YARN F RECAST
MRS. MANJU HUNDEKAR
• YARN HISTORY
• SPINNING HISTORY
• SPINNING MACHINES
• YARN FORECAST
• Natural fibers—cotton, flax, silk, and wool—represent the major fibers
available to ancient civilizations. The earliest known samples of yarn and
fabric of any kind were found near Robenhausen, Switzerland, where
bundles of flax fibers and yarns and fragments of plain-weave linen
fabric, were estimated to be about 7,000 years old.
• Cotton has also been cultivated and used to make fabrics for at least 7,000
years. It may have existed in Egypt as early as 12,000 B.C. Fragments of
cotton fabrics have been found by archeologists in Mexico (from 3500
B.C.)., in India (3000 B.C.), in Peru (2500 B.C.), and in the southwestern
United States (500 B.C.). Cotton did not achieve commercial importance in
Europe until after the colonization of the New World. Silk culture remained
a specialty of the Chinese from its beginnings (2600 B.C.) until the sixth
century, when silkworms were first raised in the Byzantine Empire.
• Synthetic fibers did not appear until much later. The first synthetic, rayon,
made from cotton or wood fibers, was developed in 1891, but not
commercially produced until 1911. Almost a half a century later, nylon was
invented, followed by the various forms of polyester. Synthetic fibers
reduced the world demand for natural fibers and expanded applications.
• Until about 1300, yarn was spun on the spindle and whorl. A spindle is a
rounded stick with tapered ends to which the fibers are attached and
twisted; a whorl is a weight attached to the spindle that acts as a flywheel to
keep the spindle rotating. The fibers were pulled by hand from a bundle of
carded fibers tied to a stick called a distaff. In hand carding, fibers are
placed between two boards covered with leather, through which protrude
fine wire hooks that catch the fibers as one board is pulled gently across the
• The spindle, which hangs from the fibers, twists the fibers as it rotates
downward, and spins a length of yarn as it pulls away from the fiber bundle.
When the spindle reaches the floor, the spinner winds the yarn around the
spindle to secure it and then starts the process again. This is continued until
all of the fiber is spun or until the spindle is full.
• A major improvement was the spinning wheel, invented in India between
500 and 1000 A.D. and first used in Europe during the Middle Ages. A
horizontally mounted spindle is connected to a large, hand-driven wheel by
a circular band. The distaff is mounted at one end of the spinning wheel and
the fiber is fed by hand to the spindle, which turns as the wheel turns. A
component called the flyer twists the thread just before it is wound on a
bobbin. The spindle and bobbin are attached to the wheel by separate
parts, so that the bobbin turns more slowly than does the spindle. Thus,
thread can be twisted and wound at the same time. About 150 years later,
the Saxon wheel was introduced. Operated by a foot pedal, the Saxon
wheel allowed both hands the freedom to work the fibers.
• A number of developments during the eighteenth century further
mechanized the spinning process. In 1733, the flying shuttle was
invented by John Kay, followed by Hargreaves' spinning jenny in 1766.
The jenny featured a series of spindles set in a row, enabling one operator
to produce large quantities of yarn. Several years later Richard Arkwright
patented the spinning frame, a machine that used a series of rotating rollers
to draw out the fibers. A decade later Samule Cromptons' mule machine
was invented, which could spin any type of yarn in one continuous
• The ring frame was invented in 1828 by the American John Thorp and
is still widely used today. This system involves hundreds of spindles
mounted vertically inside a metal ring. Many natural fibers are now spun by
the open-end system, where the fibers are drawn by air into a rapidly
rotating cup and pulled out on the other side as a finished yarn.
• Spinning systems and yarn manufacturing machinery will continue
to become more automated and will be integrated as part of a
manufacturing unit rather than as a separate process. Spinning
machines have already been developed that combine carding and
drawing functions. Production rates will increase by orders of
magnitude as machines become available with even more spindles.
Robot-controlled equipment will become standard.
• Asian countries will continue to buy the latest textile machinery
technology. Higher material prices will not help, since the cost of the
raw material can represent up to 73% of the total cost of producing
the yarn. U.S. yarn producers will continue to form alliances with
their customers and customers' customers to remain competitive.
