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Late 1800's America

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									Late 1800’s America
 AP/IB History
 Unit 6
  Essential Questions
• How did Big Business develop into a different entity
  during the late 1800’s?
• What technological advances spurred the changes in
  society in the late 1800’s?
• What was the impact of the steel and railroad
  industries on the rise of big business?
• How did changes in the railroad contribute to
  development of the west?
• What effect did the rise of monopolies have on the
  development of the U.S.?
• How did inventions of the period change American
Key Terms

•   Transcontinental Railroad
•   John D. Rockefeller
•   Standard Oil
•   Monopolies
•   Trust
•   Horizontal Integration
•   Vertical Integration
•   Interlocking Directorates
•   Corporation
•   Dividend
•   Stock
•   Thomas Edison
•   Andrew Carnegie
Attitudes about Wealth
• Read the articles about Standard Oil and by
• Also be prepared to answer the questions below
   • How were attitudes at the time about running
     a business different than today?
   • How were they similar?
   • What issues or problems do you see with how
     business operated at that time?
    Attitudes of Wealth

• How did the attitudes of
  the wealthy influence the
  development of the US?
   • Industrialization
   • Immigration
   • Westward Expansion
   • Terms:
      • Gospel of Wealth
      • Social Darwinism
Monopolies and Corporations
• How did Corporations change America?
  •   14th Amendment
  •   Trusts
  •   Robber Barons
  •   Horizontal Integration
  •   Vertical Integration
  •   Interlocking Directorates
  •   Corporation
  •   Dividend
  •   Stock
Big Business
•   New ways of doing business
•   Railroads, Steel, Coal, Oil
•   Destruction of competition
•   1890 Sherman Anti-Trust Act
    • Unions
    • Not enforced until after 1900
• Capitalist from Era (1892—4,000 millionaires):
    •   Cornelius Vanderbilt
    •   John D. Rockefeller
    •   Andrew Carnegie
    •   J.P. Morgan
    •   Fisk and Gould
    •   William Randolph Hearst
• What were the                Key Terms:
  consequences of Industrial
  growth in America?           •Ellis Island
• How did attitudes towards    •Angel Island
  immigrants change as the
                               •Chinese Exclusion Act
  origin of the immigrant
• What were some of the
  issues faced by immigrants
  coming to America?
• How did increased
  immigration give rise to
  problems in the cities?
Immigration and Problems in Cities
• Who was coming to America in the late 1800’s?
   • 14 million non-farm workers
• What problems were developing in the cities as the
  population grew?
• New Immigrants v. Old Immigrants (cartoon)
• Work conditions:
   •   10-15 hours –6-7 days per week
   •   High Wages $1.50 per day
   •   No safety standards
   •   Labor Contracts
   •   Gradual exclusion of Immigrant groups
        • Chinese Exclusion Act 1882
Old immigrants v. New Immigrants
Union Activity
• Unions
   • National Labor Union 1866 - ‖Bread and Butter‖
   • Molly Maguires-1877
   • Knights of Labor-1878 –Terence V. Powderly
   • American Railway Union—Eugene V. Debs
   • American Federation of Labor-1886-Samuel Gompers
• Employer Tactics
   • Blacklist
   • Private guards (Pinkerton men)
   • Hiring Scabs
   • Yellow dog contracts
• Strikes
   • Great Railroad Strike 1877
   • Haymarket Riot-1886
   • Homestead Strike-1892
   • Pullman Strike-1894
City Problems
• Transportation
   • Boston first Subway 1897
   • Chicago and New York elevated Railways
• Clean Water and Sewage Disposal
• Crowded Housing
   • Dumbbell Tenement
• Fire Prevention
   • Great Chicago Fire of 1871
• Social Reform through Settlement Houses
   • Jane Addams—Hull House
Dumbbell Tenement
    Gilded Age Politics
•   Graft and Corruption
•   Republican support
•   Democratic support
•   Millionaires Club
•   Stalwarts—Roscoe Conkling
•   Half-Breeds—James G. Blaine
•   Patronage –the Spoils System
•   Scandals
    • Credit Moblier Scandal
    • Whiskey Ring
    • Tweed Ring
       • William Marcy Tweed
       • Tammany Hall
       • Thomas Nast
Tweed and Nast
Corruption at its peak
•   Spoils System
•   Grant 1871 est. Civil Service Commission
•   1877—Rutherford B. Hayes
•   1880—James A Garfield assassinated by Charles
•   Chester Arthur President
•   1883 Pendleton Act
•   Mugwumps
•   ―laissez-faire‖
•   Eventually reforms undone by 1888 Benjamin
    Harrison’s presidency
• What was the impact of the steel and railroad industries on
  the rise of big business?
• How did changes in the railroad contribute to development of
  the west?
   •   Transcontinental Railroads
   •   Bessemer Process
   •   Union Pacific
