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CRETE_Bully_Prevention_Training

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					Bullying Prevention:
  CRETE Training
       Day 3
             Presentation prepared by
  Madeleine G. Trichel, Interfaith Center for Peace
               Columbus, Ohio 43201
                         And
     Tricia S. Jones, Ph.D., Temple University
               Philadelphia, PA 19122



                    Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                       and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
       CONVERSATION BUDDIES
Purpose: to prepare for later activities that require partners for
   conversation.
Goal: Everybody will have a different partner for each conversation.
Method:
  1. Leave your table, taking conversation Buddy sheet and pen or
  pencil.
  2. Find a “Buddy” for the first blank and each sign the other’s
  paper. Return the paper to its original owner.
  3. Find a different person and each sign the next blank on the
  other’s sheet.
  4. Repeat until all blanks are signed by different people.

        Note: If you can’t find someone for a particular number,
        * Wail loudly until you are noticed;
        * Stand on a chair and shout;
        * Stand and watch and wait for the chaos to subside;
        * Sit down. It will all work out!
                        Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                           and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
          A Conversation
1. Think of a time when you were a young
student and had an experience of bullying.
2. Who was there? What happened? Do
you still have feelings about it?
3. Find your first Conversation Buddy.
Then form a group of 4 with another pair of
Conversation Buddies.
4. Share your memory with the small group.
As you talk, notice any common experience,
feelings, or themes.
              Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                 and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
   and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
It can be useful to think about
 bullying in relationship to the
 five basic needs identified by
        William Glasser.



          Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
             and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
Security--
 the feeling that we
 are safe.




          Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
             and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
Power--knowing
that we are good
at something and
can succeed.


    Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
       and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
       Belonging--having
       friends, family,
       people who care
       about us.


Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
   and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
Freedom--some
choice over our
lives.




        Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
           and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
                  Fun--laughter,
                  joy, play,
                  amusement.



Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
   and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
      Children will attempt to meet
their needs in a way that makes sense
to them at the time. Sometimes the
choices they make are not healthy or
safe choices. They are still learning.
      Our responsibility is to help
them learn positive ways to get their
needs met.



          Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
             and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
   and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
Bullying, unlike isolated conflicts between
individuals, occurs when a student or
group of students targets an individual
repeatedly over time, using physical or
psychological aggression to dominate the
victims

Repeated
Intentional
Goal is to Create and Enforce an Imbalance of Power


                 Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                    and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
            Forms of Bullying
   Direct – the bully personally enacts
    bullying at the target

   Indirect – the bully gets someone else to
    engage in the bullying behavior against
    the target.



                 Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                    and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
             Direct Bullying
 Physical- Hitting, kicking, shoving, spitting,
  property destruction, physical restraint,
  unwanted sexual physical contact
 Verbal – Taunting, teasing, name calling,
  degrading comments
 Nonverbal – Threatening gestures,
  obscene gestures, spatial invasion, staring


                Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                   and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
           Indirect Bullying
 Physical – getting another person to
  assault someone
 Verbal – spreading rumors about a person
  but hiding that you are the source; cyber-
  bullying a potential form
 Nonverbal – deliberate exclusion from a
  group or an activity


               Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                  and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
Playing, Fighting or Bullying???

Rough Play             Real Fighting                          Bullying
Usually friends;       Usually not friends;                   Typically not friends,
often repeated,        typically not                          generally repeated
same players           repeated
Balance of power       Power relatively                       Unequal power
                       equal
No intent to harm      Intent to harm                         Intent to harm and
                                                              disempower
Affect is friendly,    Affect is negative,                    Affect is negative,
positive, mutual       hostile, mutual                        hostile, differs for
                                                              aggressor and target
                      Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                         and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
        Why Focus on Bullying?
   Short-term effects for targets: lower self-
    esteem, depression, illness, absenteeism
   Long-term effects for targets: severe
    depression, suicidal ideation, self-destructive
    behavior, suicide
   Impact on Bystanders
   School social climate
   Bullies escalate aggression in adolescence and
    adulthood (Olweus study, bullies were 4 times
    as likely to have 3 or more convictions by age
    24)
                   Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                      and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
        How Bad is the Problem
   30% of school kids regularly involved in bullying
   15% of students severely stressed by
    encounters with bullies
   8% are bullied at least once a week
   160,000 students miss school every day because
    of fear of bullies
   20% are scared throughout the day
   10% of dropouts dropped out because of
    repeated bullying
                   Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                      and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
What are some myths of bullying?
   Bullying is just a “normal” part of childhood.
   Children who bully just suffer from low self-
    esteem.
   Victims just needs to learn how to stand up for
    themselves.
   Victims bring bullying on themselves.
   Bullying only happens when physical violence is
    involved.
   Adults should stay out of it.
                   Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                      and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
    How Can You Identify a Bully
   Student regularly engages in hurtful teasing,
    name calling or intimidation of others (especially
    those who are smaller and weaker)
   Student thinks s/he is superior to others
    (contemptuous)
   Student who encourages others to hurt
    smaller/weaker students
   Students who have little empathy
   Student who seem to desire power and control
                    Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                       and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
    Where Does Bullying Happen?
   48%   Hallways and stairs
   32%   In class with teacher absent
   29%   In gym class/locker rooms
   27%   In class with teacher present
   24%   In lunchroom
   17%   In bathroom
   15%   On the bus/at the busstop
   16%   On the way to and from school

