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					Soapisms.Com
Alphabetical List of
Soaping Definitions
Last Updated: Friday, February-26-10




A   B   C    D   E   F   G    H   I    J   K L M N          O    P   Q   R    S   T    U   V    W
                                           X Y Z


A
Absolute
A concentrated alcohol soluble aromatic base. Separated from the fatty acids and waxes in a
concrete using alcohol and vacuum distillation.

Almond Oil
Obtained from the nuts, almond oil is used in skin care preparations as an emollient or as
carrier oil.

Aloe Vera
The juice or gel obtained from the leaves of this plant are used in cosmetics for its soothing and
healing properties.

Anhydrous
A liquid or a compound that does not contain water.

Antioxidant
Prevents or retards the reaction of a substance with oxygen. Inhibits oxidation, the damage
from free radicals.

Apricot Kernel Oil
Derived from the seeds, used in skin care preparations for its moisturizing properties.

Aromatherapy
The use of fragrance or essences from plants to alter a person’s mental or emotional well being.

Aromatic
Having a strong fragrance or odor.
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Ascorbic Acid
Vitamin C.

Astringent
Constricts or tightens the skin, used in facial preparations, also removes oils from the skin.

Avocado Oil
Obtained from the pulp of the fruit, avocado oil is high in unsaponifiables. Used in cosmetics
and skin care preparations for its moisturizing and nourishing properties.

Awapuhi Kuahiwi
Hawaiian wild pinecone ginger or shampoo ginger. The thick, sudsy juice squeezed from the
mature flower heads is used as a shampoo or hair conditioner.

                                                B

Balsam
Aromatic resinous substances containing benzoic and cinnamic acid, such as Balsam of Peru.

Beeswax
Wax obtained from processing the honeycomb. Used in candles, soaps and lip balms.

Biodegradable
Able to be decomposed by biological agents, such as bacteria.

Biopein®
All natural preservative and stabilizing ingredient manufactured from a blend of botanical
extracts.

Borax
Sodium borate, a white crystalline mineral generally used as an emulsifier or cleanser. Used in
cream preparations as an emulsifier.

Botanical
Derived from the seeds, used in skin care preparations for its moisturizing properties.

Botanical Name
The Latin name assigned to distinguish one species from another, the scientific name composed
of the genus followed by the species.

                                                C
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Carrier Oil
A vegetable or nut base oil used to dilute essential oils prior to the application on your skin.


Castile
A region in Spain known for producing olive oil based soaps in the 13th century. A soap with a
large percentage of olive oil is referrer to as a Castile soap.

Castor Bean Oil
Derived from the beans of the plant, castor oil is also used medicinally.

Caustic Potash
See potassium hydroxide.

Caustic Soda
See sodium hydroxide.

Chandler
A dealer of specific goods, a tallow chandler is a maker and seller of candles and soap.

Citric Acid
A natural acidic ingredient extracted from citrus and other acidic fruits such as pineapples.
Used as a flavoring and preservative in foods and beverages; also used in bath products.

Citricidal
See Grapefruit Seed Extract.
Cocoa Butter
Obtained from the cocoa bean, high in unsaponifiables with a chocolate scent.

Coconut Oil
The semisolid fat obtained from the meat of the coconut. Used in soap making, it contributes
hardness and lather.

Cold Kettle
See cold process.

Cold Pressed
The process in which oils are extracted under mechanical pressure at low temperatures,
typically less than 125° Fahrenheit.

Cold Process
A method of soap making without utilizing any external heat source.
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Comedogenic
Tends to aggravate or produce acne.

Concrete
A thick, fragrant material extracted from a botanical base through solvent extraction.
Contains the essential oils, fatty acids and wax from the plant base.

Continuous Process
A modern method of commercial soap making in which saponification takes place under
pressure. Allows for the addition of base ingredients throughout the soap making process.

Copra
The dried flesh or meat from a coconut from which coconut oil is derived.

Cosmeceutical
Used by the cosmetics industry to refer to cosmetic products that have medicinal or drug-like
benefits. This term is not recognized by the FDA.

Cosmetic
Product applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or
altering the appearance without affecting the body’s structure or functions.

Cosmetic Grade
Refers to the approval for use in cosmetics, such as colorants, dyes or fragrance oils which will
come into direct contact with your skin.

CPHP
Crock Pot Hot Process. A method of soap making utilizing the heat from an electric crock pot
during the soap making process.

Cruelty Free
Not tested on animals.

