SESSION 12 WRITING THE PERSUASIVE ESSAY - PDF

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					SESSION 12 WRITING THE PERSUASIVE ESSAY


                                         LA.A.1.4.3     REFINES VOCABULARY FOR INTERPERSONAL,
                                                        ACADEMIC AND WORKPLACE SITUATIONS,
                                                        INCLUDING FIGURATIVE, IDIOMATIC AND
                                                        TECHNICAL MEANINGS.

                                         LA.A.2.4.1     DETERMINES THE MAIN IDEA AND IDENTIFIES
                                                        RELEVANT DETAILS, METHODS OF
                                                        DEVELOPMENT AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS IN
                                                        A VARIETY OF TYPES OF WRITTEN MATERIAL.

                                         LA.B.1.4.2     DRAFTS AND REVISES WRITING THAT IS
                                                        FOCUSED, PURPOSEFUL, AND REFLECTS
                                                        INSIGHT INTO THE WRITING SITUATION.




Journal Topic #12
If you could step back in time and re-live one day from your past, which day would it be?
Why? What would you do differently?

Spelling List #12      Use a dictionary to define each word on the spelling list. Identify
                       the word’s part of speech (ie. verb, noun, etc.) and if the word has
                       more than one part of speech, write the definition for both/all.

Acclaim               discord                protégé                       devious
Acoustics             exquisite              replica                       devoid
Acquire               fragile                sensual                       erratic
Acquisition           fraud                  unison                        misconception
Audible               fundamental            abnormal
Authentic             harmonize              caustic
Conduct               illusion               conceit


Persuasive Writing
(*Instructor may assign reading from the Amsco Florida Writing Assessment Test
book, pages 61-103.)

In the previous sessions, you have had an opportunity to focus on writing skills for the
expository essay. Hopefully, at this point, you have a better understanding not only for
expository writing, but also for the five-paragraph writing process itself. Session 12 and
13 will focus on writing a persuasive essay using the same format for planning and
development as the expository essay. No matter what type of essay you write, the
format for a five-paragraph paper stays the same!

The purpose for persuasive writing is to convince the reader to accept a particular point
of view or to take specific action. If a writer of a persuasive essay is to present other
aspects of an issue, he or she must do so in a way that makes his or her position clear.
In essence, the main idea for persuasive writing is to persuade the reader of
something. In a well written persuasion, the topic or issue is clearly stated and


                                              Intensive Writing, Session 12 - Page 1 of 17
elaborated to show an understanding and strong argument for the topic on the part of
the writer.

Assignment 1
Read the information on “Revising and Proofreading a Persuasive Paragraph,” page 4.
Complete the Writing Assignment 1 on your own paper.

Assignment 2
Complete the Writing assignment 2, page 4 on your own paper.

Assignment 3
Ask the instructor for a copy of “Revising and Proofreading a Persuasive Paragraph,”
worksheet. Use this copy to make marks as necessary for the directions given in this
exercise. Rewrite your completed paragraph on your own paper.

Now that you have had some practice with persuasive paragraphs, you will select ONE
of two persuasive topics on which to write an essay. Once you select this topic, you will
follow the process for writing such as brainstorming, organizing (mapping/clustering or
outlining) and developing paragraphs. In session 13, you will be reviewing ideas,
revising necessary points and writing a final draft. The process should be familiar to you
since you have had practice with one essay; however, be sure to ask your instructor for
assistance if you have any trouble starting the persuasive essay.


Persuasive Topics

Read the following two persuasive topics. Select ONE as your writing choice, and begin
the packet for session 12. Be sure to select the topic on which you can comfortably
state your point of view and for which you feel you can “persuade” the reader of your
essay to accept it.

       1.      Some cities have laws against smoking in restaurants. Now, write to
               convince the city council members to agree with your view on whether
               smoking should be allowed in restaurants.

       2.      Your friend has decided to drop out of school. Convince him/her that
               it’s a bad idea.

Assignment 4
Using your chosen persuasive topic, complete the Application assignment on
“Brainstorming” page 5. Write your ideas on your own paper.

Assignment 5
Using your brainstorming ideas, complete the Application assignment on “Mapping or
Clustering” page 6 to organize those ideas. You may use the formal “Outlining Chart” on
page 7 instead of the mapping activity if the outline is a better option for you. Write your
graphic organizer and ideas on your own paper.

Read the “Prewriting Questions” on page 8.

As a review, read the information on the Introductory Paragraph, pages 9-11.


                                              Intensive Writing, Session 12 - Page 2 of 17
Assignment 6
Complete the Application assignment on “Composing the Introductory Paragraph” page
12. Write answers on your own paper.

