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									    The Animal Husbandry Curriculum—its
         Development and Objectives

                       E. H. Hughes


            J Anim Sci 1951. 10:781-788.




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       T H E ANIMAL HUSBANDRY C U R R I C U L U M ~ I T S
              D E V E L O P M E N T AND OBJECTIVES 1

                                  E. H. HuOI~ES-"
                             University o] CaliJornia
                                      Davis

    EACHING animal husbandry is a challenge to the intellect, requir-
T ing mental capacity and critical judgment from those of us engaged
in it. We accept such a responsibility and dedicate ourselves to the task.
   Men differ in their concepts of university teaching. Benjamin Ide
Wheeler once said, "A man who thinks he can govern his life by pure
science is likely to be very wearisome to his neighbors and cumbersome
to himself. The greatest education is the giving of life. Life is begotten
of life, passes not from book to subject, but from the life of the Master
to the life of the pupil." Herbert Spencer, however, stated, "A knowledge
of the sciences is always most useful in life and therefore most worth-
while. Science opens up realms of poetry where to the unscientific all
is blank." Robert A. Millikan said recently, "The job of civilized man is
not to suppress the growth of knowledge, but rather to express his
intelligence, his own growth of knowledge, to stop the depredations of
the I)illingers and the Hitlers by eliminating them is necessary or by
other means if he can find such, and at the same time to win as large
a fraction of mankind as possible to the free choice of the good way
instead of the evil way."
   All three points of view are significant to the teaching profession
 because they deal with science, art, and man's position in the field of
human relations.
   In the beginning, animal husbandmen were forced to lean heavily on
 such basic sciences as zoology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, and
botany. Pioneers had little to guide them in the new venture of teaching
animal husbandry. Feeds and Feeding by W. A. Henry had not been
published. Such important fields as genetics, nutrition, and physiology
of the domestic animals were in their infancy.
   Administrators had to depend upon personnel who had been trained
 in the sciences and humanities but had no farm background to teach
animal husbandry, agronomy, horticulture, and other agricultural sub-
    From a talk prescnte:t at the meetings of the American Society of Animal Production held
in Chicago, November 24th and 25th, 1949.
  2 Deceased.




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782                           E . H . HUGHES

jects. Early workers in the field of agriculture were basically trained,
though they did not have the proper tools to apply their knowledge.
The Federal Government, through the passage of the Morrill Act and
through cooperation with the state institutions, had made the machinery
available though there was yet little information as to how it could be
successfully operated. The situation was a challenge to those who
accepted the responsibility.
   Under the guidance of a strong group of men with the spirit, the
substance, and the will to do, the early foundation and philosophy of
the field of scientific agriculture was determined. Included in this list
of strong personalities were W. A. Henry, E. Davenport, H. P. Armsby,
and others. They were scholarly, far-sighted individuals. In the years to
come, H. L. Russell was a pillar of strength, always realizing that
progress in this new field would be largely determined by advances in
the basic sciences.
    In the early part of the first decade after 1900, most students in
animal husbandry spent considerable time in the academic halls of the
state universities and utilized only such time as seemed essential in the
technical phases of animal husbandry. While emphasis was placed on
students of college grade, there were many young farm boys who lacked
either the time or the required high school training, yet who needed
information on livestock improvement through feeding, breeding,
management, and marketing. To meet this need, many state universities
developed short courses that could be attended during the winter
months. Students who attended such courses returned to the farms and
put into practice what they had learned during the part of the year
when farm work was at low ebb.
    So far the farm youth were being served, but what of the adult who
owned or rented the land upon which he produced meat, milk, leather,
and other useful products? The need for training at home resulted in
the passage of the Smith-Lever Act in 1914, an act which developed the
Agricultural Extension Service and the 4-H Club programs. There was
a great demand for technically trained men to fill important positions
in the rapidly growing colleges of agriculture. The demand exceeded
 the supply. Because faculty members were selected who would attract
livestock producers, personality rather than training was often the yard-
 stick used. Such men as E. Davenport and H. L. Russell remained
steadfast in their knowledge that science would solve the most difficult
 problems. Agricultural chemistry became an important part of the more
advanced curricula as a basis for applied nutrition and feeds and feeding.
 Later genetics was recognized as a basis for applied .animal breeding.



