Yarn Presentation - Fashion Desi

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                      YARN HISTORY
•   Natural fibers—cotton, flax, silk, and wool—represent the major fibers
    available to ancient civilizations. The earliest known samples of yarn and
    fabric of any kind were found near Robenhausen, Switzerland, where
    bundles of flax fibers and yarns and fragments of plain-weave linen
    fabric, were estimated to be about 7,000 years old.

•   Cotton has also been cultivated and used to make fabrics for at least 7,000
    years. It may have existed in Egypt as early as 12,000 B.C. Fragments of
    cotton fabrics have been found by archeologists in Mexico (from 3500
    B.C.)., in India (3000 B.C.), in Peru (2500 B.C.), and in the southwestern
    United States (500 B.C.). Cotton did not achieve commercial importance in
    Europe until after the colonization of the New World. Silk culture remained
    a specialty of the Chinese from its beginnings (2600 B.C.) until the sixth
    century, when silkworms were first raised in the Byzantine Empire.
•   Synthetic fibers did not appear until much later. The first synthetic, rayon,
    made from cotton or wood fibers, was developed in 1891, but not
    commercially produced until 1911. Almost a half a century later, nylon was
    invented, followed by the various forms of polyester. Synthetic fibers
    reduced the world demand for natural fibers and expanded applications.

•   Until about 1300, yarn was spun on the spindle and whorl. A spindle is a
    rounded stick with tapered ends to which the fibers are attached and
    twisted; a whorl is a weight attached to the spindle that acts as a flywheel to
    keep the spindle rotating. The fibers were pulled by hand from a bundle of
    carded fibers tied to a stick called a distaff. In hand carding, fibers are
    placed between two boards covered with leather, through which protrude
    fine wire hooks that catch the fibers as one board is pulled gently across the
•   The spindle, which hangs from the fibers, twists the fibers as it rotates
    downward, and spins a length of yarn as it pulls away from the fiber bundle.
    When the spindle reaches the floor, the spinner winds the yarn around the
    spindle to secure it and then starts the process again. This is continued until
    all of the fiber is spun or until the spindle is full.

•   A major improvement was the spinning wheel, invented in India between
    500 and 1000 A.D. and first used in Europe during the Middle Ages. A
    horizontally mounted spindle is connected to a large, hand-driven wheel by
    a circular band. The distaff is mounted at one end of the spinning wheel and
    the fiber is fed by hand to the spindle, which turns as the wheel turns. A
    component called the flyer twists the thread just before it is wound on a
    bobbin. The spindle and bobbin are attached to the wheel by separate
    parts, so that the bobbin turns more slowly than does the spindle. Thus,
    thread can be twisted and wound at the same time. About 150 years later,
    the Saxon wheel was introduced. Operated by a foot pedal, the Saxon
    wheel allowed both hands the freedom to work the fibers.
•   A number of developments during the eighteenth century further
    mechanized the spinning process. In 1733, the flying shuttle was
    invented by John Kay, followed by Hargreaves' spinning jenny in 1766.
    The jenny featured a series of spindles set in a row, enabling one operator
    to produce large quantities of yarn. Several years later Richard Arkwright
    patented the spinning frame, a machine that used a series of rotating rollers
    to draw out the fibers. A decade later Samule Cromptons' mule machine
    was invented, which could spin any type of yarn in one continuous

