Manufacturing Design_ Production_ Automation_ and Integration by sdaferv

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									Manufacturing: Design, Production, Automation, and Integration
Beno Benhabib
ISBN: 0-8247-4273-7
Marcel Dekker, 2003
New York, NY, USA.
Adoption price (for quantities of five or more): $75 (US)


Brief description of the book
The 16-chapter book with over 300 illustrations is unique in its attempt to address the three
important aspects of manufacturing under one title, namely, design, production processes, and
automation. Design is discussed from concept development to the engineering analysis of the
final product, while referring to the many different facets of fabrication processes (i.e., cross-
referencing/discussion). Numerous common fabrication processes (traditional and modern) are
subsequently detailed and also discussed in the context of product design (for the specific
process at hand) as well as potential automation aspects. In the third part of the book,
manufacturing control is discussed at the machine level as well as at the system level (namely,
material flow control in flexible manufacturing systems).


Potential Use of the book and the presentations included on this site
The book can be configured to be suitable for two consecutive (1-term) courses: One at an
introductory undergraduate level (Fundamentals of Manufacturing Engineering, NOT solely on
processes) and one at an advanced level (with a special emphasis on Manufacturing
Automation). In a single-manuscript format the book offers the following benefits: (i) Provides
some flexibility to the undergrad instructor to include one or two advanced topics in a
manufacturing-fundamentals course; and, (ii) provides grad students with background material
on manufacturing fundamentals that they may not have fully studied at their own undergrad
school.

Here is an example of organizing the two courses:

Fundamentals of Manufacturing Engineering
   Chapter 2: Conceptual Design
   Chapter 3: Design Methodologies
    Optional - Chapter 4: Computer-Aided Design
   Chapter 6: Metal Casting, Powder Processing and Plastics Molding
   Chapter 7: Metal Forming
   Chapter 8: Machining
   Chapter 10: Assembly
    Optional - Chapter 11: Workholding: Fixtures and Jigs
    Optional - Chapter 12: Materials Handling
    Optional - Chapter 16: Control of Manufacturing Quality



B. Benhabib                               5/15/03                                                1/7
Manufacturing Automation
    Chapter 1: Competitive Manufacturing
    Chapter 2: Conceptual Design
    Chapter 3: Design Methodologies
     Optional - Chapter 4: Computer-Aided Design
     Optional - Chapter 5: Computer-Aided Engineering Analysis and Prototyping
     Optional - Chapter 9: Modern Manufacturing Techniques
     Optional - Chapter 10: Assembly
     Optional - Chapter 11: Workholding: Fixtures and Jigs
     Optional - Chapter 12: Materials Handling
    Chapter 13: Instrumentation for Manufacturing Control
    Chapter 14: Control of Production and Assembly Machines
    Chapter 15: Supervisory Control of Manufacturing Systems
    Chapter 16: Control of Manufacturing Quality


Chapter Highlights
Chapter 1: COMPETITIVE MANUFACTURING
In the earlier part of the 20th Century, a rigid mode of mass production replaced mostly small-batch and
make-to-order fabrication of products. With increased household incomes in North America and Europe
came large-scale production of household appliances and motor vehicles. However, product complexity
combined with manufacturing inflexibility led to long product-life cycles, thus, slowing down the
introduction of innovative products.
         In post World-War II (WWII), we saw a second boom in the manufacturing industries in Western
Europe, U.S.A., and Japan with many domestic companies competing for their respective market shares.
Today, we witness the fall of many of these domestic barriers and the emergence of multinational
companies attempting to gain international competitive advantage via distributed design and
manufacturing across a number of countries (sometimes several continents). The manufacturing company
of the future will be multinational, capital as well as knowledge intensive, with high-level of production
automation, whose competitiveness will heavily depend on the effective utilization of Information
Technology (IT).
         In this Chapter, our focus will be on major historical developments in the manufacturing industry
in the past two centuries. In Section 1.2, the beginnings of machine tools and industrial robots will be
briefly discussed as prelude to a more in-depth review of the automotive manufacturing industry.
Advancements made in this industry (technological, or even marketing) have benefited significantly other
manufacturing industries over the past century. In Section 1.3, we review the historical developments in
computing technologies. In Sections 1.4 and 1.5, we review a variety of “manufacturing strategies”
adopted in different countries as prelude to a discussion on the expected future of the manufacturing
industry, namely, “information-technology based manufacturing,” Section 1.6.


Chapter 2: CONCEPTUAL DESIGN
Engineering design starts with a need directly communicated by the customer or in response to an
innovative idea developed by a research team, which would lead to an incremental improvement on the
state-of-the-art or to a totally new product. One can, naturally, claim that there have been only a very few
inventions in the 20th Century and that most products have been incrementally innovated. The Walkman
by Sony certainly falls into the second category, while the telephone can be classified as one of the true
inventions.