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              THE ANIMAL HUSBANDRY CURRICULUM                       783

Physiology had already been accepted as an important subject for
animal husbandry students.
   In the meantime, technical animal husbandry expanded rapidly.
Valuable text books were published, some important ones like Henry's
Feeds and Feeding. Administrative officers approved a vast array of
technical animal husbandry courses in an effort to provide factual
information for immediate use. To "pass" some courses required little
thought or effort on the part of the farm-grown students--the "how"
was presented, but not always the "why."
   Agricultural experiment stations conducted many feeding experiments
with livestock. Reports and bulletins published by them served to
answer many questions and were useful in improving animal husbandry
teaching.
   While education needs of adults and college students were recognized,
nothing was being done for the high school student. To fill this gap, the
Smith-Hughes Act was passed by Congress early in 1917. This resulted
in increased demand for agricultural college graduates at the bachelor
level. With agriculture as a subject taught in high school, the need for
short courses became less, with the result that at many colleges they
have been abandoned.
   Finally, in 1935, the Bankhead-Jones Act was passed providing addi-
tional federal funds for research and for instructional purposes. This
further resulted in strengthening teaching in most land-grant colleges.
   The demand from producers to solve old and new problems focused
the attention of administrators upon the need for better-trained teachers
and research workers in animal husbandry. It is a fact that improvement
in farm animals had progressed. While courses in livestock judging were
an important factor in teaching college students to distinguish good
animals from had, there were other important problems that needed
solution. The sciences of mathematics, physics, chemistry, zoology, and
such applied sciences as genetics, nutrition, and physiology were rec-
ognized as the means of attempting to find the answers.
   To discuss animal husbandry teaching since the turn of the century,
it appeared necessary to locate certain land marks as a basis for pro-
ceeding. Michigan State College had developed a teaching program for
agriculture before the Morrill Act was passed in 1862. Many early
graduates from Michigan became outstanding men in leading universi-
ties of the Nation.
   What progress has been made in animal husbandry curricula in the
past half century? Three are discussed here--Michigan State College,
1900-1901; Missouri, 1927-28; and California, 1950--51. They are


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784                                 E.H.     HUGHES

summarized in table 1 together with a proposed curriculum, which will
be discussed later.
  These curricula are not identical, but they are essentially similar.
Basic sciences are stressed in each. Applied sciences such as genetics
and nutrition, in their infancy in 1900, were not mentioned. English

                       T A B L E 1. C U R R I C U L A S U M M A R Y 1

                         Michigan        University      University           Proposed
                           State             of              of              Curriculum
                          College         Missouri       California          (1950 Mini-
                         1900-01          1927-28         1950-51       m u m requirement)
Agriculture                 30.9             25.0            19.03          30.02
                                                                                   3
Mathematics                 11.7
Chemistry                    8.2            16.0             18.0           13.0 (incl.
                                                                                   bio-
                                                                                chemistry)
Physics                       5.4            5.0              6.0            5.0
 Botany                       9.8            5.0              4.0            4.0
 Zoology                      2.6            5.0             I0.0            5.0
 Economics                    1.7            5.0              6.0            6.0
A n a t o m y and Physiology 3.2                              5.0            4.0
 English                     16.2            6.0              3.0            6.0
History                       2.6                             5.0            5.0
Drawing                       2.6
Civil Engineering             1.6
 Veterinary Science           1.1            5.0              3.0            3.0
"Military Science             4.8            6.0              8.0            8.0
 Thesis                       2.6
 Citizenship                                 4.0
 Bacteriology                                3.0             4.0             3.0
 Geology                                     3.0             3.0             3.0
 Genetics                                                    4.0             4.0
 Free Electives              19.0           36.0            26.0            25.04
TOTAL                       124.0          124.0           124.0           124.0

  t Credits reduced to semester hours or units.
  2 Includes animal husbandry 21 units, agronomy 6 units, agricultural engineering 3 units.
  8 Mathematics through trigonometry (In California this is usually completed in high school
but will necessarily vary in different areas).
  4At least 5 units to be selected from the humanities.


