
road, and trail maintenance and other crucial projects at national parks   workers remained to repair and maintain the park’s 165-mile trail
and monuments throughout the United States. Even though visitation         network in 1997.
to National Park Service sites has increased substantially, many visitor      An inability to fund any environmental education or other outreach
services have been reduced and even eliminated. Even though your           programs
favorite national park or monument looks on the surface the way it did        No boat dock repair or replacement program
a decade ago, there are significant problems behind the scenes.               Reduced interpretive programs and heavy reliance on
Without a National Fee Demonstration Program, problems                     inexperienced volunteers to staff park isitor centers
resulting from inadequate funding will continue to get worse.                 The elimination of all backcountry patrol rangers
   The deferment of many required capital improvement projects for                 moose with a calf; bulls in rut, and Yellow jacket nests in the ground near the
park utility systems and buildings                                                 trail can also be hazards while hiking.
   An inability to fund vital research and monitoring projects which               Know how to hike avoid hazards
                                                                                   Step over water bars, logs, or tree roots rather than on them. These surfaces
are the foundation of sound management decisions                                   are often slippery, and your feet may slide sideways, especially on a slope.
                                                                                   Board walks can be very slippery when wet. Slow your pace, keep your
All units of the National Park system are legally bound to preserve                steps shorter, and your weight over your feet. (Do not slide into your step.)
and protect their resources and to provide for appropriate visitor use.            When stepping on stepping stones, keep your weight centered over your
The mandate can be summed up in a passage from the 19116 Organic                   step to avoid sliding or slipping.
                                                                                   When faced with barren rock on a slope, you may find there is a better
Act, which created the National Park system:                                       option just off to the side where people have traveled. Look for it.
                                                                                   Think ahead of time what you'll do if you start to slide or fall so you are
   ...to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and             prepared for it. If falling, do not try to catch yourself; try to avoid landing on
the wildlife…and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such                  your hands, elbows or knees. Landing on the side of your body is much
manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the                     safer. If you start to slide, sometimes you can stop the slide, (with a hiking
                                                                                   pole, or hanging on to a tree). If the slope is such where you know you are
enjoyment of future generations.                                                   going to slide, lowering your center of gravity, by sitting down and sliding on
                                                                                   your feet or bottom, is safer. If sliding while standing up keep your weight
Revenues from the fee demonstration program will not solve all of the              over your feet and bend your knees--do not lean back or forward while
fiscal challenges facing Isle Royale, but the additional funds will                sliding.
make significant improvements possible.                                            If you come upon moose, don’t get too close. Give them enough distance.
                                                                                   Use binoculars or zoom lens to get a closer look. Watch for Yellow Jacket
                                                                                   nests in the ground near the trail, and make sure you carry an emergency
                                                                                   sting kit if you are allergic to bees.
                   Wilderness Hiking Safety Tips                                   And how to avoid becoming fatigued
                                                                                   Fatigue slows your awareness and preparedness to hike safely. Avoid
                                                                                   fatigue by following these guidelines:
  Park visitors need to accept wilderness on its own unique terms. Proper          Stay hydrated - drink plenty of water, even on cool, wet days.
     preparedness and hazard awareness can prevent hiking injuries.                Ensure adequate calorie intake - don't wait until you feel hungry.
Be prepared                                                                        Take more frequent rest brakes, but not so long you begin to stiffen up.
Wear sturdy boots that are broken in and are comfortable and know how              Stay warm. Becoming cold reduces your awareness.
they respond to wet slippery surfaces. Get in trail shape before the trip--        Watch out for other members of your party getting fatigued and take
fatigue often leads to injuries. Traveling with at least one hiking companion      appropriate action and care.
adds to your safety margin.                                                        Your wilderness experience can have a happy ending if you stay aware and
Wear pants, wind or rain pants, and a long sleeve shirt during more                come prepared.
hazardous hiking conditions, such as after a rain The extra clothing can
reduce the degree of any injuries from a fall.
A hiking pole or walking stick can be very helpful in maintaining your balance
in hazardous conditions. Stay aware of your surroundings, and preplan your
approach to more hazardous areas.
Extra weight wears you down and reduces your agility over uneven terrain.
Pack as light as possible. Leave the extras behind.
And aware
Anything wet (from dew, rain, frost, snow) can be a hazard and even more
so if it's on a slope - water bars, tree roots, bare rock, stepping stones, tree
branches, loose pebbles/fine rocky soils, muddy ground, board walks. A
                 The Prudent W-SR Camper:
Leaves as little trace of his passing as possible.
Uses an established campsite when available and restores it to a
natural condition before leaving.
Camps on hard ground, if not in a designated campsite.
Uses a portable stove for cooking instead of building an open
campfire.
Does not wash dishes or himself near streams, lakes or springs and
empties dirty water well away from water sources.
Uses soap sparingly in the wilderness because even biodegradable
detergent causes pollution to drinking water.
Locates toilets well away from water sources, digs a little hole (6” to
10” deep) and buries feces.
Packs out everything he/she packs in and then some more.
Does not pick, cut, dig, or harm plants or wildlife.
Walks on rocks or snow above treeline, not on the delicate grasses or
tundra.