Assignment 7
Complete the Application assignment on “ Composing Body Paragraph #1” page 13.
Write ideas on your own paper.

Assignment 8
Complete the Application assignment on “ Composing Body Paragraph #2” page 14.
Write ideas on your own paper.

Assignment 9
Complete the Application assignment on “ Composing Body Paragraph #3” page 15.
Write ideas on your own paper.

As a review, read the information on the Concluding Paragraph, page 16.

Assignment 10
Complete the Application assignment on “Composing the Concluding Paragraph” page
17. Write ideas on your own paper.



Turn in all completed work and packet for session 12 to the instructor.




                                           Intensive Writing, Session 12 - Page 3 of 17
Name                          Date                  Class                 Score


                  Writing Four Types of Paragraphs
Revising and Proofreading a Persuasive
Paragraph
 In persuasive paragraphs, reasons and supporting evidence are often arranged in
order of importance. You may begin with your most important idea and then present
additional points. Or, you may start with less important reasons and build up to the most
important reason. When you revise a persuasive paragraph, ask yourself whether you
have organized your points effectively. Are your ideas clearly stated? Do they flow
smoothly and logically? Is the argument tightly knit with no unnecessary or distracting
details? Is there a more dramatic way to present the same points? Try reading your
paragraph aloud. Listening to the sound of your words may show you how to improve
what you have written.

WRITING ASSIGNMENT 1                  The sentences below can be combined to create a
paragraph about the dangers of drunk driving. Arrange the sentences in a logical order.
Then, revise the paragraph anyway you wish to strengthen the argument. Reword the
topic sentence if you wish. Clarify the reasons, and add specific supporting evidence to
back up each reason. Combine sentences and replace vague words. On a separate
sheet of paper, write the revised paragraph. When you have finished, proofread the
paragraph to correct any errors in capitalization, punctuation, spelling, and usage.

a.            Driving while intoxicated is, of course, against the law.
b.            And not being in control when your behind the wheel can cost a life.
c.            Drinking and driving don’t mix.
d.            But the real concern is this: Even one drink can impair your
              reflexes. Meaning that you won’t be in total control of your car.
e.            The life may even be yours.
f.            Aside from that, even a minor accident these days will result in
              hundreds of dollars’ worth of damage.

WRITING ASSIGNMENT 2                 On a separate sheet of paper, write a persuasive
paragraph supporting one of the following opinions or an opinion of your own about a
debatable, important issue. Write an interesting and clearly stated topic sentence.
Gather reasons and evidence to support your opinion. Then, organize your points in
order of importance, with the most important reason given last. Make sure that your
paragraph has both unity and coherence.

1.     Students should (should not) be required to start public school at age 4.
2.     People should (should not) be required to exercise at least one hour each
       day.
3.     People who are eligible to vote in elections but choose not to should
       (should not) be fined $100 for each election.
4.     Students should (should not) be allowed to drop out of school before they
       graduate from high school.
5.     Every high-school student should (should not) be required to read
       thoroughly a daily local newspaper.


                                             Intensive Writing, Session 12 - Page 4 of 17
Application

Brainstorm




              Intensive Writing, Session 12 - Page 5 of 17
Application
Use mapping or clustering to graphically organize all of the ideas and information you
generated through the brainstorming you did on page 5.




                                            Intensive Writing, Session 12 - Page 6 of 17
               Outlining Chart


I.
               (Topic)

     A.
                     (Subtopic)

          1.

          2.

          3.                                     (supporting
                                                   details)
          4.

          5.

          6.

     B.
                     (Subtopic)

          1.

          2.                                     (supporting
                                                  details)
          3.

     C.
                     (Subtopic)

          1.

          2.                                   (supporting
                                                 details)
          3.




                              Intensive Writing, Session 12 - Page 7 of 17
Before actually writing, ask yourself these questions, then keep the answers in
mind as you write.

   •   What is my purpose in writing? What do I want to accomplish?

   •   Who is the reader(s)?

   •   How well do I know the reader?

   •   What is his or her age? background? profession?

   •   What are the reader’s interests?

   •   What is the reader’s opinion about the topic likely to be?

   •   How much will the reader probably know about the topic?




                                          Intensive Writing, Session 12 - Page 8 of 17
Paragraph 1: The Introductory Paragraph
A key element to effective writing is the introductory or opening paragraph. The
introductory paragraph is, in one sense, a preview of what your paper will be
about.