and mathematics were emphasized in the early curricula. The California
curriculum includes basic as well as applied sciences.
  In the early Michigan State curriculum, there existed a balance
between the sciences, the humanities, and livestock production. In the
Missouri curriculum of 1927-28, the total units required in the sciences
and mathematics are fewer than in the other two curricula presented.
The technical phases of agriculture are stressed, but opportunity is


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               THE ANIMAL HUSBANDRY CURRICULUM                         785

afforded for the student to select courses from a large number of
electives. This may or may not be advisable depending somewhat upon
the student and his adviser. The California curriculum emphasizes
science and the applied sciences, with opportunity for production and
other agricultural courses, but allows only a limited selection of courses
in the humanities.
   If college training in animal husbandry before the turn of the century
produced strong characters and leaders in the field, it is only logical
that the curricula then and now should be somewhat similar. Because
the volume of scientific and technical knowledge has increased many-
fold during the past fifty years, information presented to the student
needs to be condensed. It is probable that students can retain more now,
and also that high school training is better than it was in 1900.
   What are the objectives of animal husbandry teachers and research
workers? Through our knowledge of the applied sciences and of im-
proved management practices, concerted effort should be made to
maintain the fertility of the soil we are privileged to use through
judicious use of livestock in our agricultural practices. Further, "a
balance should be found between livestock and feed production with
proper evaluation of a better forage supply and more efficient livestock"
 (from a report of a committee of Oregon State College).
   We must see that animal husbandry students are trained by teachers
with vision and understanding in chemistry, mathematics, physics,
~oology, botany, and geology. They should have a thorough understand-
ing of the elements of genetics, physiology, and nutrition. It is important
too that they learn the application of these sciences to the problems of
animal production. They need to know how to select their animals--
the excellent, the good, the mediocre, and the poor. They cannot secure
this information from a textbook. It is imperative that they know how
to feed animals of the various ages and species, how to mate animals
for best results, and how to manage an animal husbandry enterprise.
They should learn something of economics because it threads its way
through the whole process of production. If they are to be good farmers
or teachers or research workers, they must have a knowledge of
agronomy, of power machinery, of drainage in some areas, and of irriga-
tion in others. Then, too, they must be good citizens and must get along
with others. A knowledge of the humanities is therefore necessary. Fun-
damentally, the basic training in all parts of the Nation should be
similar, but the application may differ widely depending upon whether
the student attends an eastern, southern, middle western, or a western
institution.


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786                                                      E.H.          HUGHES


    Table 2 contains a proposed curriculum indicating minimum                                                         require-
ments         in s c i e n c e , a g r i c u l t u r e         (including animal                      husbandry),     and    the
h u m a n i t i e s a n d is s u g g e s t e d to m a k e it p o s s i b l e f o r s t u d e n t s to t r a n s f e r

                   TABLE 2. AN ANIMAL H U S B A N D R Y C U R R I C U L U M

               Course                                                                                            Minimum Units
Lower Division---Freshman and Sophomore years:
   Inorganic chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                   5
   Organic chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 3
   Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         5
   Zoology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         5
   Economics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           6
   Geology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         3
   Bacteriology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            3
   Botany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          4
   English . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         6
   Animal Husbandry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    4
   Military Science and Physical Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                 8
   Electives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         7

            TOTAL                                                                                                      621
Upper Division---Junior and Senior years:
   Genetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               ...............................
   Physiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
   Biochemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
   Feeds and Feeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
   Animal Breeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
   Animal Husbandry (Production and other courses, including
        1 unit in experimental methods) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              12
   Agronomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             3
    Veterinary Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  3
   Agricultural Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       3
   History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          5
   Electives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         18