(Unnever et al, 2001, survey of 2,472 grade 6-8 students
  in Virginia).
                     Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                        and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
Who Are Likely Targets of Bullying?
   “Passive” Targets
        Quiet, cautious, sensitive
        Insecure, less confident
        Physically weaker than peers
        Find it easier to associate with adults than peers
   “Provocative” Targets
        ADD, ADHD,
        Hot tempered, especially when sensing unfairness
        Clumsy, immature or developmentally delayed


                     Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                        and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
    Cyberbullying/ technobullying is a
           growing problem.

 Email,
 Mobile or cell phones,
 Internet bulletin boards
  and chat rooms,
 Instant messaging.




               Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                  and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
Cyberbullying:
   Slurs on websites or               Particularly harmful
    blogs                                because:
   Mean or threatening                    Aggressor can hide and
    instant messages (IM)                   be anonymous
   Using camera phones to                 Spreads rapidly to large
    take embarrassing                       audience
    photos and posting on                  Little fear of
    websites                                punishment
   Circulating gossip,                    Often not reported--
    rumors, and voting                      victims fear losing
                                            access to electronic
                                            communication.
                  Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                     and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
One way to understand bullying is
through looking at these analogies:
             Spouse abuse.
          Sexual harassment.
All involve imbalance of power; in all
these forms of abuse the perpetrator
blames the victim for the abuse. In all
three the victim may blame himself or
herself for the abuse, if it is not
stopped.
            Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
               and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
“It is important to remember
that bullying is not about anger
or conflict; it’s about contempt--
a powerful feeling of dislike
toward someone considered to
be worthless, inferior and
undeserving of respect.”
                                        Barbara Coloroso

           Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
              and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
How has society reacted to abuse?

    Through denial. “It’s not important;”
     “He didn’t mean it.”

    By blaming the victim or asking the
     victim to solve the problem: “You
     should wear different clothes;” “She
     just does it because she knows it
     bothers you.”
              Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                 and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
        Bullying affects
 The one who bullies,
 The person who is bullied,
 The bystanders.


    Effective Bully prevention and
intervention programs must address
  the needs of all three in a school-
   wide, comprehensive approach.
             Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
   and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
         Conversation #2
              (with “jigsaw”)

 Taking your “Stop Bullying Now” packet
  with you, find Conversation Buddy #2.
  Form a group of 4 with another pair.
 Each person in the group will read 1 of
  the 4 articles in the packet. (Quickly
  decide who will read which one.)
 When everyone has read the chosen
  article, report to the group on what you
  have read.  Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                 and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
The Olweus approach involves


 Positive school, group, & home climate,
 Clear behavior expectations and
  consistent penalties for aggression.
 Adults spending time with students.



             Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
           Foundations of
         Bullying Prevention
     Safe and affirming school climate
1. Penalties for
                             2. Positive climate, tone,
  aggression:
                               and modeling
       inevitable
                             3. Adults spend non-
      predictable             academic time with
      escalating              young people.


                Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                   and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
        Understanding the “Players”
                                                   Authority
                       Bully                        Figure

        Follower


                                                               Defender
                                Target
Passive Bully



                                                               Possible
            Passive                                            Defender
           Supporter        Disengaged
                             Onlooker
                       Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                          and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
                   “The Players”
   Follower/Henchmen – Joins in but does not start the
    bullying
   Passive Bully – supports the bullying and often urges on
    others but does not take active part
   Passive Supporter – likes to see bullying, finds it
    entertaining, but does not display active support
   Disengaged Onlooker – sees the bullying but does not
    consider it relevant to him/her
   Possible Defender – dislikes bullying, thinks they should
    step in, but doesn’t
   Defender – comes to the aid of the target
                      Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                         and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
     What Adults SHOULD Do
 1. On-the-spot interventions
 2. Follow-up discussions with children who
  are bullied
 3. Follow-up discussions with children who
  bully
 4. Staff information sharing




               Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                  and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
     On-the-Spot Interventions
     The “Teachable Moment”
 1. Stop the bullying
 2. Support the victim
 3. Name the bullying behavior
 4. Refer to school rules
 5. Impose immediate consequences
  (where appropriate)
 6. Thank defenders
 7. Encourage bystanders

             Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
         Follow-Up Interventions
   1. Report the incident, increase adult vigilance and
    communication, and prevent retaliation.
   2. Identify staff person to talk with parties
   3. Conduct separate talks with the child bullied and the
    child bullying
   4. Implement supports for the child who is bullied.
   5. Impose consequences for the children who bully.
   Talk with parents.
   Follow-up with the involved individuals later.


                      Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                         and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
Adults Spend Time with
       Students
 Counsel          Support                             Activate
Aggressive       those who                           bystanders
 Students            are
                 "targeted"



             Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
        Counseling Aggressive Youth
                                       What  did you do?
                                       What was wrong
Help students think                     with that?
about these questions
after they know what                   What problem were
their consequences are:                 you trying to solve?
                                       How will you solve
                                        that problem next
                                        time?


