Sailing Instructions ISAF Youth by umr69751

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									                           Some Answers to Some Basic Questions
                    Volvo Youth Sailing ISAF World Championships 2002
                                          July 2002

Who is racing?

The competitors are under 19 years old and chosen to represent their countries by varying
criteria. The athletes will compete in the single-handed boys on Lasers, single-handed girls in
Bytes, double-handed boys and girls in 29ers and Mistral sailboards boys and girls.

Why don't boys and girls race against each other?

Height and weight of the competitor does affect performance; generally being taller and heavier is an
advantage. As teenaged girls tend to be shorter and lighter than teenaged boys, they would be
disadvantaged even if they had better skill and strategy. (This is also why girls race the lighter Bytes
as opposed to heavier Lasers in single-handed races.) There are strict rules on how much clothing a
competitor can wear because wet clothing can add weight.

Why do you make sure that all the boats raced are the same?

The manufacturers of the Lasers, 29ers and Bytes supply identical boats for all the competitors.
Once assigned to competitors, there are very strict rules about the allowable modifications and what
gear can be carried and used.

For example, competitors can add a compass, and wind indicators of tape or yarn, and use adhesive
tape anywhere above the waterline. The boats can be cleaned, but only with water to make sure the
friction of each hull is the same. Allowable modifications are listed in the sailing rules.

The sailors in the windsurfing competition bring their own Mistral sailboards and sails, which are
 measured and inspected to ensure they meet the required specifications.

At any time during the competition a boat can be chosen for inspection, if any illegal modifications
have been made or the competitor has failed to carry all the specified equipment then they are
disqualified for the races they have sailed with illegal gear or modifications.

How can I tell who is who?

There are three racing areas set up on the waters of Mahone Bay. Each area is colour coded, with
race committee boats carrying flags of different colours. Each area has been designated for certain
classes. Racing area flags on the race committee boats will be:

                                  Area                           Flag
                                 Alpha                           Blue
                                 Bravo                          Orange
                                 Charlie                        Yellow
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Each class has a flag that will be hoisted during the start sequence to show competitors what fleet
will be racing next.

        Area Alpha        Windsurfer, boys                White flag – black Mistral insignia
                          Windsurfer, girls               Red flag – white Mistral insignia


        Area Bravo        Single-handed, boys             White flag – red Laser insignia
                          Single-handed, girls            Red flag – white Byte insignia

        Area Charlie      Double-handed, boys             White flag – blue 29er insignia
                          Double-handed, girls            Red flag – white 29er insignia

On the sailboats themselves: in order to tell the boys from the girls, the girls’ 29ers will carry
black sail letters, the boys’ orange. Girls’ Mistrals shall carry a red diamond on their sails.

The sail of each boat will carry the initials of the countries they represent. The list is as follows:

ARG    Argentina                      GBR Great Britain                      POR    Portugal
AUS    Australia                      GRE Greece                             RUS    Russia
BLR    Belarus                        HKG Hong Kong                          SEY    Seychelles
BEL    Belgium                        IRL Ireland                            SIN    Singapore
BER    Bermuda                        ITA Italy                              SVK    Slovakia
BRA    Brazil                         JPN Japan                              RSA    South Africa
CAN    Canada                         KEN Kenya                              ESP    Spain
CRO    Croatia                        KOR Korea                              SWE    Sweden
CZE    Czech Republic                 MEX Mexico                             SUI    Switzerland
DEN    Denmark                        MDA Moldavia                           TUN    Tunisia
EST    Estonia                        MON Monaco                             TUR    Turkey
FIN    Finland                        NED Netherlands                        UKR    Ukraine
FRA    France                         NZL New Zealand                        USA    United States
GER    Germany                        POL Poland                             URU    Uruguay

Each day while racing, the first, second and third boat in series scores at the beginning of the day
shall display a yellow, blue or red sticker, respectively, on each side of her mainsail.

How many races will be sailed?

