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Circulatory System Circulatory System Dr Muhammad Rafique DIMC

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This presentation explains the structres of circulatory system

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          Dr. Muhammad Rafique
Dr. Rafique
Define the Circulatory System
Discuss the division of Circulatory System
Describe the Pulmonary Circulation
Discuss the Systemic Circulation
Discuss different types of Blood Vessels
Discuss the detailed structures of Blood

  Dr. Rafique
                Circulatory System
Circulatory System is system
   which circulates the blood
   through out entire cells,
   tissue, organ and system of
   the body it has to delivered
   the O2 and Nutrient at the
   cellular level and removed
   CO2 and metabolites from

  Dr. Rafique
       Division of Circulatory System
Circulatory System

               Pulmonary Circulation

Systemic Circulation

 Dr. Rafique
                Pulmonary Circulation
Deoxygenated blood from
  right atrium pumped into
  Pulmonary Trunk from
  right ventricle. The
  pulmonary trunk divided
  into right and left
  pulmonary arteries which
  take the blood to Lungs.
  These are the only arteries
  which contain the
  Deoxygenated blood

  Dr. Rafique
 Circulatory System consists of Heart &
              Blood Vessels
Blood Vessels



Dr. Rafique
       Types of

Large Sized (Elastic) Artery

Medium Sized (Muscular)

Small Sized Artery

  Dr. Rafique
Capillaries are vessels which are present between
Arteries and Veins and are the sites where the
exchange of Nutrients and Metabolites occur
Types of Capillary

         Discontinuous Capillary

    Fenestrated Capillary

Continuous Capillary
  Dr. Rafique
  Types of Vein

Small Sized Vein

Medium Sized Vein

Large Sized Vein

  Dr. Rafique
                  Circulation of Blood
The blood is pumped into
  circulation through heart and
  received by the Ascending
  Aorta and Pulmonary Trunk,
  these are large sized arteries
  also called as Conducting
  Arteries. After passing through
  large sized conducting arteries
  the blood enters the medium
  sized artery which is also called
  as Distributing Artery

   Dr. Rafique
                Circulation of Blood
After passing through the
  medium sized distributing
  artery the blood enters
  the small sized artery and
  than arterioles which is
  also called as Resistance
  Vessels. Each arteriole
  divvied into smaller
  channels which is called
  as capillaries about 7 mm
  in diameter.

  Dr. Rafique
                Circulation of Blood
• Capillaries are actually
  connecting channel, which
  connects the arterial part
  (arterioles) to Venous part
  (Venules). Capillaries are
  the only channel where
  exchange of gases and
  nutrients and metabolites
  occur. Capillaries are
  present in the interstitial
  tissues in close to tissues
  and cells.

  Dr. Rafique
                Circulation of Blood
After passing through the
  capillaries the blood
  enters the venules,
  small sized vein
  Medium Sized Veins
  and ultimately Large
  sized , these are
  superior and inferior
  vena cava and than
  blood enters to right
  atrium of heart

  Dr. Rafique
Dr. Rafique
           Structure of Blood Vessels
Blood vessels consists
   of three Tunics
   (layers) from out to
   inside are:
1. Tunica Adventitia
2. Tunica Media
3. Tunica Intima

  Dr. Rafique
                 Tunica Adventitia
Outer most layer consists of
  connective tissues
Fibers: Collagen, Elastic and
  Reticular fibers
Cells: Fibroblast, Adipocytes,
  smooth muscle and
  wandering blood cells
Neuro-Vascular Bundles:
  Blood vessels (vasa
  Vasorum), Lymphatic
  Vessels and nerve endings

  Dr. Rafique
                Tunica Adventitia
But proportion all
  these structures
  varies depending
  upon the type of
The Tunica Adventitia
  well developed and
  thicker in veins as
  compare to the

  Dr. Rafique
                   Tunica Media
Mainly consists of Smooth
 muscle fibers and elastic
 fibers also reticular
 fibers. The number
 smooth fibers varies in
 different sized arteries.
 In large sized artery the
 tunica media contains
 mainly of Elastic fibers
 along with very few
 smooth muscle fibers

  Dr. Rafique
                    Tunica Media
In medium sized artery which
   is also called as Muscular
   Artery, the Tunica Media
   mainly consists of smooth
   muscle fibers and only few
   elastic fibers. While
   comparing with medium
   sized vein which also
   contains smooth muscles
   the thickness of tunica
   media is very much less.

  Dr. Rafique
Divided into two layers:
Superficial Layer consists of Surface       Tunica Intima
   lining which consists of
   Endothelial cells, these are
   Simple Sqamous Epithelium.
Deep Layer is called as lamina
   propria which consists connective
   tissue components, collagen,
   elastic, reticual fibers, fibroblasts,
   lymphocytes, smooth muscle
The thickness of tunica intima varies
   according to type of vessels

   Dr. Rafique
Features               Artery                Vein
Dimension              Smaller               Larger
Thickness              More                  Less
Tunica Adventitia      Narrow                Wider
Tunica Media           Wider                 Narrow
                       More Muscle           Less Muscle Fibers
Tunica Intima          Wider                 Narrow
Lumen                  Narrow                Wider

  Dr. Rafique
                 Structure Capillaries
Capillaries have structural
  variations to permit different
  levels of metabolic exchange
  between blood and surrounding
  tissues. They are composed of a
  single layer of endothelial cells
  rolled up in the form of a tube.
  The average diameter of
  capillaries varies from 7 to 9 m,
  and their length is usually not
  more than 50 m. The total
  length of capillaries in the
  human body has been
  estimated at 96,000 km (60,000
   Dr. Rafique
                 Structure Capillaries
Single layer of cells rest on basal
   lamina, which on outside
   surrounded by the connective
   tissue. Endothelial cells are
   polygonal and elongated in the
   direction of blood flow. The
   nucleus causes the cell to bulge
   into the capillary lumen. Its
   cytoplasm contains few
   organelles, including a small
   Golgi complex, mitochondria,
   free ribosomes, and a few
   cisternae of rough endoplasmic

   Dr. Rafique

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