Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out

Top 105 Physical Science Concepts

VIEWS: 75 PAGES: 107

									Top 105 Physical
Science Concepts
                    Questions
1    11   21   31   41   51   61   71   81   91    101
2    12   22   32   42   52   62   72   82   92    102
3    13   23   33   43   53   63   73   83   93    103
4    14   24   34   44   54   64   74   84   94    104
5    15   25   35   45   55   65   75   85   95    105
6    16   26   36   46   56   66   76   86   96
7    17   27   37   47   57   67   77   87   97
8    18   28   38   48   58   68   78   88   98
9    19   29   39   49   59   69   79   89   99
10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90   100
                  1
  Identify a use the scientific
Scientists oftenProblem
 method to solve problems. List the
  Make a Hypothesis
 steps of the scientific method.
  Conduct an Experiment
  Make Observations
  Draw Conclusions
             2
A __________ is an
educated guess about what
         Hypothesis
will occur in an experiment.
              3
The_______ variable is the variable
that is changed or manipulated by the
experimenter. There should only be
one of these variables.

       Independent
            4

This variable changes as a
result of changes made to
the independent variable.


       Dependent
               5
_____ variables are variables
which must be held constant
during an experiment to ensure
that there is only one
independent variable affecting
the results of the experiment

          Controlled
               6


A ___ ___ provides a basis for
  comparison in an experiment.


       control group
                7
For a line graph the ______
variable is place on the x axis
(horizontal) and the _____ variable
is placed on the y axis (vertical).

independent, dependent
                    8

 When we describe an environment
based on our five senses, it is called
an _________. When we bring our
past experience into making a
judgment based on an observation, it
is an ____.

observation, inference
                  9

 The ______ of an object refers to
the amount of matter in an object.
 Its unit is the _______.
 It is measured with a __________.



 mass, gram, balance
               10

The ______ of an object refers
to the amount of space an object
occupies. The SI unit is ______.


      volume, liters
                11

The ____ of an object refers to
the pull of gravity on an object.
The SI unit is the_______. It is
measured with a ______.



weight, Newton, scale
              12
The _________ of an object
refers to the average kinetic
energy of the particles in the
object. The SI unit is ____.
It is measured with a _____.
temperature, Kelvin,
thermometer
               13

  The kinetic theory of
  matter states that
  ___________________.

All matter is made up of tiny
particles that are constantly
moving
           14
  ________ is a physical
property that measures how
tightly the particles are
packed together in a
substance.

      Density
             15

Density can be calculated
by dividing the ____ of an
object by it’s ______.


    mass, volume
                 16
               A. Electrically charged
                  particles act much like a
  1. Solid        gas.
               B. Particles packed closely
  2. Liquid       together and vibrate back
                  and forth.
  3. Gas       C. Particles are far apart
                  and are moving very
  4. Plasma       quickly.
               D. Particles are not as close
                  together and free to move
                  around.

1. B   2. D   3. C     4. A
                  17
 The process of changing a solid to a
 liquid is called____. The energy
 required to do this is called the
 _______________. This same
 amount of heat must be removed to
 change a liquid to a solid. This
 process is called _______.

melting, heat of fusion, freezing
                   18
The process of changing a liquid to a
 gas is called____. The energy
 required to do this is called the
 _______________. This same
 amount of heat must be removed to
 change a gas to a liquid. This
 process is called _______.
evaporation, heat of
vaporization, condensation
              19

The direct change of a
solid to a gas is _____.



Sublimation
                       20
  When energy is added to a material, but
 not enough to cause a phase change, the
 particles still move faster and move slightly
 farther apart. This is called ____ _____.
 This also causes a decrease in _____
 because the particles are not packed
 together as tightly.

thermal expansion, density
             21
The temperature at which all
particle motion would stop is
called _____ ____.
       absolute zero
            22
The ______ ____ of a
substance measures how much
energy must be added to
cause the substance’s
temperature to increase.

     specific heat
             23
  Matter is made up of tiny
  particles called atoms. The
  sub-atomic particles of
  atoms are ____, _____ and
  _____.
Protons, neutrons and electrons
               24
 Protons are _____ charged
 particles found in the ____ of
 an atom, with a mass of
 approximately ______.

