A History of the Pan American Games The Pan American Games bring together athletes from the countries of the Americas in a festival of sport and international friendship. The Games are held every four years in the year preceding the Olympic Games. The first Pan American Games took place in 1951 at Buenos Aires, Argentina, but they originated more than two decades earlier. At the Olympic Congress coinciding with the 1924 Olympic Games at Paris, France, the International Olympic Committee members from Cuba, Guatemala and Mexico proposed the establishment of regional games for the countries of Central America. These games became reality two years later when Mexico City hosted the first Central American Games. At the 1932 Los Angeles Olympic Games, representatives of the Latin American delegations proposed regional Games for all the Americas. This proposal eventually led to the first meeting of the Pan American Sports Congress at Buenos Aires in August 1940. The Congress selected Buenos Aires to host the first Pan American Games in 1942, but World War II forced postponement of these games. Although the 1942 Pan American Games never took place, at least one poster was created on their behalf. The image shows a male figure in the foreground holding a javelin. The background reveals a view of the globe showing the Americas. The globe is encircled with the flags of 21 Pan American countries. Countries from the British Commonwealth did not participate in the early Pan American Sports Congress. The lithograph poster was designed by artist Falier Totaro in 1941. A second Pan American Sports Congress met at the 1948 London Olympic Games where plans were revived. The first Pan American Games opened on February 25, 1951, at Buenos Aires. More than 2,500 athletes from 22 countries participated. The organization governing the Games was renamed, in 1955, as the Pan American Sports Organization (PASO). Currently, 42 nations of North, Central and South America and the Caribbean comprise the organization. The official languages are Spanish and English. PASO has headquarters in Mexico City and is presided over by Mario Vasquez Raña of Mexico, who also is a member of the International Olympic Committee. The PASO emblem is a torch superimposed over five concentric circles of the colors green, yellow, white, red and blue. At least one of these colors appears on every national flag of the Americas. PASO’s motto "America, Espirito, Sport, Fraternité" incorporates four of the languages in common use in the Americas: Spanish, Portuguese, English and French. The phrase loosely translates to English as "The American spirit of friendship through sports." 1. The Pan American Games aim at: A) discussing friendship in Americas. B) preparing athletes for the World Cup. C) bringing American athletes altogether. D) revealing the quality of politics in Americas. E) telling people what is going on. 2. Check whether the following alternatives are true (T) or false (F). The first participants of the Pan American Games were Central American countries. Guatemala and Cuba suggested Mexico to host the first Pan American Games. Plans of the Pan American Sports Congress were revived in a meeting in London. The printed picture of the Pan American Games was created by an athlete. A) F - F - T – F B) T - T - F - F C) F - T - F - T D) T - F - T – T E) F – F – F - F 3. Choose the wrong information. A) PASO’s motto was originally written in English. B) The first Central American Games were held in 1926. C) The Pan American Games were originated before 1931. D) The circles of the PASO emblem comprise five different colors. E) The Congress selected Buenos Aires to host the first Pan American Games in 1942. Sightseeing in London “We’ve been to Buckingham Palace for the Changing of the Guard We’ve walked as far as Trafalgar Square To see the two art-galleries there, We’ve looked at Scotland Yard. And now you suggest that before it’s dark We should visit the Zoo in Regent’s Park! When tubes and buses are tightly packed And I am feeling completely whacked! Do you realize, Henry darling, that we’ve had no lunch or tea? And these fashionable sandals are nearly killing me! So, unless you find a café for a coffee and a snack, Though we left home only yesterday, I’ll catch the next train back!” 4) We can infer from the text that: a) Sightseeing in London is an exhausting experience. b) It is possible to see London on a single day. c) There is a boy anxious to see more of London, but his mother is tired. d) There are three tourists involved in the story. e) Some suggestions can be easily accepted. 5) Circle the wrong alternative. a) The author won’t have time to visit the zoo. b) The author is tired of visiting so many places. c) The author is hungry. d) The author feels uncomfortable with her sandals. e) The author hasn’t had lunch yet. 6) The characters in the story may have come from any of the countries below except from: a) France b) Canada c) Germany d) Italy e) Spain 7) When a bus is tightly packed it is: a) late b) empty c) departed d) developed e) crowded 8) TUBE and CAFÉ in the text mean: a) A long cylinder made of plastic, metal, rubber or glass – restaurant. b) Television – a dark brown powder with a strong flavor and smell. c) London’s underground train system – coffee shop. d) England’s railroad – a drink or beverage. e) England’s railway – French restaurant. GABARITOS/ JUSTIFICATIVAS 1. (C) JUSTIFICATIVA: De acordo com o texto, os jogos Pan Americanos visam reunir atletas do continente americano. 2. (A) JUSTIFICATIVA: De acordo com o texto, os primeiros participantes dos jogos pan-americanos vieram de 22 países; Guatemala e Cuba não sugeriram que o México fosse o anfitrião dos primeiros jogos, já que, os primeiros jogos aconteceram em Buenos Aires; os planos do congresso de esportes pan- americano foram relembrados em uma reunião ocorrida em Londres; o texto não afirma quem foi o autor da foto. 3. (A) JUSTIFICATIVA – O texto diz que o slogan usado fora escrito em 4 idiomas. 4. (A) JUSTIFICATIVA – O texto sugere que fazer um passeio turístico em Londres é uma experiência exaustiva. 5. (A) JUSTIFICATIVA – O autor sugere que há tempo para visitar outros lugares, contudo, ele se diz cansado, faminto, e com dores no pé. 6. (A) JUSTIFICATIVA – O autor afirma que vai pegar o trem de volta para casa, o que confirma que seu país de origem pode estar na Europa. 7. (A) JUSTIFICATIVA – O termo TIGHTLY PACKED indica cheio, lotado. 8. (A) JUSTIFICATIVA – A palavras TUBE e CAFÉ se referem ao sistema de metrô londrino e à uma cafeteria.