•   The ring frame was invented in 1828 by the American John Thorp and
    is still widely used today. This system involves hundreds of spindles
    mounted vertically inside a metal ring. Many natural fibers are now spun by
    the open-end system, where the fibers are drawn by air into a rapidly
    rotating cup and pulled out on the other side as a finished yarn.
                      THE FUTURE
• Spinning systems and yarn manufacturing machinery will continue
  to become more automated and will be integrated as part of a
  manufacturing unit rather than as a separate process. Spinning
  machines have already been developed that combine carding and
  drawing functions. Production rates will increase by orders of
  magnitude as machines become available with even more spindles.
  Robot-controlled equipment will become standard.
• Asian countries will continue to buy the latest textile machinery
  technology. Higher material prices will not help, since the cost of the
  raw material can represent up to 73% of the total cost of producing
  the yarn. U.S. yarn producers will continue to form alliances with
  their customers and customers' customers to remain competitive.
• The textile industry is also forming unique partnerships. The
  American Textile Partnership is a collaborative research and
  development program among industry, government, and academia
  aimed at strengthening the competitiveness of the U.S. industry.
• Another continuing challenge for the industry will be compliance with
  stricter environmental regulations. Recycling is already an issue and
  processes are under development to manufacture yarn from scrap
  material, including denim. Yarn producers will have to incorporate
  pollution prevention measures to meet the air and water quality
  restrictions. Equipment manufactures will continue to play an
  important role in this endeavor.
• Genetic engineering will become more widely used for developing
  fibers with unique properties. Researchers have developed
  genetically-altered cotton plants, whose fibers are especially good at
  retaining warmth. Each fiber is a blend of normal cotton and small
  amounts of a natural plastic called polyhydroxybutyrate. It is
  predicted that dye-binding properties and greater stability will be
  possible with new fibers in the next generation.
• New synthetic fibers will also be developed that combine the best
  qualities of two different polymers. Some of these fibers will be
  produced through a chemical process, whereas others will be
  generated biologically by using yeast, bacteria, or fungi.
                    HAND SPINNING
•   The origins of spinning fibre to make string or yarn are lost in time, but
    archaeological evidence has been dated to the Upper Palaeolithic era,
    some 20,000 years ago.
•   In the most primitive type of spinning, tufts of animal hair or plant fibre
    are rolled down the thigh with the hand, and additional tufts are added as
    needed until the desired length of spun fibre was achieved.
•   Later, the fibre was fastened to a stone which was twirled round until
    the yarn was sufficiently twisted, whereupon it was wound upon the
    stone and the process repeated over and over.
•   The next method of twisting yarn in 1300 A.D. was with the spindle, a
    straight stick eight to twelve inches long on which the thread was wound
    after twisting.
•   The distaff was used for holding the bunch of wool, flax, or other fibres. It
    was a short stick on one end of which was loosely wound the raw material.
•   The other end of the distaff was held in the hand, under the arm or thrust in
    the girdle of the spinner. When held thus, one hand was left free for drawing
    out the fibres.
A spindle with distaff.   Mechanism of a spindle.
•   A spindle containing a quantity of yarn rotates more easily, steadily and
    continues longer than an empty one, hence the next improvement was the
    addition of a weight called a spindle whorl at the bottom of the spindle.
•   These whorls are discs of wood, stone, clay, or metal with a hole in the
    center for the spindle, which keep the spindle steady and promote its
    rotation. Spindle whorls appeared in the Neolithic era.

            Whorl made from Coptic in the             Whorl made from wood in
                   Egyptian era.                          the recent time.
Reine Berthe instructing girls to spin flax on spindles using distaffs.
A Tibetan spinning wool on a spindle in 1905.
A hand spinner using the short draw technique to spin wool.
         •   Developed in India around 500
             B.C., the great wheel was used
             for spinning until about 200
             years ago, when it was largely
             replaced by industrial machines.
         •   The wheel creates fine, even
             yarn by maintaining consistent
             tension and good speed.
         •   The thread which turns the
             spindle is called the drive band;
             as the wheel turns, the wool is
             drawn into thread, then twisted
             and wound by the bobbin.
         •   About 150 years later, the
             Saxon wheel was introduced.
         •   Operated by a foot pedal, the
             Saxon wheel allowed both
             hands the freedom to work the
           •   The Spinning Jenny was
               invented in 1764 by
               J. Hargreaves.

           •   Spinning Jenny is a
               machine that spins a
               number of threads at
               once. It initiated the
               industrial revolution.
            •   Introduced by Richard
                Arkwright in 1769, the flyer
                spinning frame (also called the
                throstle or roll-drawing
                machine) reflects the move
                toward automation that
                characterized the Industrial
            •   The machine is powered by the
                drive wheel at the bottom,
                drawing out the fibre into thread,
                then twisting it as it is wound
                onto the bobbins.
       •   Since the spinning frame
           was too large to be
           operated by hand, it was
           powered by a waterwheel
           which became the water
        •    Samuel Crompton(1753-1827),
            British inventor, invented the
            spinning mule, a machine that
            was able to spin cotton into
            thread finer and faster than was
            possible with hand spinning.
        •   Crompton completed the
            machine in 1779, after five years
            of working secretly at night.
        •   The spinning mule
            simultaneously drew, twisted,
            and wound cotton into a fine yarn
            and decreased the danger of
        •   The thread that the mule
            produced was fine enough to be
            used for smooth fabrics such as
        •   The ring frame was invented
            in 1828 by the American
            John Thorp and is still widely
            used today.
        •   This system involves
            hundreds of spindles
            mounted vertically inside a
            metal ring.
        •    Many natural fibers are now
            spun by the open-end
            system, where the fibers are
            drawn by air into a rapidly
            rotating cup and pulled out on
            the other side as a finished
A recent version of ring spinning frame.
A mule spinning machine at Quarry Bank Mill, UK.
Parkdale, one of the leading yarn producers in the world has
installed the longest rotor-spinning machine in the world.
Air jet spinning machine
                         THE FUTURE
•   Modern powered spinning, originally done by water or steam power but
    now done by electricity, is vastly faster than hand-spinning.