                 Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                    and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
As students reflect on
their behavior, they learn
how their behavior affects
others and find different
ways to meet their needs.


      Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
         and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
          Special Emphasis
      for Aggressive Students

 Recognize the legal, social, and personal
  consequences of violence/ abuse.
 Identify and seek support from those who care for
  the abuser as a person--not in the bully role.
 Gain a more accurate and thorough self-concept.
 Improve social problem-solving and anger
  management skills.
 Increase the ability to empathize with victims and
  bystanders.
                                         Dr. Richard Hazler, Ohio University
                  Copyright Interfaith Center for Youngstown State University
                and Dr. JoLynn Carney, Peace
                      and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
           Supporting the Child
             who is Targeted
For the child who is targeted, bullying is
 a loss experience:
 Loss of safety,
 Loss of self-esteem: “They bully you,
    then you bully yourself.”
 Loss of belonging,
 Loss of control over own life.


                Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                   and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
  How do we support youth
who experience loss?
  We protect them from more
losses, comfort them and help
them not blame themselves for
what has happened.
 We don’t usually tell them to
pretend it doesn’t hurt.
 We teach them coping skills.

           Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
              and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
           Special Emphasis
       for “Targeted” Students
   Avoid giving the abuser an emotional payoff.
   Be physically and verbally assertive (not
    aggressive).
   Practice necessary behaviors.
   Consider doing the unexpected.
   Strengthen continuing friendships and make
    new ones.
                                 Dr. Richard Hazler, Ohio University
                and Dr. JoLynn Carney, Youngstown State University
                  Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                     and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
•Family intervention to encourage
independence as well as support.
•Develop an understanding of the abuser as a
person.
•Seek support when necessary.
•Gain a more accurate and thorough self-
concept.

                           Dr. Richard Hazler, Ohio University
           and Dr. JoLynn Carney, Youngstown State University



                Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                   and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
What Can I Do if I am Being Bullied?

 HA                                 HA,                                 SO
 Help                               Humor                               Self-Talk
 Assert                             Avoid                               Own It


 “Bully-Proofing Your School: A Comprehensive Approach,” Garrity, Jens, Porter, Sager and Short-
 Camilli. Reclaiming children and Youth, Spring, 1996.




                                Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                                   and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
    Activating Bystanders
We encourage youth to
   Speak up to bullies,
   Ask adults for help,
   And reach out as
    friends to isolated
    peers.


             Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
                  What Can I Do if I See
                 Someone Being Bullied?

                                         C A R E
Creating Problem Solving
Adult Help
Relate and Join
Empathy
“Bully-Proofing Your School: A Comprehensive Approach,” Garrity, Jens, Porter, Sager and Short-Camilli.
Reclaiming Children and Youth, Spring, 1996.



                                Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                                   and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
                Rules for Bully-Proofing
                    Our Classroom
1. We will not bully other students.
2. We will help others who are being bullied
  by speaking out and by getting adult help.
3. We will use extra effort to include all
  students in activities at our school.

“Bully-Proofing Your School: A Comprehensive Approach,” Garrity, Jens, Porter, Sager and Short-Camilli. Reclaiming
     children and Youth, Spring, 1996.




                                        Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                                           and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
 School Rules Against Bullying
 We will not bully others.
 We will try to help students who are
  bullied
 We will make it a point to include students
  who are easily left out.
 When we know somebody is being bullied,
  we will tell an adult at school and an adult
  at home.
                Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                   and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
    Sharing Information with Staff
 Who needs to be involved?
 How are incidents reported?
    – Between teachers and staff
    – To administrators
 How is information shared with parents?
 How is information shared with involved
  students?

                  Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                     and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
    Use Consistent Consequences
 Identify positive consequences for active
  defending
 Train students to make some display of
  support if possible
 Train students to avoid intervening in
  physical bullying
 Encourage group response


               Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                  and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
    Encourage Parental Involvement
 Have parents on the bullying prevention
  committee
 Provide bullying prevention discussions at
  PTO
 Have bullying prevention literature at
  home room nights and parent/teachers
  conference
 Keep parents informed through letters

               Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                  and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
   and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
          Conversation #3
                (with “jigsaw”)
 Taking the new “Stop Bullying Now” packet
  with you, find Conversation Buddy #3. Form
  a group of 4 with another pair.
 Three in the group will each read 1 of the
  articles. One person will read the last 2
  (shorter) articles. (Quickly decide who will
  read which.)
 When everyone has finished reading, report
  to the group on what you have read.
               Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                  and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
      Other Bully-prevention Programs:


   Don’t Laugh at Me
    (Peter Yarrow and Linda Lantieri)
   Steps to Respect
    (Committee for Children)
   Stop Bullying Now
    (US Dept. of Health and Human Services)
   Teaching Tolerance
    (Southern Poverty Law Center)


                    Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
                       and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.
Copyright Interfaith Center for Peace
   and Dr. Tricia S. Jones, 2006.

				
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