• The textile industry is also forming unique partnerships. The
American Textile Partnership is a collaborative research and
development program among industry, government, and academia
aimed at strengthening the competitiveness of the U.S. industry.
• Another continuing challenge for the industry will be compliance with
stricter environmental regulations. Recycling is already an issue and
processes are under development to manufacture yarn from scrap
material, including denim. Yarn producers will have to incorporate
pollution prevention measures to meet the air and water quality
restrictions. Equipment manufactures will continue to play an
important role in this endeavor.
• Genetic engineering will become more widely used for developing
fibers with unique properties. Researchers have developed
genetically-altered cotton plants, whose fibers are especially good at
retaining warmth. Each fiber is a blend of normal cotton and small
amounts of a natural plastic called polyhydroxybutyrate. It is
predicted that dye-binding properties and greater stability will be
possible with new fibers in the next generation.
• New synthetic fibers will also be developed that combine the best
qualities of two different polymers. Some of these fibers will be
produced through a chemical process, whereas others will be
generated biologically by using yeast, bacteria, or fungi.
• The origins of spinning fibre to make string or yarn are lost in time, but
archaeological evidence has been dated to the Upper Palaeolithic era,
some 20,000 years ago.
• In the most primitive type of spinning, tufts of animal hair or plant fibre
are rolled down the thigh with the hand, and additional tufts are added as
needed until the desired length of spun fibre was achieved.
• Later, the fibre was fastened to a stone which was twirled round until
the yarn was sufficiently twisted, whereupon it was wound upon the
stone and the process repeated over and over.
• The next method of twisting yarn in 1300 A.D. was with the spindle, a
straight stick eight to twelve inches long on which the thread was wound
• The distaff was used for holding the bunch of wool, flax, or other fibres. It
was a short stick on one end of which was loosely wound the raw material.
• The other end of the distaff was held in the hand, under the arm or thrust in
the girdle of the spinner. When held thus, one hand was left free for drawing
out the fibres.
A spindle with distaff. Mechanism of a spindle.
• A spindle containing a quantity of yarn rotates more easily, steadily and
continues longer than an empty one, hence the next improvement was the
addition of a weight called a spindle whorl at the bottom of the spindle.
• These whorls are discs of wood, stone, clay, or metal with a hole in the
center for the spindle, which keep the spindle steady and promote its
rotation. Spindle whorls appeared in the Neolithic era.
Whorl made from Coptic in the Whorl made from wood in
Egyptian era. the recent time.
Reine Berthe instructing girls to spin flax on spindles using distaffs.
A Tibetan spinning wool on a spindle in 1905.
A hand spinner using the short draw technique to spin wool.
• Developed in India around 500
B.C., the great wheel was used
for spinning until about 200
years ago, when it was largely
replaced by industrial machines.
• The wheel creates fine, even
yarn by maintaining consistent
tension and good speed.
• The thread which turns the
spindle is called the drive band;
as the wheel turns, the wool is
drawn into thread, then twisted
and wound by the bobbin.
• About 150 years later, the
Saxon wheel was introduced.
• Operated by a foot pedal, the
Saxon wheel allowed both
hands the freedom to work the
• The Spinning Jenny was
invented in 1764 by
• Spinning Jenny is a
machine that spins a
number of threads at
once. It initiated the
FLYER SPINNING FRAME
• Introduced by Richard
Arkwright in 1769, the flyer
spinning frame (also called the
throstle or roll-drawing
machine) reflects the move
toward automation that
characterized the Industrial
• The machine is powered by the
drive wheel at the bottom,
drawing out the fibre into thread,
then twisting it as it is wound
onto the bobbins.
• Since the spinning frame
was too large to be
operated by hand, it was
powered by a waterwheel
which became the water
• Samuel Crompton(1753-1827),
British inventor, invented the
spinning mule, a machine that
was able to spin cotton into
thread finer and faster than was
possible with hand spinning.
• Crompton completed the
machine in 1779, after five years
of working secretly at night.