B. Benhabib                                   5/15/03                                                    2/7
        In this Chapter, the emphasis is on the first stage of the engineering design process, namely
development of viable concepts. In Section 2.1, Concurrent Engineering (CE) is defined as a systematic
approach to the integrated (concurrent) design of products and their manufacturing and support process.
CE advocates that a product development team must consider all elements of the product life-cycle from
the outset - including safety, quality, cost and disposal. Section 2.2, describes the first step in this process
as customer-need identification followed by concept generation and selection. Sections 2.3 and 2.4
highlight the importance of industrial design, including human factors, in engineering design. Section 2.5
discusses the topic conceptual design: The first step in the conceptual design process is problem
formulation, followed by concept generation and concept evaluation phases. In Sections 2.6 and 2.7, the
chapter is concluded with a review of modular product design practices and the mass manufacturing of
such customized products.


Chapter 3: DESIGN METHODOLOGIES
This chapter presents four primary design methodologies developed in the past several decades for
increased design productivity and the resultant product quality. Although these methodologies are
suitable and have been, commonly, targeted for post-conceptual-design phase, some can also be of
significant benefit during the conceptual-design phase of a product. Designers should attempt to use as
many of established design methodologies as possible during product development: For example,
Axiomatic Design (Section 3.1) and Group Technology (Section 3.4) at conceptual design phase; Design
for Manufacturing/Assembly/Environment Guidelines (Section 3.2) during configuration and detailed
design; and, Taguchi Method (Section 3.3) during parametric design.


Chapter 4: COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN
Geometric modeling is the first step in Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) analysis of a designed
product. The objective is to encapsulate all geometric data pertaining to the part in a single model and
specify all necessary material properties as additional information. In this context, solid modeling, as a
branch of geometric modeling, refers to the geometric description of solid objects in their entirety. Solid
modeling is a multi-faceted operation: At the forefront, a user describes a geometric model, through a
graphical representation, to the computer, which in turn stores this representation, in one format or
another, and, furthermore, allows the manipulation of this representation through a set of mathematical
transformations/operators/etc. Thus, a user of a Computer-Aided Design (CAD) system for solid
modeling purposes should have a basic knowledge of computer-graphics principles needed for the
manipulation and storage of graphical data.
       As a preamble to solid modeling, this Chapter will, first, review geometric modeling principles
and concepts in Section 4.2 and, subsequently, address the topics solid-modeling techniques, feature-
based design and product-data-exchange standards in Sections 4.3 to 4.5.


Chapter 5: COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING ANALYSIS AND PROTOTYPING
The concluding phase of engineering design is engineering analysis and prototyping facilitated through
the use of computing software tools. Engineering students spend the majority of their time during their
undergraduate education in preparation for carrying engineering-analysis tasks for this phase of design.
They are, however, often reminded that the analysis of most engineering products would require
approximate solutions and, furthermore, frequently need physical prototyping and testing under real
operating conditions due to our inability to analytically model all physical phenomena.
        In this Chapter, we will review the most common engineering analysis tool used in the
mechanical engineering field  finite-element modeling and analysis (Section 5.2), and subsequently
discuss several optimization techniques (Section 5.3). However, as a preamble to both topics, in Section


B. Benhabib                                     5/15/03                                                      3/7
5.1, we will first discuss prototyping (physical versus virtual) in general and clarify the terminology
commonly used in the mechanical-engineering literature in regard to this topic.


Chapter 6: METAL CASTING, POWDER PROCESSING AND PLASTICS MOLDING
Manufacturing, in its broadest form, refers to “the design, fabrication (production) and, when needed,
assembly of a product.” In its narrower form, however, the term has been frequently used to refer to the
actual physical creation of the product. In this latter context, the manufacturing of a product based on its
design specifications is carried out in a discrete-parts mode (e.g., car engines) or a continuous-production
mode (e.g., powder-form ceramic).
         In this Chapter, three distinct fusion-based production processes are described for the net-shape
fabrication of three primary engineering materials: Casting for metals (Section 6.1), powder-processing
for ceramics and high-melting-point metals, as well as their alloys (e.g., cermets) (Section 6.2), and
molding for plastics (Section 6.3).