Two races are scheduled each day July 20 to July 25 with a lay day (no racing) scheduled on
Monday, July 22. On the last race day, July 26, two races will be sailed only if fewer than four races
have been completed by that date.

The first races are scheduled to start at noon, but may be postponed or abandoned because of
weather or other occurrences.

How are the courses set?


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The sailing instructions do specify the types of courses that can be set: they are upwind-
downwind and two types of trapezoid courses, with specified angles between the legs. It is a
rigid convention to ensure that sailors are fairly tested on their abilities.

For the boy's single-handed Lasers and girl's single-handed Bytes, the race committees aim to set
a course that can be completed in 60 minutes. For sailboards and the double-handed 29ers the
time is 40 minutes. This is to ensure that the course is long enough so that the sailors' skills can
be equitably assessed, but short enough that the athletes are not exhausted by the race.

The actual placement of the marks depends on the wind speed and direction at the time of the
race. A meteorologist will advise the race committees of what wind speeds and directions may
be anticipated. If the wind shifts during the competition, one or more marks and the finish line
may be moved. If a mark is moved, the race committee will display a green flag if the direction
is changed to starboard or a red flag if the direction is changed to port.

While the positions of the marks relative to the wind will be changed, the length of the course
cannot be changed, which may mean that some races may not be completed in the allotted time.

Is there a time limit for each race?

Class                   Time limit               Mark 1 time limit
boats                   two hours                30 minutes
boards                  one hour                 20 minutes

If no boat or board has passed Mark 1 within the Mark 1 time limit the race will be abandoned.

Boats (boards) that fail to finish within 30 (20) minutes after the first boat (board) finishes will be
scored Did Not Finish.

A boat starting later than 5 minutes after her starting signal (3 minutes for boards) will be scored
Did Not Start.

How are races started?

A strict protocol is followed that involves flags and sound signals, although the sound signals are
merely a courtesy and their absence does not mean the sequence will be aborted.

Minutes before start      Flag & Sound
5 minutes                 class flag hoisted & 1 sound signal.
4 minutes                 P flag hoisted (A blue square with a white square in the middle) & 1 sound.
1 minute                  P flag dropped & 1 long sound
Start                     Class flag dropped & 1 sound.




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Before the start, for any reason, the race committee may:

postpone a race:          hoist the AP flag (a trapezoid shape with red and white thick vertical
                          stripes) alone or in combination with two sound signals or
abandon a race            hoist code flag N (A square blue-and-white checkerboard flag) alone or in
                          combination with other flags.

What happens if a boat or boats go over the start line early?

At the start signal, if individual boats that are over the line early can be identified, the race
committee boat will signal an individual recall is signalled by hoisting an X flag (white square with a
blue cross) and making one sound signal. Generally the competitors know that they were over the
line early and must sail completely to the pre-start side of the line before starting.

If the race committee had hoisted Flag I (yellow square with blue circle) instead of the P flag during
the start sequence, then the boat must go around one of the start marks back to the pre-start side of
the line before starting. If possible, and as a matter of courtesy, the race committee boat near Mark
1 will display the national letters of boats that were over early so any racers who did not restart
will know that they are disqualified and should retire.

If the race committee has hoisted Flag Z (blue square with a yellow triangle and a red triangle)
during the start sequence, and a boat is on course side during the minute before her start then she
shall receive a 20 % scoring penalty.

If the race committee has hoisted a black flag during the starting sequence, any boat on course side
during the minute before her start will be disqualified. The black flag is generally only displayed
when the competitors are so aggressive at the line that a race cannot be started cleanly or fairly.

If boats are over the start line early and cannot be identified or the race committee has made an error
during the starting sequence, a general recall is signalled by displaying a First Substitute flag (a blue
triangle with a yellow triangle) with one sound. One minute after that flag is taken down, the race
sequence starts from the beginning.

What should I watch for during the race?

There are three main ingredients that go into a great race performance when all boats are identical as
in this case: skill, strength and strategy. (Luck is also good, but absolutely uncontrollable.)