Positively, nucleus, 1 atomic
mass unit (amu)
              25

 Neutrons are ____ charged
 particles found in the ____
 of an atom, with a mass of
 approximately ________.

neutrally, nucleus, 1
atomic mass unit (amu)
               26
 Electrons are _____ charged
 particles found in the ____ of
 an atom. It has a mass of
 approximately___.

Negatively, electron cloud, 0
              27
_____ are substances made
up of only 1 type of atom.
_____ are substances made
up of 2 or more types of
atoms that have chemically
combined.

Elements, Compounds
                   28
 Each element is assigned a 1-3 letter
symbol. The first letter of each symbol is
always ______. The symbols are used to
write formulas for compounds, with ____
indicating the number of atoms of each
type of element found in the compound.


Capitalized, subscripts
           29
 The number of ____ found
in an atom is called the
atomic number. Each
element has a ___ atomic
number.
      Protons, unique
              30
The mass number of an atom
refers to the total number of
____ and ___ in an atom.
Atoms of the same element
with different mass numbers
are called ___.
Protons, neutrons, isotopes
               31

 A(n) _____ is an atom with a
positive or negative charge.


         ion
             32
The elements are arranged on
the periodic table in order of
ascending _________.



   Atomic number
           33
Each row on the periodic
table is called a ____.
         Period
             34
Each column on the periodic
table is called a ___; these
elements usually have ___
properties.

   group, similar
               35

 Metals are found on the ___
side of the periodic table;
non metals on the ____ side ;
and metalloids are found along
the ____.
  Left, right, stair step
                36

Atoms combine with other atoms to
become chemically ____, following
the ___ rule which states that the
outer electron level needs to have
eight electrons to fill the outer shell.


       Stable, octet
                 37
The _____ are group 18 on the
periodic table. These atoms are
already stable, and thus will/will not
combine with other atoms to create
compounds.
noble gases, will not
             38

When an atom gains or loses
electrons to become chemically
stable, it becomes an ion and will
likely form an ___ bond with one
or more atoms of the opposite
charge.
             ionic
                 39

 When an atom shares electrons to
become chemically stable, it forms a
___ bond with the other atoms.

          covalent
           40
 A ____ compound is a
compound made up of just 2
elements. A ____ compound
contains more than 2
elements.
  Binary, polyatomic
                    41
Write the name for (?binary compound?)
 and the formula for (?binary compound?).



       Period
        table
               42
 An ______ is a number that
determines how an element will
combine with other elements in a
compound. It is often the charge
of the element when it is
chemically stable.

        Oxidation number
                     43
Write the name for (?polyatomic compound?)
 and the formula for (?polyatomic
 compound?).




       Period
        table
                      44
 A ______ ____ occurs when atoms recombine
   to form new compounds, molecules or atoms.
   The mass of the products of the reaction
   must equal the mass of the reactants to
   satisfy the law of _______ __ _______.


Chemical reaction,
conservation of mass
                        45
 A _______ ______ is a shorthand way to
   write a chemical reaction. _______ are used
   to balance the chemical equation so that the
   numbers of atoms of each element are the
   same on both sides of the equation to show
   that the law of conservation of mass is being
   satisfied.

Chemical equation, Coefficients
                        46

In a synthesis reaction, an element and
  compound react to create ___ product(s).
  In a __________ reaction, one reactant
  breaks down to form two or more products.




 one, decomposition
                   47
In a ____ _______ reaction, an
  element and compound react, creating
  a new compound and a new single
  element. In a ________ _________
  reaction, two compounds react,
  creating two new compounds

Single replacement, double replacement
                 48

__ is a measure of the acidity of a
solution using the numbers from_ to _
with _ representing a neutral solution
such as pure water.



      pH, 0, 14, 7
              49
A _____ is a chemical that
 changes colors depending on the
 pH of a solution, allowing you
 to determine if the solution is
 an acid or base.

  indicator
                    50
 An acid is a compound that produces
 _______ ions when placed in a solution.
 It has a pH __   (range).   Acids are corrosive,
 electrolytes, usually taste _____.



