Quotation, Paraphrase, Summary, Plagiarism

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					Quotation, Paraphrase,
Summary, Plagiarism
          How to Properly
     Use and Cite Sources
Definitions
     Quotation:
         Is an exact duplication of a portion of a source,
          enclosed in quotation marks
     Paraphrase:
         Reproduces the content of the original in your
          own words
     Summary:
         A condensed paraphrase that expresses only the
          principle points of the original
     Plagiarism:
         Failure to document a quotation, paraphrase, or
          summary
Integrating Quotation, Paraphrase, Summary

   Always introduce quotations,
    paraphrases and summaries
   Use an introductory phrase with the
    name of the author included
   Example:
         In Letters from America, Rupert Brooke
          characterizes Toronto as a “brisk,” largely
          British city having the usual urban mixture
          of wealth and poverty (80).
Rules for Quotation
    Quote accurately:
        Reproduce the quotation exactly ― including
         its spelling, capitalization, and punctuation
    If you omit or change anything, indicate
     the changes
        [ ] if you change a word/phrase
        … (with a space before and after) if you omit
         a word/phrase)
    You may omit or change the concluding
     punctuation to fit the quotation into your
     own sentence
Rules for Quotation
  Short quotations (less than 4 lines of
   your essay) go in quotation marks and
   are included in the body of your text
  When quoting more than one line of
   verse, use a slash (/) with a space
   before and after to mark the line
   endings:
        “Five years have passed; five summers,
         with the length / Of five long winters”
         (Wordsworth, “Tintern Abbey” 1-2).
Rules for Quotation
  When quoting a prose passage of more than
   three lines, start a new line and indent from
   the left margin double what you indent your
   paragraph
  Do not indent right margin
  Double space the quotation (as you are the
   entire essay) but do not add quotation marks
   that are not part of the quotation itself
  After the quotation leave 2 spaces before the
   citation
Rules for Quotation
   After the quotation leave 2 spaces
   before the citation:
      None of them knew the colour of the
      sky. Their eyes glanced level, and
      were fastened upon the waves that
      swept toward them. (Crane, “The
      Open Boat” 918)
Rules for Quotation
    When quoting more than three lines of verse,
     start a new line and indent from the left
     margin double what you indent your
     paragraph
    Do not indent right margin
    Double-space the quotation (as you are the
     entire essay)
    Preserve the original line endings and the
     original spatial arrangement of the lines as
     much as possible
    If the passage begins in the middle of a line,
Rules for Quotation
   If the passage begins in the middle of a line,
   type it that way:
                    These beauteous forms,
       Through a long absence, have not been
                                             to me
       As is a landscape to a blind man‟s eye:
       But oft, in lonely rooms, and „mid the din
       Of towns and cities, I have owed to them
   In hours of weariness, sensations sweet…
   (“Tintern Abbey” 22-27)
Rules for Paraphrase
  Give clear credit to the source at the
   beginning of the paraphrase
  Paraphrase will usually be a little
   shorter than the original, but need not
   be
Rules for Paraphrase
  Do not use significant words and
   phrases from the original without
   putting them in quotation marks
  If using three or more words in a row
   from the original, put them in quotation
   marks; not to do so is plagiarism
Rules for Summary
  Give clear credit to the source either at
   the beginning of the summary or in the
   end citation
  Do not use significant words and
   phrases from the original without
   putting them in quotation marks
  If using three or more words in a row
   from the original, put them in quotation
   marks; not to do so is plagiarism