   •   Central Pacific
   •   Homestead Act of 1862
   •   Air Brake
   •   Time Zones
   •   Uniform Gauge
   •   Telegraph
How were problems of the late 1800’s
• On your paper:
   • Create a 2 column Chart
   • On the left side:
      • Make a list of the problems that arose in cities
      • Make a list of the problems that arose for farmers
   • On the right side:
      • Address the solutions proposed to each problem
• You must turn in your own sheet for a grade
• You may talk among your table, but not other
Farmers Have Problems
•   Farm prices down /production up
•   High transportation cost--Railroads
•   Bankruptcy
•   Crop Lien and tenant farming
•   Decreasing soil productivity
•   Increasing world competition
•   Distributors and Middlemen
•   Hostile Banks
•   High taxes
•   Deflation
•   Nature
Key Terms
     Cities, Farms, and Immigration
•   Chinese Exclusion Act
•   Populist Movement
•   Progressive Movement
•   Knights of Labor
•   American Federation of Labor
•   Samuel Gompers
•   Homestead Strike
•   Haymarket Square
•   Pullman Strike
•   Oliver Kelley
•   The Grange
•   Homestead Act 1862
•   William Jennings Bryan
•   Cross of Gold
•   Populist
Farming on the Frontier
• Closing Frontier end of Open Range
   • Joseph Glidden
   • Safety Valve Theory—Frederick Jackson Turner
   • Homestead Act 1862
• Problems for the farmer
   • Soddies
• Organizations to help the farmer
   • National Grange for the Patrons of Husbandry
      • The Grange
      • Oliver H. Kelley
   • The Farmers Alliance
      • Populist Party
Populist Party
• 1892—Presidential Election
    • James B. Weaver
•   1893—Depression
•   Coxey’s Army
•   JP Morgan Bail out
•   Gold v. Silver
    • 1873 Silver coins removed
    • 1877 Silver coins back
• Unlimited Production of Silver
• William Jennings Bryan 1896—Cross of Gold
• Wizard of Oz—Henry Littlefield
Readings: Summarizing
• For each article write a short synopsis
• Discuss why this article or articles is/are
  significant to the period.
• What is the main theme of the papers you have
  been given? What is the main topic?
• Write out on paper, present as a group to class?
Progressive Reforms
• What were the key issues that the Progressive
  Reformers tried to resolve?
• Who were the key leaders of the Progressive
• What were the key acts of the Progressive
   • Handout of key terms (link)
Progressive Movement
• Muckrakers --The Jungle
• Progressive Presidents (R)
   • Theodore Roosevelt
      •   Square Deal
      •   Trust Busting
      •   Pure Food and Drug Act
      •   Meat Inspection Act
      •   Progressive Party or Bull Moose Party
   • William Howard Taft (R)
      • Controversial
   • Woodrow Wilson (D)
      • Federal Reserve Act
      • Clayton Anti-Trust Act
Expansion and Imperialism
• How did America’s role in the world change with
  the approach of the 20th Century?
• What situations with Spain contributed to the
  debate over American expansionism?
• How did the US get more and more involved in
  Latin America at the turn of the 20th Century?
Key concepts--Imperialism
• Spanish-American     •   Sanford Dole
  War                  •   Alaska
• Yellow Journalism    •   Seward
• Weyler               •   Roosevelt Corollary
• William R. Hearst    •   Monroe Doctrine
• Rough Riders         •   Big Stick Diplomacy
• San Juan Hill        •   Dollar Diplomacy
• Admiral Dewey        •   Moral Diplomacy
• Philippines
• Hawaii
• Queen Lilioukalani
• What were the areas outside of the continguous
  US in which the country expanded during the
  period from 1867-1914?
• Map
Outline Map of Expansion
Motivations for Expansion
•   The Whiteman’s Burden
•   Social Darwinism
•   Josiah Strong
•   Albert J. Beveridge
      Areas of Expansion and Issues

•   Alaska
•   Hawaii
•   Cuba
•   Puerto Rico
                           Spanish-American War
•   Philippines
•   China                 Philippine American War

•   Panama--website
•   Mexico
Meat Scandal—Spanish American
• Of the more than 274,000 officers and men who
  served in the army during the Spanish-
  American War and the period of demobilization,
  5,462 died in the various theaters of operation and
  camps in the U.S. Only 379 of the deaths were
  battle casualties, the remainder being attributed
  to disease and other causes.
• An army inspector tested Armour meat sent to
  the army and found 751 cases containing rotten
  meat. Thousands of soldiers got food poisoning.
  There are no figures on how many of the 5,000
  noncombat deaths were caused by that. (Page
World War I
• Causes
  • Long term
  • Immediate
• US entrance
  • Reasons
  • Mobility
• War Concepts
  • Trench Warfare
  • UBoats
  • Propaganda
• Peace
US mobilization

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