•   The ring spinning will continue to be the most widely used form of spinning
    machine in the near future, because it exhibits significant advantages in
    comparison with the new spinning processes.

•   Following are the advantages of ring spinning frame :
     1. It is universally applicable, i.e. any material can be spun to any required
     2. It delivers a material with optimum characteristics, especially with
         regard to structure and strength.
     3. it is simple and easy to master
     4. the know-how is well established and accessible for everyone
•   Crespis leon doro
•   Merini and cecconi
•   Carriagi
•   Filpucci
•   Tod and duncan
•   Lafil
•   Spoerri
•   Zegna baruffa
•   Sisa
•   Pinori
            FORECAST 2000/2001

Bulky Protection.   Compact.   Rib Relief.
Light Volume.   Brushed and Fluffy.   Shag Pile.
Winter Light Effects.   Aged Metallics.
               FORECAST 2002/2003
•   Lots of natural yarns: Cashmere, angora and kid mohair for their softness, ultra-
    fine wools for their lightness, silk for its elegance, artificial yarns for their fluidity
    and cotton for its comfort.
•   Boiled wools: Luxury becomes unobtrusive, decidedly modern and innovative,
    and most of all, comfortable.
•   Flannels: The comfort and simplicity of flannels, reinterpreted in natural fibers
    and carded wool.
•   Mohair Lace: A sophisticated lingerie spirit with webbing and lace knits in kid
•   Woolly Clouds Cashmere: Baby camel and ultra fine wool for sensual knits and
    wovens that are imperceptible to touch.
•   Lofty Cotton: Winter cottons in round and satiny yarns that are often extremely
•   Satins: Elegance and fluidity, but also relaxation and comfort in silk and silk blends
    with artificial fibers or synthetic microfibers.
•   Kaleidoscopic Wool: Tweeds get provocative, eccentric and even come in mosaic
    or kaleidoscopic appearance
Used, Blurred, Brushed and Teddy.
   Maxi Knops.      Soft and Felted.     Soft and Hairy.

Camouflage Tweed.    Winter Linen.     Teddy Fur and Gold.
                     FORECAST 2004
                 ―WOOL IN FAVOR AGAIN‖
•   Wools come in soft, blurry with Mohair or Donegal yarns, in Chine looks and
    boiled and felted effects.
•   They can also be very fine and smooth in superfine worsteds or in fine smooth
    yarns for fine jersey.
•   After an absence of some years, The Woolmark Company exhibited once again at
    Première Vision, as part of the wool industry’s new marketing drive to bring wool
    back into the market, particularly for womenswear.
               INSPIRATION 2006
              FORECAST 2006
               ―ANIMAL FIBRES‖
• Spinning of cashmere with extra fine counts and
  blended with cotton.
• Swiss had technical approach to make cotton
  blended with regenerated bamboo fiber to make fine
• Smooth, shiny and non shrinking wool yarn
• Zegna baruffa introduced Luxury fiber cashgora with
• Carriagi fine yarns produced extremely fine cashmere
  yarns for leisure wear.
                   FORECAST 2007
                  FORECAST 2007

