Wickens Chapter 2 Research Methods

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					   Wickens: Chapter 2
Research Methods, and IRB
     IE 8541 / HUMF 8001
            Research methods
• Observational studies and/or usability testing
  experiments may be used at many points in
  design of a DSS:
  – Requirements gathering
  – Early prototype testing
  – Final evaluation
• The stage of design and nature of the problem
  determine what method you use, and number
  of subjects.
• All may require IRB review.
             Types of Studies
• Highly controlled experiments
• Observations in uncontrolled, natural settings.
         The Design Process for a DSS:
           Human Centered Design
                 A typical spiral design process

          Prototype    Prototype
          Construction Testing

Requirements
   Gathering
                                                   Final Performance
  Design                                           Evaluation or
Specification                                      Comparison
                  Design
                  Review
           Types of Research
• Basic: Fundamental principles
• Applied: Specific conditions and situations
    Types of Experimental Designs (for
     more formal, controlled studies)
•   Two-Group
•   Multiple Group
•   Factorial Designs
•   Between and within subjects
 Institutional Review Board (IRB)
• The IRB’s role is to insure that the rights and
  well being of human subjects are protected.
• Experiments, surveys, or observational studies
  using human subjects need to be reviewed and
  approved by the IRB before proceeding with
  the studies.
• Ditto, if data collected previously from human
  subjects is to be used.
   University of Minnesota’s IRB
• Minnesota’s IRB:
  http://www.research.umn.edu/irb/
• This site contains:
  –   IRB schedules and deadlines
  –   Guidelines
  –   Application instructions
  –   IRB forms
  –   Examples of consent forms
  –   And many more resources.
           Application process
• Which set of forms to fill out?
  – Exempt
  – Expedited
  – Full review
• The answer will depend on the particular
  study, is it “research” or not, and the potential
  risks.
  Federal Definition of Research
• A systematic investigation, including research
  development, testing and evaluation, designed
  to develop or contribute to generalizable
  knowledge.
• Activities which meet this definition constitute
  research for purposes of this policy, whether or
  not they are conducted or supported under a
  program which is considered research for other
  purposes. For example, some demonstration
  and service programs may include research
  activities. - from 45 CFR 46.102
      What Is Subject to Review?

• The scope of the Institutional Review Board's
  (IRB) charge is broad. Generally, any
  University research that uses humans, human
  tissue, surveys of human subjects, or human
  subjects' records requires IRB review,
  irrespective of its funding source. The IRB's
  charge extends to research in the social and
  behavioral sciences as well as research in the
  health and biological sciences.
            Students should:
• understand the elements of informed consent,
• develop a readable consent form following the
  sample,
• plan appropriate recruitment strategies for
  identifying subjects,
• establish and maintain strict guidelines for
  protecting anonymity and confidentiality, and
• allow sufficient time for IRB review and
  completion of the project.
            Informed Consent
• Since the central requirement for human
  subjects research is that people participate
  voluntarily, the informed consent process is
  one of the most important parts of planning a
  research proposal. The process must assure
  that the potential subject understands the study
  and its risks and benefits and can certify his or
  her willingness to participate.
     Informed Consent Website
• Website on informed consent:
  http://www.research.umn.edu/irb/consent/
  contains:
  – Online Tutorial
  – Frequently Asked Questions
  – 5 Sample consent forms (see Social and
    Behavioral Science studies).
  What do you need to describe on the
               forms?
• Example: Social and Behavioral Sciences Application
  form:
  www.research.umn.edu/irb/download/social.cfm
   –   Investigator information
   –   Funding?
   –   Conflict of Interest?
   –   Summary of Activities
   –   Research Study Design
   –   Tasks to be performed
   –   Time table
   –   Participant population, etc.
         Recruitment Strategies
• When contacting potential research subjects to
  solicit their participation in a project, one must
  consider the risks and ethical aspects of the
  contact, as well as those of the research for
  which subjects are sought.
• The most common risks of contacting a
  potential subject are related to intrusiveness
  and violations of privacy; for example when
  the potential subject reached is a vulnerable
  individual (child, or prisoner).
    Example Recruitment Strategies
•   Post a “call for subjects” on a bulletin board
•   Place an advertisement in the paper,
•   Send a email request for participation,
•   Send a letter,
        Recruitment Strategies
• For more information on recruitment strategies
  see:
  www.research.umn.edu/irb/consent/recruitment/
• Clifford Nass 4/17– Daniel Drew
• Effects of Clinical Decision Support 3/8 –
  Esha Bhargava
• Tufte –James Frye
• Mixed-imitative Planning 4/3 – Gauti
  Reynisson
           Cognitive Engineering
• Design or redesign
  the tools, work Organizational        Motivation:
                                    Incentives/rewards
  process, or work   structure

  environment to                Work
  improve cognitive            Process
  task effectiveness



                      Tools                    Work
       (DSSs, software, etc.)               environment
         The Design Process for a DSS:
           Human Centered Design
                 A typical spiral design process

          Prototype    Prototype
          Construction Testing

Requirements
   Gathering
                                                   Final Performance
  Design                                           Evaluation or
Specification                                      Comparison
                  Design
                  Review
User and customer centered design
• Edison did not follow a user-centered design
  process in designing and marketing the
  phonograph.
  – He assumed customers were like himself: cared
    only about the quality of the sound and the music.
  – Did not know true customer wants and needs.
  – Business failed!!