Hydrogen, less than 7, sour
                       51
A base is a compound that produces
 _____ ions when placed in a solution.
 It has a pH _______(range). Bases
 are corrosive electrolytes, and usually
 tastes _____ and feel ______.


   Hydroxide, greater than 7,bitter, slippery
                52
A neutralization reaction is a
 chemical reaction between an acid
 and a base, creating a ____ and
 ____.

             salt, water
                53

Electricity involves the movement
 of ______.


          electrons
             54
Electrons move from areas of
______electrons to areas with
__ electrons.

         lots, few
               55
  T/F Lighting is the movement of
many electrons from an area with
lots of electrons to an area with
few electrons

            true
              56
T/F When you rub two objects
together, one object will lose
some electrons and the other
will gain some electrons.
          true
              57


______ is when you make an
object become charged just by
bringing another charged object
near (not touching) the object.

      induction
           58
 Electrons can move through some
materials called _____ much
easier than through other
materials called______.

   conductors, insulators
            59
Opposite charges ____ to
one another; like charges
_____ one another.

     attract, repel
               60

The ______ _____ is an area
around a charged object that
acts like it has the same charge
itself.

      electric field
              61
 To keep electrons flowing through a
circuit, a ______ _____ must be
provided (by a battery or outlet) to
get the electrons to move away from
their nucleus.

    potential difference
             62

 A _____ is a closed path
through which electrons can
flow.
         circuit
               63
The number of electrons flowing
 past one point in the circuit in
 one second is called ___; it is
 measured in a unit called ____.
     current, amperes
               64
The amount of energy available
 to push electrons along a wire
 is called ___; it is measured in
 a unit called ____.

        voltage, volts
                65

The opposition to flow of
electrons in a circuit is called
____; it is measured in a unit
called ____.

    resistance, ohms
              66
  If the voltage of a circuit is
increased, the current will
____; if the resistance of a
circuit is increased, the
current will ___.

 increase, decrease
              67
The rate at which electricity
 does work or provides energy is
 called ___; it is measured in a
 unit called ____.

       power, watts
                     68

 In _____ provided by an outlet, the
electrons moving in a circuit alternate
direction 120 times every second. In ___
provided by a battery, the electrons move
in one direction only.


    alternating current (AC),
    direct current (DC)
                69

A magnet has a north pole and a
 south pole. Like poles ___ each
 other, and opposite poles ___
 each other.


       repel, attract
               70

The _____ is the area around the
 magnet where the forces of
 attraction and repulsion can be
 felt.

     magnetic field
                    71

Magnetic ___ are groups of atoms with
 aligned magnetic poles. For an object
 to be magnetic, they must be ___.


         Domains, aligned
                72

Electricity can be used to align
 magnetic domains; magnets
 created this way are called ___.


     electromagnets
            73
 A ______ converts electrical
energy to mechanical energy by
using the forces of attraction
and repulsion between
electromagnets and permanent
magnets.

       Electric motor
                  74
  _______ is a process used to make
 energy by moving a wire through a
 magnetic field. Generators at power
 plants use this process to produce
 alternating current (AC) electricity.


Electromagnetic induction
                 75
______ are used to step up or
 step down voltage of alternating
 current using electromagnetism
 and electromagnetic induction.


         Transformers
               76
Waves are rhythmic disturbances
 that carry ____ through space or
 matter. The material through
 which it travels is called ____.

       Energy, medium
              77
_____ measures the distance
 from the beginning of one wave
 to the beginning of the next
 wave.