Strength is the ability to physically handle the boat and make it perform in any condition. Skill is
being able to execute sailing manoeuvres quickly and competently, and keep the boat trimmed
perfectly. Strategy is being able to anticipate what your opponents are going to do, be proactive and
turn potential disadvantages to advantages, use the racing rules and physics of racing to your
advantage and to read the wind, water and weather to take advantage of wind shifts

The start of a race is a very crucial time and can go a long way in securing a win. The boats cannot
be over the line before the signal, but they can't stay too far behind or they will lose precious


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seconds. It's important to be aggressive to secure a good position, but being over the line early too
often can lead to disqualification.

Another crucial time is when rounding the marks, very good sailors can gain position with good
strategy at the marks.

There is a very clear set of rules that govern sailboat racing and each regatta can modify some of the
rules in the sailing instructions, a copy of which is in the program.

What happens if the boats break rules during the race?

Some infractions can result in a scoring penalty or a disqualification, like pumping the sails, rocking
the boat to increase speed, sculling with the helm, or "ooching" which is when the competitor makes
sudden, short forward body movements to propel the boat. These "propulsion" infraction are
monitored by a jury boat follows the racers around the course. When a member of the jury boat
points a flag at a competitor, it indicates that the jury has seen an infraction of the propulsion rules.

If a boat touches any mark while racing, or the start mark before starting or a finish mark after
finishing, must get clear of other competitors and turn 360 degrees, tacking and gybing once.
That will discharge the penalty, unless the boat has gained a significant advantage by touching
the mark, then they shall retire.

For other offences -- like illegally interfering with other boats -- the offender will have to make two
circles in the same direction (known as a 720) in order to wipe the offence clear. However, if the
offender has caused serious damage or gained a significant advantage, the boat shall retire.

If a boat breaks the rules and does not take a penalty, the other competitors can file a protest. Sailors
can also protest the race committee for infractions they believe made the race unfair, or if they
believe the jury imposed an unfair penalty. Some penalties cannot be appealed.

How are the races scored in a series?

For each race, the position the boat/board finished in will represent its score.

First                     1 pt.                 Second           2 pts.
Third                     3 pts                 Fourth           4 pts etc.

    At least five races must be completed to be make up a series. If there are only five races are
    completed, the results of every race will count toward a boat's final score.
    When boats race from six to eight races, each boat's worst finish will be dropped when
    calculating the final score.
    If nine or more races are completed, the two worst scores will be dropped.

What do the letters in the race results mean?

DNS: Did not start DNF: Did not finish DSQ: Disqualified DPI: Discretionary Penalty Imposed


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What are the prizes?

ISAF Medals in gold, silver and bronze will be awarded to the skipper (and crew) of the first, second
and third place finishers.

The ISAF World Youth Sailing Championship Trophy                             boys’ double-handed class.
The RYA Trophy                                                               girls’ double-handed class.
The ISAF St. Lawrence Trophy                                                 boys’ single-handed.
The ISAF Royal Netherlands Centennial Trophy                                 girls’ single-handed class.
The Paul Phelan Boardsailing Trophy                                          boys’ windsurfing.
The ISAF St. Moritz Boardsailing Championship Trophy                         girls’ windsurfing

The Volvo Trophy will be awarded to the top scoring country. The best four race scores of each
national authority in each event will score the following points:

                     Place      1     2    3    4       5   6   7   8    9      10
                     Points     10    9    8    7       6   5   4   3    2      1

If the fleets have not completed the same number of races the scores will be calculated for those
races completed by all fleets.

If there is a tie between two or more national authorities, they shall be ranked in order of their score
in the last race. Any remaining tie shall be broken by using the National Authorities scores in the
next to last race and so on until all ties are broken.

The Bengt Julin Trophy (Sportsmanship Award) may be awarded for exemplary behaviour and rules
compliance during the championship.

The Prince Henry the Navigator Cup may be awarded for exemplary sportsmanship during all the
races.




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