                                                D

DBHP
Double Boiler Hot Process. Hot process soap making using a double boiler to apply heat during
processing.

Decoction
A tea or infusion brewed from hard plant material such as bark and roots.

Deodorize
The process in which odoriferous matter is removed from an oil or fat.
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Detergent
A petroleum based surfactant other than soap. Developed during WWII when soap making oils
were scarce.

DHHP
Direct Heat Hot Process. Hot process soap making utilizing externally applied heat during
processing.

DOS
Dreaded Orange Spots. Small dark orange spots radiating to yellow occurring on the surface
of cold processed soap. The primary cause is thought to be unsaponified oils turning rancid.

DWCP
Discounted Water Cold Process. A cold process method of soap making utilizing a lower
percentage of water in the formula for a stronger lye solution.

                                                 E

Embeds
Used in loaf, tube and column molds. Soap embeds are of a contrasting color and shape such as
moon and stars, curls and ribbons.

Emollient
An additive used to soften or soothe your skin. Cocoa butter or Shea butter are added to
handmade soap as an emollient.

Emu Oil
Refined from the fat of the bird, the oil is used in a variety of cosmetics for it’s skin nourishing
properties.

Emulsifying Wax
Used to combine oils with water when manufacturing lotions and creams.

Emulsion
A stabilized blend of oils and water such as a lotion, the suspension of one liquid within a
second liquid which normally do not mix.

Enfleurage
The process of extracting the aromatic essences from plants using odorless fats to absorb the
oils from flowers. The fat is then dissolved in alcohol to separate the essence from the fat and
distilled to remove the alcohol.
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EO
Essential oil.

Epsom Salt
Hydrated magnesium sulfate. A white crystalline powder used in bath preparations and foot
soaks. Originally obtained from the mineral waters found in Epsom, England.

Essential Oil
Highly concentrated volatile oil extracted from aromatic plants, most commonly through
pressing or steam distillation. Used for fragrance and flavorings.

Exfoliant
An abrasive added to slough off dead skin cells, such as oatmeal or ground cinnamon.



Expeller Pressed
The process in which an oil is extracted from a base by mechanically crushing and pressing the
material at temperatures less than 220° Fahrenheit.

                                           F
FCC
Food Chemicals Codex - The industry standard for listing food grade ingredients.

FD&C
Prefix used to designate the approved use in foods, drugs and cosmetics.

Felting
Encasing a bar of soap in a non-woven fabric made of unspun wool fibers matted together
using heat and water.

Fixative
Used to anchor or stabilize a scent or fragrance, to slow evaporation.

Fixed Oils
The non-volatile oils obtained from botanical bases such as vegetable oils.

Flash Point
The lowest temperature that a liquid can form an ignitable mixture with air (vapor) near the
surface of the liquid.

Floral Water
See hydrosol.
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FO
Fragrance oil.

Formula
A listing of ingredients in fixed proportion, usually expressed in percentages.

Fragrance Free
Contains no added fragrance products. There is no regulated definition for this term, and it is
best to consult the ingredients list as some commercial fragrance free or unscented products
contain a masking fragrance.

Fragrance Oil
Synthetic oils formulated to mimic natural fragrances. Sometimes blended with essential oils.




                                                G

Germaben II
An oil and water soluble anti-microbial preservative used in personal care products.

Glycerin
A triatomic alcohol (glycerol) byproduct created during saponification. Used in food, cosmetics,
soaps and lubricants.

Goat Milk Soap
Cold processed soap made with fresh, previously frozen or powdered goats milk.

Grapefruit Seed Extract
Derived from the seeds and pulp, it used as a preservative in handmade toiletries. It is thought
to have antibiotic, antioxidant and antiseptic properties.

GSE
Grapefruit Seed Extract.

                                                H
Hand Milled Soap
Soap fashioned through rebatching cold processed soap.

Handcrafted Soap
Soap crafted from a ready made soap base using the melt and pour process. Also used to refer
to handmade soap.
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Handmade Soap
Soap fashioned by combining a base oil with an alkali using a variety of traditional methods
including hot and cold processing.

Hemp Seed Oil
Obtained from viable or sterilized seeds, hemp seed oil is high in essential fatty acids that are
easily absorbed by the skin. Contributes moisturizing properties to soaps and cosmetics.

Herb
An aromatic plant used in medicine or as a seasoning that does not produce woody tissue and
usually dies back at the end of the growing season.