       TOTAl,                                                             62
Electives:
     25 units to be taken from the following or other subjects (at least 5 units to
     be selected from the humanities)
        Animal ttusbandry                                                              Chemistry
        Agronomy                                                                       Physics
        Agricultural Engineering                                                       English and Languages
        Agricultural Economics                                                         History
        Dairy Production or Manufacturing                                              Mathematics
        Irrigation or Drainage                                                         Philosophy
        Veterinary Science
        Soils
   t In California mathematics through trigonometry usually is completed in High School. ]'his
 will, of course, vary in other areas.



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               THE ANIMAL HUSBANDRY CURRICULUM                       787

more easily from one university to another. If this or a similar cur-
riculum were accepted by most institutions, it would surely be an ad-
vantage to a student with a baccalaureate degree from one school in
transferring and matriculating in the graduate division of another
university.
   Such a curriculum should result in our students becoming educated
men and women capable of leading a fuller life. It should aid in helping
the individual make a living for his family. The graduate should have a
better understanding of citizenship and an appreciation of his personal
responsibility to the community in which he lives. Furthermore, such a
course of study should result in the individual's having a better under-
standing of life processes, of himself, of his fellowmen, and of the
animals with which he works.
   But what of practical experience? Where will a student acquire it if
he does not have it? To those in the central part of the Nation, this
may be an easy problem, but it challenges the best efforts of those who
teach in areas where the urban population far exceeds the rural. To the
farm-reared, it is no serious problem; but to the city boy who makes
up his mind to live in the country, it is often the primary problem.
Cornell and other institutions are doing something about it. The Uni-
versity of California with a grant of $250,000 is making a serious
beginning in the direction of helping those who deserve and want to
gain practical farm and animal husbandry training.
   Since the problems of the producer are in many ways as complex as
those of the experiment station worker, only a single curriculum is
needed. During the senior year, the choice of electives might vary,
depending upon the direction the student expects to go. For the man
going into research, additional mathematics and a foreign language in
undergraduate years would be desirable if other requirements have been
satisfied.
   Before concluding, attention should be called to the new junior
colleges sometimes referred to as community or city colleges. In 1948-
49, 465,815 students were registered in 648 conmaunity colleges. ]n
many sections of the nation a large percentage of professional and other
students enter our universities from these institutions. Such students
may complete their science, English, mathematics, economics, and other
requirements before becoming animal husbandry majors in the colleges
of agriculture. This need not change the requirements of the men, but
it may necessitate some changes in the sequence in which courses are
taken. Except in isolated cases, junior colleges are not yet qualified to
teach advanced technical or professional courses.


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788                            E . H . HUGIIES

   It is not my purpose to suggest in detail what courses should be
taught to the animal husbandry student. However, he should receive
sufficient training in the basic sciences, economics, plant life, nutrition,
genetics, and physiology, and in production to qualify him to take an
undergraduate course in experimentation, so that he will have the
proper tools to work with when he is granted his degree. It does not
matter whether he becomes a farmer or an industrialist, takes up voca-
tional teaching or extension work, or accepts a position in an agricultural
college and experiment station--a knowledge of experimental methods
and procedure is becoming more and more important. We are con-
tinually looking for the truth, rediscovering the old and finding the new.
The young graduate should have the imagination, the will to do, and
the working tools to add his link in the chain of new knowledge. Whether
it be in someone's back yard, basement, barnyard, cornfield, or in an
experiment station matters little.
   The young college student who is honest will not shirk or complain
but rather, in the words of W. J. Cameron, "Squaring his shoulders
and lifting his chin, he will cast his lot where American youth has
always cast it---on the side of those who give before they take, the
creators and builders, contributors of energy, talent, and service, whose
reward is not something they take out of America, but sharing the life
they feel by what they put in."




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