• The spinning mule
simultaneously drew, twisted,
and wound cotton into a fine yarn
and decreased the danger of
• The thread that the mule
produced was fine enough to be
used for smooth fabrics such as
• The ring frame was invented
in 1828 by the American
John Thorp and is still widely
• This system involves
hundreds of spindles
mounted vertically inside a
• Many natural fibers are now
spun by the open-end
system, where the fibers are
drawn by air into a rapidly
rotating cup and pulled out on
the other side as a finished
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN
A recent version of ring spinning frame.
A mule spinning machine at Quarry Bank Mill, UK.
Parkdale, one of the leading yarn producers in the world has
installed the longest rotor-spinning machine in the world.
Air jet spinning machine
• Modern powered spinning, originally done by water or steam power but
now done by electricity, is vastly faster than hand-spinning.
• The ring spinning will continue to be the most widely used form of spinning
machine in the near future, because it exhibits significant advantages in
comparison with the new spinning processes.
• Following are the advantages of ring spinning frame :
1. It is universally applicable, i.e. any material can be spun to any required
2. It delivers a material with optimum characteristics, especially with
regard to structure and strength.
3. it is simple and easy to master
4. the know-how is well established and accessible for everyone
• Crespis leon doro
• Merini and cecconi
• Tod and duncan
• Zegna baruffa
Bulky Protection. Compact. Rib Relief.
Light Volume. Brushed and Fluffy. Shag Pile.
Winter Light Effects. Aged Metallics.
• Lots of natural yarns: Cashmere, angora and kid mohair for their softness, ultra-
fine wools for their lightness, silk for its elegance, artificial yarns for their fluidity
and cotton for its comfort.
• Boiled wools: Luxury becomes unobtrusive, decidedly modern and innovative,
and most of all, comfortable.
• Flannels: The comfort and simplicity of flannels, reinterpreted in natural fibers
and carded wool.
• Mohair Lace: A sophisticated lingerie spirit with webbing and lace knits in kid
• Woolly Clouds Cashmere: Baby camel and ultra fine wool for sensual knits and
wovens that are imperceptible to touch.
• Lofty Cotton: Winter cottons in round and satiny yarns that are often extremely
• Satins: Elegance and fluidity, but also relaxation and comfort in silk and silk blends
with artificial fibers or synthetic microfibers.
• Kaleidoscopic Wool: Tweeds get provocative, eccentric and even come in mosaic
or kaleidoscopic appearance
Used, Blurred, Brushed and Teddy.
Maxi Knops. Soft and Felted. Soft and Hairy.
Camouflage Tweed. Winter Linen. Teddy Fur and Gold.
―WOOL IN FAVOR AGAIN‖
• Wools come in soft, blurry with Mohair or Donegal yarns, in Chine looks and
boiled and felted effects.
• They can also be very fine and smooth in superfine worsteds or in fine smooth
yarns for fine jersey.
• After an absence of some years, The Woolmark Company exhibited once again at
Première Vision, as part of the wool industry’s new marketing drive to bring wool
back into the market, particularly for womenswear.
YARN INSPIRATION YARNS DESIGNED
• Spinning of cashmere with extra fine counts and
blended with cotton.
• Swiss had technical approach to make cotton
blended with regenerated bamboo fiber to make fine
• Smooth, shiny and non shrinking wool yarn
• Zegna baruffa introduced Luxury fiber cashgora with
• Carriagi fine yarns produced extremely fine cashmere
yarns for leisure wear.
YARN INSPIRATION YARNS DESIGNED
―BLEND OF SYNTHETIC AND NATURAL‖
• Wool, linen, hemp, cotton and silk are combined with viscose,
polyamide or polyester to obtain subtle difference in appearance
and hand, often difficult to classify.
• Raffia look yarns combined with cotton or linen to give textured
• Bomb blast protection fabrics: Heathcoat’s award wining fabric- it is
made from the prototype auxetic yarn with an elastic core so as the
yarn is stretched for instance on blast impact the yarn gets fatter
rather than thinner. It works because the core yarn is able to expand
as the outer tight wrapping of very fine non-elastic fibre is ripped of
on the glass.