Hot Process
A method of soap making utilizing an external heat source to accelerate the saponification
process, such as a crock pot, double boiler or oven.

Humectant
A substance that attracts and holds moisture unto itself, such as glycerin.

Hydrogenation
A chemical process of converting a vegetable oil from a liquid into a solid using hydrogen.

Hydrolat
See hydrosol.

Hydrosol
The condensate water produced during steam distillation of botanical bases when making
essential oils. Used in skin care preparations and bath products. Also known as hydrolat or
floral water.

Hypoallergenic
Unlikely to cause an allergic reaction.

                                            I
INCI Name
International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients.

Infusion
Made by steeping botanicals in oil or water.

Insoluble
Not dissolvable in a liquid, such as water or alcohol.
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Irritant
Causes irritation or inflammation of the skin.

                                              J
Jojoba Oil
Liquid wax obtained from the seeds. Jojoba oil is used in numerous skin care preparations.

                                                 K
Karite Butter
See Shea butter.

Kokum Butter
Also known as Goa Butter. Extracted from the fruit kernels of the Garcinia indica tree, native
to India.

KOH
Potassium Hydroxide.

Kukui Nut Oil
Also known as candle nut oil, it is obtained from the fruit of the tree and used in skin care
preparations. Hawaiians have used kukui nut oil for generations to treat dry skin.

                                                 L

Lanolin
Wool fat. A fatty substance (wax) obtained from wool and used in soaps and cosmetics as a
moisturizer.

Lard
The semi-solid or solid fat rendered from a hog.

Layering
The process of pouring multiple layers of soap, usually of varying colors.

Loofa
The dried fibrous section of the fruit from the plant (Luffa aegyptiaca) used as an exfoliating
sponge. Also spelled loofah or luffa.

Lye
The common name for sodium hydroxide.
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                                             M
Macadamia Nut Oil
Also known as Queensland nut oil, obtained from the nut of the tree. Used as an emollient in
soaps and cosmetics.

Mango Butter
Expeller pressed and refined from the fruit kernels. Used as a base ingredient or as an added
emollient in cosmetics.

Melt & Pour Soap
M&P is a method of handcrafting soap by melting a ready made soap base, adding fragrances
and shaping using molds.

Melting Point
The temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid.

Milling
A process during commercial manufacturing where the soap is blended with fragrance,
colorants and other ingredients using mechanical rollers.

Mineral Oil
A refined synthetic petroleum based oil. Widely used in commercial cosmetics. Mineral oil
creates a barrier and interferes with the skins normal functions. A poor choice for skin care
preparations.

MSDS
Material Safety Data Sheet. Provided by the manufacturer or distributor to define the health,
safety and fire risks associated with products that are considered hazardous.

                                                 N

NaOH
Sodium Hydroxide.

Natural Soap
A soap made from natural ingredients, free from petroleum, chemical or other artificial
ingredients.

Natural Source
Obtained or derived from a natural source such as that from a botanical base.

Neem Oil
Used in skin care preparations for its antiseptic properties. Also used in insect repellents.
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                                            O
OHP
Oven Hot Process; Hot process soap making utilizing an oven to apply heat during processing.

Olfactory
Of or pertaining to the sense of smell.

Olive Oil
Obtained from the fruit of the tree through pressing and solvent extraction, varying grades
of olive oil are available. Used in soap making as it does not interfere with the skins normal
functions.

                                                P

Palm Kernel Oil
Obtained from the kernels of the oil palm.

Palm Oil
Obtained from the pulp of the fruit from the oil palm.

Paraffin
A petroleum based solid wax, used in candles and cosmetics.

Peanut Oil
Obtained from pressing shelled peanut kernels, rich in vitamin E and easily absorbed into the
skin.

Potassium Hydroxide
A caustic white solid, KOH, used in the manufacturing of soft or liquid soaps.

Pumice
A light and porous lava. Used in solid and powdered form as an abrasive.

                                                R
RBD
Refined, Bleached, Deodorized.

Rebatching
The process of liquefying pre-made cold processed soap, adding fragrance and molding. Also
known as hand milling.

Recipe
A list of ingredients in precise quantities with directions for preparing and making your soap.
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Refined
The process of removing impurities from the natural or crude base.

Rendering
The process of heating lard or tallow to a liquid state to remove solids or impurities.

Rosemary Oil Extract
Rosemary Oleoresin is an anti-oxidant used as a preservative in personal care products.