• Wool, linen, hemp, cotton and silk are combined with viscose,
  polyamide or polyester to obtain subtle difference in appearance
  and hand, often difficult to classify.
• Raffia look yarns combined with cotton or linen to give textured
• Bomb blast protection fabrics: Heathcoat’s award wining fabric- it is
  made from the prototype auxetic yarn with an elastic core so as the
  yarn is stretched for instance on blast impact the yarn gets fatter
  rather than thinner. It works because the core yarn is able to expand
  as the outer tight wrapping of very fine non-elastic fibre is ripped of
  on the glass.
• Development of high quality luxury yarns for knitwear using
  innovative technologies.
• Advanced spinning techniques helped synthetic blends like core
  spun high bulk acrylic blends are bulky but very light and feel
  absolutely like the fibre that the acrylic is blended with, whether
  wool, cotton, mohair (because the acrylic will shrink allowing the
  natural fibre to bulk up on the outside core).
• Research and experimentation in spinning and twisting of yarns.
• Fabrics are compact and dense made with fine high twist yarns
  which create natural stretch.
• Luigi botto has its own technique for creating natural stretch –’4XT’
  technology which twists 4 ends together in a high twist, this season
  the technique is used in fabrics made from wool-linen, wool-
  viscose-silk and wool-silk blends.
• Milior has introduced a new world of cottons with its incanto cotton
  yarns which creates extremely even glossy fabrics which is lustrous
  and soft.
fine guage linen and matt bamboo shine
Ultra light ,fringed, dense, random boucle, plaited…winter 2007
• timeless classic and inject new technical developments, rework,
  heather yarns, tweedy effects and new eco-organic blends also
  winter cotton blends and a hint of cashmere luxury.
• Luxury effect.
                   FORECAST 2008
                    FORECAST 2008
                         “ECO YARNS”
•   Use of luxury yarns like Cashmere for all seasons.
•   Specialty spinners for market of luxury yarns.
•   Carriaggi fine yarns are Italian spinners of fine luxury yarns: cashmere
    and vicuna for knitwear.
•   High quality maintenance through modern machinery
•   For spring, cashmere spun in extra fine count and mixed with cotton,
    providing softness while remaining cool.
•   Tod and duncan produced extremely fine woollen spun cashmere
    yarn for spring.
•   Luxury cotton yarns are also keeping the market at the high end,
    spinner Lafil stresses luxury with rich extra long staples.
•   Types of luxury cotton: Peruvian cotton- softest and most precious of
    haute couture cottons with a natural comfort which suits the skin, finess
    being the key, in the very thickest of light cotton yarns and
    contemporary effects which include cotton with steel or copper.
• “Swiss cotton” spinner Spoerry , which spins extremely fine
  counts of ELS cotton, has developed luxury blends of cotton with
  cashmere, baby alpaca, silk and even vicuna, all fine and light
• Organic cotton- blended by swiss cotton spinner Herman Buhler,
  making luxury fine organic ELS cotton yarns grown in US.
• For winter, European producer Lafil developed an unusual new yarn
  from a blend of alpaca and linen which is called Irish alpaca, it
  plays contrasts to both fibres. It is offered for both woven and
  knitwear fabrics.
• Arcana wool- developed by Australian wool service and Michel
• Silklite is a blend of merino arcana with 20 % silk and
  characterized by a soft and smooth silky hand easy to wear next to
  the skin, gives elegant drape and good colour brightness.
•   Revival of ancient dyeing techniques and extraordinary products based
    on recycling.
•   The eco-emphasis and trend to lighter finer and softer have been strong
    drivers for change.
•   Australian wool innovation was focusing at the fair on its prestege grand
    cru collection titled fifteen and finer which showcased merino yarns
    classified 15 microns and finer.
•   Filpucci launched a new blow wool yarn range made from a new
    patented process to make light weight voluminous yarn.
•   Filpucci, Sisa and Pinori blended alpaca wool yarns with various
    yarns for the year
•   Zegna Baruffa has yarns from baby lama with a touch as soft as
    cashmere but also light and durable, as well as luxurious camel hair
•   Italian company Indus in its 3RD System collection of yarns based
    around either ceremic or silver. They are designed to offer exceptional
    thermal insulation at low temperatures and to generate perfect heat
    regulation keeping body at ideal temperature in every climate condition.
•   Thermal insulating is an innovative yarn composed of 100% ceremic
    polyester which insulates from the cold.
• Dry yarn- the ultra light, high performance poly-propelene micro
  fibre, made by italian aquafil, with idea properties for athletes.
• Advansa has launched a new thermo regulating yarn, this new yarn
  is a hybrid polyester fibre mix which allows the garment to adapt to
  the needs of the wearer providing coolin or warming functions as
•   TEXTILE VIEW: 2000- 2008
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