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					LATIN          AP       METRICS                       CATULLUS
                           &                          VIRGIL
                        SCANSION                      OVID
                                                      HORACE

        HENDECASYLLABIC
                                                              ALCAIC
               DACTYLIC HEXAMETER
                                                      SAPPHIC
                        ELEGAIC COUPLET


Basic vocabulary:

        METER           = a major poetic rhythm or measure, out of which whole
                        poems are written, such as the 5 meters listed above.

        SYLLABLE        = minimum requirement is a vowel. Usually a syllable
                        begins with a vowel or diphthong and includes all
                        following consonants until the next vocalic element.

        BEAT            = the smallest poetic unit. A beat corresponds to a syllable.

        FOOT            = the next largest unit of a METER or a poetic measure. A
                        METER usually contains 2-4 BEATS or SYLLABLES.
                        Gragphically, feet are divided by the following symbol
                        (|)

        SHORT           = indicates a short BEAT or short SYLLABLE. The
                        symbol for a short SYLLABLE is (u).

        LONG            = indicates a long BEAT or long SYLLABLE. The symbol
                        for a long SYLLABLE is (- ) .
Hendecasyllabic = (h)en = 1; deca = 10. Therefore a hendecasyllabic line is an 11 beat or
                  11 syllable line of verse. It has a (rather) regular format.


                       X X - u u – u – u – X Here, X means the syllable can either be
                                             short or long.

                       Most commonly, hendecasyllabics begin with either an
                       IAMBUS ( = u -) or a TROCHEE ( = - u).

Hendecasyllables can be divided into feet following various understandings. Here is mine:

       The first two beats form the first FOOT which is either an IAMBUS or a
               TROCHEE

                       u - (iambus)

                       - u (trochee)

       The second foot consists of a CHORIAMB which is – u u -.

       The third foot consists of an IAMBIC DIMETER which is two concessive IAMBI
                      =               u –u–

       The final foot is merely the last beat of the line which can be either long or short ( x)

       THEREFORE > u - | - u u - | u – u- | x
                   -u|




Dactylic Hexameter = 6 finger measures = Dactyl = - u u = a dactylic hexameter = 6
                            dactyls

                        - u u| - u u| - u u| - u u| - u u| - u u

 yet, the sixth dactyl is always bi-syllabic which means either - - or - u; yet, in feet 1-4 a
dactyl (- u u) can always be replaced by a spondee which is - -. A metrical ―replacement‖
is called a RESOLUTION. In the fifth foot, hardly ever does a spondee replace a dactyl.
Therefore, the dactylic hexameter can look like this:

               - uu| - uu| - uu| - uu| - uu| - x (where x means either long (-) or short (u)
                - - | - - | - - | - - | - uu| - x
Elegaic Couplet = 1st line is the dactylic hexameter (see above); second line is mistakenly
             called the pentameter since it can be understood as a FIVE unit line, but is
             better called a HEMIEPS.


       The HEMIEPS is literally HALF and EPIC line of verse. It begins with two feet
             which can be any combination of SPONDEE or DACTYL. These two feet
             are followed by a long syllable. The second half of the line consists of two
             dactyls followed by a long syllable. No resolutions are allowed in the second
             half of the HEMIEPS.

       Hexameter       - uu| - uu| - uu| - uu| - uu| - x
                        - - | - - | - - | - - | - uu| - x

       HEMIEPS:        -uu|-uu|- | -uu| -uu|x
                        -- | -- |
LYRICA METRA                             HORACE                  ALCAIC & SAPPHIC
Although the Sapphic and Alcaic meters are named after the poetess Sappho and Alcaeus, (7th –6th
centuries BC) both meters are Aeolic and common to the poets of the island of Lesbos. Sappho
used both meters and Alcaeus used both meters.

Although they are a little more complex than the dactylic based metra, both the Sapphic and the
Alcaic stanzas contain fewer opportunities for resolution (i.e. a spondee replacing a dactyl). It is a
very regular or strict metrical rhythm. The common denominator for most lyric meters is the
CHORIAMB = — u u —

                ALCAIC                           

The stanza contains four lines of which the first two lines follow the same metrical pattern. Line
3 has its own metrical pattern, and the last line again has its own metrical pattern.