                                                 S

SAP Value
Saponification value. The amount of potassium hydroxide in milligrams required to saponify 1
gram of oil.

Saponaceous
Exhibits the characteristics of, or having the qualities of soap.

Saponification
The process or reaction of combining a base (fat) with an alkali (sodium hydroxide) to produce
a salt (soap) and a free alcohol (glycerin).

Sea Salt
Salt produced by evaporation of sea water either by solar or kiln drying.

Seize
The unexpected thickening and uneven hardening of the soap mixture during processing.
Usually caused when adding synthetic fragrance oils to the mixture.

Shea Butter
Used as a base ingredient or as an emollient in handmade soaps and skin preparations. Has a
high content of unsaponifiables which contribute to its moisturizing properties.

Soap
A simple cleansing agent, the sodium salt resulting from the combination of oils and fats with
an alkali.

Soap Casting
The art of creating handcrafted soaps using melt and pour soap base.

Sodium Bicarbonate
Baking soda. White crystalline powder, used in bath preparations as a water softener.
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Sodium Cocoate
Saponified coconut oil, the sodium salt of coconut oil.

Sodium Hydroxide
A strong alkaline compound, NaOH, used to produce hard or bar soaps.

Sodium Palmate
Saponified palm oil, the sodium salt of palm oil.

Sodium Stearate
Saponified stearic acid, the sodium salt of stearic acid.

Sodium Tallowate
Saponified tallow, the sodium salt of tallow.

Solar Sea Salts
Sun evaporated sea salts from sea water, not mined or mechanically processed. This method
preserves the natural mineral content.

Soluble
Dissolvable in a liquid, as in alcohol or water soluble.

Solvent Extraction
A method of separating oils from their base using a liquid in which the oil is soluble. The oil is
then distilled and the solvent is evaporated leaving the oil.

Soybean Oil
Obtained from soybeans, this is the primary ingredient in vegetable shortening.

Specific Gravity
The ratio of weight of a given volume of a substance relative to the weight of the identical
volume of water.
Steam Distillation
A process in which essential oils are extracted from plant materials using steam and pressure.
The volatile oils are separated from the hydrosol after condensation.

Stearic Acid
Obtained from animal and vegetable fats. Used in soaps, candles and other products.

Sunflower Seed Oil
Obtained from the seeds, sunflower oil contains vitamin E and is used as an emollient.
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Superfatted
The addition of extra oils or butters that remain unsaponified within the finished soap. These
excess oils and butters contribute to the moisturizing properties of the soap.

Surfactant
Surface-active agent. A substance that reduces the surface tension of a liquid in which it is
dissolved, such as a detergent.

Synthetic
Artificially produced, not of natural origin.

                                                T

Tallow
The suet or fat from animals such as sheep or cows.

Tocopherol
Any of the four forms (alpha-, beta-, delta- or gamma-) of Vitamin E, an antioxidant added
to soaps and lotions as an emollient due to its moisturizing properties. Alpha-tocopherol has
greatest amount of vitamin E.

Trace
A point in soap making where the mixture reaches a certain consistency or thickness most
noticeable when the soap is drizzled upon itself and leaves a trail before disappearing back into
the mixture.

Turbinado Sugar
Unrefined raw cane sugar, used in sugar scrubs and body polishes.


                                                U

Unrefined
The natural unaltered base, such as the oil obtained from the first pressing.


Unsaponifiables
Components that do not react with sodium hydroxide during saponification and remain
in their original state. These components contribute moisturizing or other skin nourishing
properties to the finished soap.

Unscented
Contains no added fragrance. See Fragrance Free.
                                                 V

Vegetable Shortening
A solid fat made from vegetable oils. These oils are converted to a solid state through
hydrogenation.

Viscosity
The resistance to flow of a liquid or semi-liquid.

Volatile Oils
Oils that evaporate or vaporize easily at room temperatures such as essential oils.

                                                W

Water Soluble
Dissolvable in water.

Wildcrafted
Refers to herbs and botanicals grown in the wild without the use of pesticides or other
chemicals.

                                               X
Xanathan Gum
A derivative of corn sugar used as a thickening agent in cosmetics and foods.


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This list provided by www.soapisms.com and has been gathered from a number of
online dictionary and other cosmetic information sources.

For information on the Food & Drug Act and Cosmetic Regulations (Canada),
please visit their website.

and the FDA U.S. Drug Administraion for Regulations regarding Cosmetics in the
U.S.

				
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