An introductory or opening paragraph should do the following:

   •   Clarify your topic to the reader

   •   spark the reader’s interest; “hook” your reader

   •   commit you to a certain kind of language (tone)

   •   establish the pattern or organization of the rest of your essay


An introductory or opening paragraph is the paragraph that will either grab the
reader’s attention and make her want to read on, eager for every word, or make
the reader decide to just skim through the remaining paragraphs.

An introductory or opening paragraph should include the following:

   •   an intriguing introduction to your topic

   •   a thesis statement that includes three ideas or subtopics about the
       topic that you plan to develop or expand in the body paragraphs


Some possible starting points for a top-notch introduction are the following:

   •   begin with a brief, funny story (to set a humorous tone) Example:
       One day, not so long ago, I was walking my dog when a stray dog
       appeared from nowhere. Certain these two growling dogs were
       about to fight, I held the leash tightly. Suddenly the two dogs got
       up on their two back legs, held each other with their two front legs
       and began to dance a waltz.

   •   challenge the reader with a thought provoking question Example:
       Did you know that every thirty minutes in this country someone dies
       in an alcohol-related car accident?




                                           Intensive Writing, Session 12 - Page 9 of 17
   •   offer a “preview” of your conclusion to grab the reader’s attention
       Example: A well-organized person can work eight hours, work out
       for two hours, do housework for an hour, cook for another hour, and
       still have three hours of leisure time every day of the week.

   •   provide a dramatic or eye-opening statement
       Example: It’s up to the residents of this city: We either stop the proposed
       new mall from being built or lose the only playground we have left!

   •   come up with a new angle about the topic
       Example: Although many framers think technology and expensive
       machinery are the only way they can make a living, some farmers are
       learning that returning to a horse-drawn plow can increase their profits.

   •   if you are writing from a prompt, reword the prompt or topic
       Example: (Prompt: Everyone faces rude people. Explain how you
       respond to rude people and why you use this response.) Rude
       people are a part of everyone’s life, but the important thing when
       interacting with them is to not also act rudely.


Here’s how to construct a good introductory paragraph.

Your introductory paragraph should have the shape of a V or a funnel. That is,
you want to begin your discussion in a general way and then gradually narrow
your focus to your thesis statement. Your thesis statement, then, will be the last
sentence of your introductory paragraph.

Opening sentence of your introductory paragraph: Choose one of the starting
points from the list above. Of course, not just any of these will do. Select one
which fits your thesis statement. If your thesis statement is about crime in high
schools, then a dramatic or eye-opening statement may work. For example,
imagine that thesis statement is the following: “Only by teaching nonviolent ways
to resolve conflicts, increasing suspensions for students who commit violence,
and increasing counseling for students who are victimized by crime can we return
schools to students who want to learn.” A good opening sentence for this thesis
would be, “Last year Valerie missed 42 days of school, 12 days while she




                                         Intensive Writing, Session 12 - Page 10 of 17
recovered from a beating and 30 days while she overcame her fear of the place
she once loved to go.”

Sentences 2, 3, 4 of your introductory paragraph: Move from your opening
statement and begin to focus in on your thesis statement. If you had written the
thesis statement and opening sentence in the example above, you would then
ask yourself: “How do I move smoothly from my opening sentence to my thesis
statement?”

Here is an opening sentence, thesis statement, and the sentences one writer
used to get from one to the other:

      (Opening sentence) Last year Valerie missed 42 days of school,
      12 days while she recovered from a beating and 30 days while she
      overcame her fear of the place she once loved to go. (Sentence 2)
      Valerie is just one student of over one-half million who has been a
      victim of violence. (Sentence 3) How can Valerie or any other
      student pay attention to an algebra equation or to the causes of the
      Civil War when she is worried about her own safety? (Sentence 4)
      If we want to improve education in our country, we must start by
      bringing peace to the halls of our schools.

      (Thesis statement) Only by teaching nonviolent ways to resolve
      conflicts, increasing suspensions for students who commit violence,
      and increasing counseling for students who are victimized by crime
      can we return schools to students who want to learn.

Thesis Statement or Last Sentence: Your thesis statement should include the
three subtopics of your essay. Look again at the sample thesis statement with
each subtopic numbered: “Only by (1) teaching nonviolent ways to resolve
conflicts, (2) increasing suspensions for students who commit violence, and (3)
increasing counseling for students who are victimized by crime can we return
schools to students who want to learn.” Note that the focus of each body
paragraph has already been stated. The second paragraph of the essay or body
paragraph #1 will focus on the subtopic of teaching nonviolent ways to resolve
conflicts. The third paragraph of the essay or body paragraph #2 will focus on
the subtopic of increasing suspensions for students who commit violence. The
fourth paragraph of the essay or body paragraph #3 will focus on the subtopic of
increasing counseling for students who are victimized by crime.