Limits the size of his group.
Keeps his noise level low when he is camped near others.
Stays on the trail and does not take short cuts at switchbacks.
Is ready to leave a campsite at the designated time, doesn’t make the
group wait.
Walks at a pace that doesn’t upset the hikers in front of and behind
him. Should the TP be left on the surface to decompose and distract
other campers, even from a shorter “liquid” job, either burn it – bury it
– or pack it out!!

Students must bring own medication (aspirin, Tylenol, skin
medication, etc.) since none can be dispensed by the instructors. Each
student should have one pair of latex, rubber gloves for medical
emergencies.
                       Isle Royale Gear List                                        shorts
Essential Equipment                                                                 hat
   well broken-in boots                                                            bandana
   good quality backpack that fits                                                 lightweight jacket
   waterproof backpacking tent                                                     sweater/fleece
   three season sleeping bag                                                       socks/underwear
   raingear (breathable)                                                           thermal underwear
   sleeping pad                                                                    knit hat
   water filter                                                                    light gloves
   2 quart water bottles - minimum
   backpacking stove                                                         Other Gear
   stove fuel in approved containers                                             camp shoes/sandals
   cooking gear                                                                  plastic groundsheet for tent
   food                                                                          pack rain cover
   flashlights/headlamp (plus extra batteries)                                   sunglasses
   topographic map                                                               1 extra day of food
   first aid kit                                                                 eating utensils
   moleskin and foot powder                                                      trail snacks (trail mix, bars)
   repair kit (pack, stove, filter, etc.)                                        cup
   plastic spade/toilet paper
   knife                                                                     Optional Items
   sunscreen
   insect repellant                                                                20 feet of nylon cord
   headnet                                                                         lightweight binoculars
   empty Zip-Loc bags for trash                                                    camera and film
   whistle                                                                         notebook and pencil
   compass                                                                         field guides
   matches/lighter                                                                 fishing gear
                                                                                    hiking staff/trekking poles
Clothing
*Cotton poplar and synthetic fibers such as fleece are quick-drying. Wool     Things NOT to Bring
retains insulating properties even when wet, and polypropylene is easily          radio or cassette/CD player
dried and lightweight. These fabrics are ideal for Isle Royale’s changeable       perfume/deodorant/cosmetics (attract bugs)
climate.
                                                                                  firecrackers
       lightweight pants
                                                                                  sporting equipment/frisbee/kite
       long-sleeved shirt
       T-shirt
Hypothermia                                                        Your Third Line of Defense: Detect Hypothermia
If you are outdoors for recreation, you presumably do not intend   Watch for these symptoms:
to jeopardize your life. Hypothermia may be a new word to you,     1. Uncontrollable fits of shivering
but it’s the only word that describes the rapid, progressive       2. Vague, slow, slurred speech
mental and physical collapse accompanying the chilling of the      3. Memory lapses
inner core of the human body. Hypothermia is caused by             4. Immobile, fumbling hands
exposure to cold, aggravated by wet, wind, and exhaustion. It is   5. Frequent stumbling, lurching gait
the #1 killer of outdoor recreationists.                           6. Drowsiness (to sleep is to die)
Cold kills in two distinct steps:                                  7. Apparent exhaustion, inability to get up after a rest
1. Exposure and exhaustion – The moment your body begins to        Your Fourth Line of Defense: Treatment
lose heat faster than it produces it, you are undergoing           The victim may deny he is in trouble. Believe the symptoms, not
exposure.                                                          the patient. Even mild symptoms demand immediate, drastic
2. Hypothermia – If exposure continues until your energy           treatment.
reserves are exhausted, cold reaches the brain depriving you of    1. Get the victim out of the wind and rain.
judgment and reasoning power (you will not realize this is         2. Strip off all wet clothes.
happening), and you will lose control of your hands. This is       3. If the patient is only mildly impaired:
hypothermia. Your internal temperature is sliding downward.                • Give them warm drinks.
Without treatment, this slide leads to stupor, collapse, and               • Get them into dry clothes and a warm sleeping bag.
death.
Your First Line of Defense: Avoid Exposure                         4. If the patient is semi-conscious or worse:
1. Stay dry – When clothes get wet, they lose about 90% of                 • Try to keep them awake
their insulating power.                                                    • Leave them stripped. Put them in a sleeping bag with
2. Beware of the wind – Wind refrigerates wet clothes by                   another person (also stripped). Skin to skin contact is the
evaporating moisture from the surface.                                     most effective treatment.
3. Understand cold – Most hypothermia cases develop in air
temperature between 30 and 50 degrees F.                           5. Build a fire to warm the camp (if regulations allow).
4. Use your clothes – Put raingear on before you get wet, and
put outerwear on before you start shivering.
Your Second Line of Defense: Terminate Exposure
1. Be brave enough to give up reaching your hiking goal.
2. Get out of the wind and rain – start your stove and prepare
hot drinks. Concentrate on making camp as secure and
comfortable as possible.
3. Never ignore shivering – Persistent or violent shivering is a
clear warning that you are on the verge of hypothermia.
4. Forestall exhaustion – Make camp while you still have a
reserve of energy.

				
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