Line 1-2:       X | — u — — || — u u — | u X
        Anacrusis Trochaic Choriamb           iambic


        Line 3:X | — u — — — u — X
        Anacrusis       Trochaic
                Line 4:— u u — u u — — u — X
                          Choriambic         Trochaic

Technical notes: in lines 1-2 notice that the first beat is an X. Many lyrical meters begin with a
non-specified beat before the stanza proper begins. This is called anacrusis. The first two lines of
the Alcaic stanza begin with anacrusis for the first beat. It is usually long (—) but it can just as
easily be a short syllable (u). Notice that I have placed a single vertical line ( | ) after this first
beat. This line indicates that the anacrusis beat is separate from the rest of the line. The
remainder of the first two lines is composed of a trochaic unit (— u — —), followed by a
choriamb (— u u —), which is followed by a simple iamb (u X). Notice that there are double
vertical lines between the trochaic (— u — —) and choriambic (— u u —) metra. This double
line indicates that there is a natural pause at this point in the verse which usually corresponds to
word division at this point. In simple terms, the line is regularly split in half at this point.

The third line is basically two trochaic units (— u — —) after the X anacrusis beginning.

The fourth line is what I call overlapping choriambs (— u u —) in which the final — beat of the
1st choriamb doubles as the first beat of the second choriamb. These double choriambs are then
followed by a trochaic metron (— u — X).

Please note that in all of these lines, like the dactylic hexamter, the last beat is an X. It can be either
long or short. It does not matter. Most importantly, there are only 7 beats in the Alcaic stanza which
are subject to resolution: the last beat of each line and the first beat of the first 3 lines.
EVERYTHING ELSE IS REGULAR! Like the Hendecasyllabic both the Sapphic and Alcaic are
11 beat lines.
                 SAPPHIC                               


The stanza contains four lines of which the first three lines follow the same metrical pattern. Line
4 has its own metrical pattern.

Line 1-3:        — u — — | — || u u — | u — X          metrical divisions ( | ) are my interpretation
                 Trochaic    Choriamb     iambic


       Line 4:         —uu—|X
                       Choriambic



The Sapphic stanza seems to have been thought of a one continuous line or the end of a line is felt to
flow into the beginning of the next line. This is called synaphaea. Therefore the last beat of a line
tends to be a natural long or long by-position whose consonants are found at the beginning of the
next line. It is even possible to have the syllables of a word split between the end of one line and the
beginning of the next line.
                General rules for scansion

 1) consider a syllable as vowel or diphthong + all consonants until the next vowel or
      diphthong = vc or vcc or dpc or dpcc;

 2) remember, word division does not matter!;

 3) a syllable is long if it contains a diphthong;

 4) a syllable is long if it contains a naturally long vowel ( a, e, i, o, u);

 5) a syllable is long by position if the the syllable contains a short vowel, but is followed by
        two or more consonants;

 6) x = a double consonant = k + s;

 7) r or l do not always make position = if r or l is the second element in a double consonantal
    cluster, the syllable is usually long, but poets have the right to consider such a syllable short (r
    and l are liquids, but better understood as semi-vowels or semi-consonants). example is
    volucrem where the adjective may well be scanned as u u u;


 8) h by itself or in consonantal clusters ph = Greek  or ch = Greek  or th = Greek  is a silent
    "consonant" and should not be counted in anyway;

 9) elision occurs when first word ends with a vowel and the following word begins with an
      -h- or with a vowel or with a diphthong. In this evironment the vowel at the end of the first
      word is elided and does not exist in pronounciation!;


10) elision likewise occurs when that first word ends with an -m-, such as in the endings -um
        or -em. In this environment, not only is that final -m- elided but also the vowel
        attached to it.

 11) in Early Republican literature final -s- is similarly treated. Lucretius a contemporary of
        Catullus often allows for elision with final -s-. I think there is one instance in
        Catullus where final -s- is elided.

 12) the environment where elision should take place but does not is called hiatus.

 13) a line which contains one extra syllable (and everything else is just what it is supposed
        to be) is called hypermetric.

				
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