                                        Intensive Writing, Session 12 - Page 11 of 17
Application

Begin to compose the introductory paragraph for your persuasive essay by
completing the form below.


 Thesis Statement

 1.    Keeping in mind your thesis statement,




 2.    From the possible starting points above, select the one which best fits
       your thesis statement:




 3.    Compose your opening sentence:



 4.    Write at least three more sentences which lead from your opening
       sentence to your thesis statement:

       Sentence 2:

       Sentence 3:

       Sentence 4:

 5.    Rewrite your thesis statement here:



       Congratulations, you have just composed the first draft of your
       introductory paragraph for your persuasive essay.




                                       Intensive Writing, Session 12 - Page 12 of 17
Application

Begin to compose body paragraph #1 for your persuasive essay by completing
the form below.


 1.    Write the topic of body paragraph #1 below:



 2.    Turn the topic of this paragraph into a topic sentence:




 3.    List at least three details, examples, or illustrations you will use to
       support or explain your topic:




 4.    Turn each detail into a sentence or more:

       Detail #1:



       Detail #2:



       Detail #3:



       On a separate sheet of paper, write your topic sentence followed by your
       detail sentences.

       Congratulations, you have now composed the first draft of your
       body paragraph #1 for your persuasive essay.




                                         Intensive Writing, Session 12 - Page 13 of 17
Application
Begin to compose body paragraph #2 for your persuasive essay by completing
the form below.


Write the topic of body paragraph #2 below:



2.    Turn the topic of this paragraph into a topic sentence:




3.    List at least three details, examples, or illustrations you will use to support
      or explain your topic:




4.    Turn each detail into a sentence or more:

      Detail #1:



      Detail #2:



      Detail #3:



      On a separate sheet of paper, write your topic sentence followed by your
      detail sentences.

      Congratulations, you have now composed the first draft of your body
      paragraph #2 for your persuasive essay.




                                         Intensive Writing, Session 12 - Page 14 of 17
Application

Begin to compose body paragraph #3 for your persuasive essay by completing
the form below.


Write the topic of body paragraph #1 below:



2.    Turn the topic of this paragraph into a topic sentence:




3.    List at least three details, examples, or illustrations you will use to support
      or explain your topic:




4.    Turn each detail into a sentence or more:

      Detail #1:



      Detail #2:



      Detail #3:



      On a separate sheet of paper, write your topic sentence followed by your
      detail sentences.

      Congratulations, you have now composed the first draft of your body
      paragraph #3 for your persuasive essay.




                                         Intensive Writing, Session 12 - Page 15 of 17
Paragraph 5: The Concluding Paragraph

The concluding paragraph is often overlooked or under-appreciated by writers.
Writers may feel that they have said all they have to say on their topic in the
introductory and body paragraphs. However, without a well-developed
concluding paragraph, your essay is not finished—it is only abandoned. A
concluding paragraph should remind your readers of what you have said in a
new way. It should not repeat what you have said; it should emphasize what you
have said. In addition, a concluding paragraph can give your reader something
interesting to take with him. Your good-bye to the reader may include, for
example, something to think about. Your concluding paragraph should, however,
always leave your reader feeling satisfied . . . feeling as is nothing was missing
and the amount of discussion was just right.

A concluding paragraph should do the following:

   •   summarize, or tell your readers, again, your main point(s)

   •   present one new thing about your topic or present a new angle on your
       topic

   •   bring your essay to a close, much the way you would bring a car to a stop

A concluding paragraph should include the following:

   •   a summary or retelling of your main point(s) without using the exact
       sentences phrases, or words you used in your introductory or body
       paragraphs.

   •   A final statement that leaves your reader feeling that your discussion has
       been finished rather than abandoned.




                                        Intensive Writing, Session 12 - Page 16 of 17
Application

Begin to compose the concluding paragraph for your persuasive essay by
completing the form below.



 Thesis Statement

 1.    Keeping in mind your thesis statement, which of the possible starting
       points listed on pages 9-10 would be appropriate?




 2.    From the possible starting points above, select the one which best fits
       your thesis statement:




 3.    Compose your opening sentence:



 4.    Write at least three more sentences which lead from your opening
       sentence to your thesis statement:

       Sentence 2:

       Sentence 3:

       Sentence 4:

 5.    Rewrite your thesis statement here:



       Congratulations, you have now composed the first draft of your
       concluding paragraph for your persuasive essay.




                                       Intensive Writing, Session 12 - Page 17 of 17