          Wavelength
                       78
_____ measures the number of waves that pass a
  place in one second; it is measured in hertz.




           Frequency
             79
_____ measures the speed of
 the wave.




     Wave velocity
              80
When the wavelength of a wave
 decreases, the frequency
 ____.
        Increases
                          81
In ____ waves, such as light waves, the medium
  moves at a right angle to the direction the wave is
  moving. The ____ measures the displacement of
  the medium compared to the equilibrium position.
  The high points these waves are called ____, and
  the low points are called ___.



 Transverse, amplitude, crests, troughs
                    82
     List the waves of the electro
    magnetic spectrum in order
    from shortest to longest waves.


Gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet,
visible light, infrared, and radio waves
               83

In ____ waves, such as sound
 waves, the medium vibrates in the
 same direction as the direction
 the wave is moving.


      compressional
                84
  The pitch of a sound wave
   depends on the wave ____;
   higher pitches are created by
   _____.

Frequency, higher frequencies
                  85
The ___ is the perceived change in
 wave frequency when a sound source
 passes by a listener; the wave pitch
 is ___ before the sound source passes
 by, because the object is catching up
 to its own sound waves.

  Doppler effect, lower
                            86
The primary colors of light are __, __ and __; when
  added together, they make ___ light. The primary
  colors of pigment are __, __ and __; when added

  together, they make __ pigment.


   Red, blue, green,
   white,
   magenta, cyan, yellow,
   black
                 87
When waves reflect off surface,
 they follow the law of reflection:
 the angle of ______ equals the
 angle of______.



  incidence, reflection
                88

When waves enter a new medium,
 they bend due to the change in
 velocity; this is called _____.


       refraction
              89
_______ is when waves bend as
 they go around tiny barriers in a
 material.
            Diffraction
                   90
The rate of change of position of
 an object is called _____; the
 ______ tells you not only the
 rate of change of position, but
 also the direction of movement.

         speed,
        velocity
                91


The rate of change of the speed
 of an object is called________.



      acceleration
              92
A force is a ____ or ____ on
 object. The size of the force
 is measured in a unit called
 ______.

     push, pull, Newtons
                 93
______ forces act equally on a
 object from all sides, resulting in
 no change in motion.

         Balanced
                 94

___ forces do not act equally on an
 object from all sides, resulting in
 acceleration for the object.

               Net
                  95
Newton’s 1st law of motion states that
 ______________________. It is
 sometimes called the law of _____,
 which is the tendency of an object to
 resist any changes in its motion.

objects will maintain a constant
velocity unless acted on by as net
force; inertia
                      96
 Newton’s 2nd law of motion states
 that
 ______________________________
 _____________.
the amount of acceleration of an object is
directly proportional to the size of the net
force and inversely proportional to the
mass of the object.
                   97
    Newton’s 3rd law of motion states
    that
    ____________________________
    __________.

forces always occur in pairs; in other
words, for every action there is a equal
and opposite reaction.
             98
______ is a force that opposes
motion between two surfaces
that are touching.

         Friction
              99
_______ is a force that pulls
two objects together. ______
is a measure of the amount of
this force acting on an object.

      Gravity, Weight
               100
________ is a force that slows
 down moving objects due to the
 friction between the object and
 the air.

        Air resistance
                101
_____ is the ability to cause
 change. It is measured in a unit
 called ______.


      Energy, Joules
                    102
_____ _____ is stored energy. ______
  _____ is the energy due to the motion of
  an object. AS an object falls towards the
  earth, _______ energy is converted to
  ______ energy.


Potential energy, Kinetic energy,
potential, kinetic
               103
The law of ________ __ ____
 states that energy cannot be
 created of destroyed; however, it
 can be changed from one form to
 another.
    Conservation of energy
               104
_____ is using energy to apply a
 force over a distance. Like
 energy, it is measured in _____.



    Work, Joules
               105
______ is the rate at which work
 is done. It is measured in ____.

         Power, Watts

								
To top