• Development of high quality luxury yarns for knitwear using
• Advanced spinning techniques helped synthetic blends like core
spun high bulk acrylic blends are bulky but very light and feel
absolutely like the fibre that the acrylic is blended with, whether
wool, cotton, mohair (because the acrylic will shrink allowing the
natural fibre to bulk up on the outside core).
• Research and experimentation in spinning and twisting of yarns.
• Fabrics are compact and dense made with fine high twist yarns
which create natural stretch.
• Luigi botto has its own technique for creating natural stretch –’4XT’
technology which twists 4 ends together in a high twist, this season
the technique is used in fabrics made from wool-linen, wool-
viscose-silk and wool-silk blends.
• Milior has introduced a new world of cottons with its incanto cotton
yarns which creates extremely even glossy fabrics which is lustrous
fine guage linen and matt bamboo shine
Ultra light ,fringed, dense, random boucle, plaited…winter 2007
YARN INSPIRATION 08-09
• timeless classic and inject new technical developments, rework,
heather yarns, tweedy effects and new eco-organic blends also
winter cotton blends and a hint of cashmere luxury.
• Luxury effect.
YARN INSPIRATION YARNS DESIGNED
• Use of luxury yarns like Cashmere for all seasons.
• Specialty spinners for market of luxury yarns.
• Carriaggi fine yarns are Italian spinners of fine luxury yarns: cashmere
and vicuna for knitwear.
• High quality maintenance through modern machinery
• For spring, cashmere spun in extra fine count and mixed with cotton,
providing softness while remaining cool.
• Tod and duncan produced extremely fine woollen spun cashmere
yarn for spring.
• Luxury cotton yarns are also keeping the market at the high end,
spinner Lafil stresses luxury with rich extra long staples.
• Types of luxury cotton: Peruvian cotton- softest and most precious of
haute couture cottons with a natural comfort which suits the skin, finess
being the key, in the very thickest of light cotton yarns and
contemporary effects which include cotton with steel or copper.
• “Swiss cotton” spinner Spoerry , which spins extremely fine
counts of ELS cotton, has developed luxury blends of cotton with
cashmere, baby alpaca, silk and even vicuna, all fine and light
• Organic cotton- blended by swiss cotton spinner Herman Buhler,
making luxury fine organic ELS cotton yarns grown in US.
• For winter, European producer Lafil developed an unusual new yarn
from a blend of alpaca and linen which is called Irish alpaca, it
plays contrasts to both fibres. It is offered for both woven and
• Arcana wool- developed by Australian wool service and Michel
• Silklite is a blend of merino arcana with 20 % silk and
characterized by a soft and smooth silky hand easy to wear next to
the skin, gives elegant drape and good colour brightness.
• Revival of ancient dyeing techniques and extraordinary products based
• The eco-emphasis and trend to lighter finer and softer have been strong
drivers for change.
• Australian wool innovation was focusing at the fair on its prestege grand
cru collection titled fifteen and finer which showcased merino yarns
classified 15 microns and finer.
• Filpucci launched a new blow wool yarn range made from a new
patented process to make light weight voluminous yarn.
• Filpucci, Sisa and Pinori blended alpaca wool yarns with various
yarns for the year
• Zegna Baruffa has yarns from baby lama with a touch as soft as
cashmere but also light and durable, as well as luxurious camel hair
• Italian company Indus in its 3RD System collection of yarns based
around either ceremic or silver. They are designed to offer exceptional
thermal insulation at low temperatures and to generate perfect heat
regulation keeping body at ideal temperature in every climate condition.
• Thermal insulating is an innovative yarn composed of 100% ceremic
polyester which insulates from the cold.
• Dry yarn- the ultra light, high performance poly-propelene micro
fibre, made by italian aquafil, with idea properties for athletes.
• Advansa has launched a new thermo regulating yarn, this new yarn
is a hybrid polyester fibre mix which allows the garment to adapt to
the needs of the wearer providing coolin or warming functions as
• TEXTILE VIEW: 2000- 2008
• ENCARTA ENCYCLOPAEDIA
• TEXTILE JOURNAL
• SHWETA MUZUMDAR
• SAI PATANKAR
• AMRUTA SHINGTE
• AKSHA THOMBARE