Chapter 7: METAL FORMING
Metal-forming processes transform simple-geometry billets/blanks into complex-geometry products
through the plastic deformation of the metal in open or closed dies. Due to the high costs of the dies,
however, these processes are primarily reserved for mass production. Furthermore, one should note that
metal-forming processes may take one or a few iterations in yielding near “net-shape” desired geometries
with no or little scrap.
        In this Chapter, we will first present a brief overview of several common metal-forming processes
(Section 7.1), but present detailed descriptions for only two of those that are targeted for discrete-parts
manufacturing (versus continuous production, such as for tubes and pipes): Forging (Section 7.2) and
sheet-metal forming (Section 7.3). In Section 7.4, we will also briefly review the topic of “quick die
exchange” that is at the heart of productivity improvement through elimination of “waste.”


Chapter 8: MACHINING
Machining refers to cutting operations that are based on the removal of material from an originally rough-
shaped workpiece, for example via casting or forging. Thus, in the literature, such operations have been
often termed as metal-cutting, material-removal and chip-removal techniques.
         In Section 8.1, several representative non-abrasive machining techniques will be reviewed and
critical material-removal-rate variables, such as cutting velocity and feed rate, will be introduced.
Economics of machining, which attempts to minimize costs, utilizes these variables in the derivation of
the necessary optimization models. Thus, in Sections 8.2 and 8.3 of this Chapter, we will address the
relationship of cutting-tool wear to machining-process parameters. We will conclude the Chapter with a
discussion of representative abrasive-machining methods in Section 8.4.


Chapter 9: MODERN MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES
Casting, molding, powder-processing, metal-forming and conventional-machining techniques have
dominated the manufacturing industry since the early 1900s. Their total dominance, however, has been
reduced with the introduction of numerous commercial (non-traditional) manufacturing techniques, since
the 1950s,ranging from ultrasonic machining of metal dies to the nano-scale fabrication of optoelectronic
components using a variety of lasers. Today, the emphasis in using such modern techniques remains on
reduced-scale manufacturing (micro and nano level) with extensive use of lasers for non-contact, tool-less
fabrication of parts for all industries: Household, automotive, aerospace and electronics.



B. Benhabib                                    5/15/03                                                    4/7
         In this Chapter, we will first review several (non-traditional) processes that belong to the class of
material-removal techniques in two separate sections: Non-laser (Section 9.1) versus laser based
fabrication (Section 9.2). Subsequently, we will discuss several modern material-additive techniques
commonly used in the rapid fabrication of layered physical prototypes (Section 9.3).


Chapter 10: ASSEMBLY
The assembly of parts and subassemblies to form a product of desired functionality may involve a number
of joining operations. While some products are passed on to customers as a collection of individual parts
for their assembly by the user, with an incentive of reduced price, most products have to be assembled
prior to their sale either (i) due to their complex and long assembly process, or (ii) due to the specialized
tools needed for their joining that are not readily owned by the perspective customers. Assembly relies
on the “interchangibility of parts” concept introduced in mid 1800s. Namely, individual parts’
dimensions must be carefully controlled, within their tolerance levels, so that they can be assembled
without further re-work during their joining.
         The objective of this Chapter is to address a variety of representative methods for different types
of joining operations available to a manufacturer in the fabrication of multi-component products. These
include mechanical fastening (Section 10.1), adhesive bonding (Section 10.2), welding (Section 10.3),
brazing and soldering (Section 10.4). Automation issues pertinent to these processes are briefly discussed
in their respective sections. The Chapter is concluded with a detailed review of two specific assembly
applications: Automatic assembly of electronic parts (Section 10.5) and automatic assembly of small
mechanical parts (Section 10.6).


Chapter 11: WORKHOLDING: FIXTURES AND JIGS
Workholding in manufacturing refers to immobilization of a part (workpiece) for the purpose of allowing
a fabrication or an assembly process to be carried out on it. The term “fixturing” is also commonly used
to describe workholding. Design of a workholding device requires a careful examination of the
workpiece (geometry, material, mechanical properties and tolerances), the fabrication processes (tool
paths, machining/assembly forces and environment − e.g., use of coolant liquids) and the specific
machines to be utilized.
        In this Chapter, following the description of general workholding principles and basic design
guidelines for jigs and fixtures (Section 11.1), we will review the use of such devices in manufacturing, in
the form of dedicated or modular configurations (Sections 11.2 and 11.3). We will also present a brief
discussion on the computer-aided-design aspects of fixture/jig development (Section 11.4).


Chapter 12: MATERIALS HANDLING
Material handling is defined as the movement of bulk, packaged and individual goods, as well as their in-
process and post-process storage, by means of manual labor or machines within the boundaries of a
facility. The objective of materials handling is the efficient movement of goods for the “on-time” delivery
of “correct” parts in “exact quantities” to desired locations in order to minimize associated handling costs.
Manufacturing plants must, therefore, eliminate all unnecessary part movements, as well as in-process
inventories, for Just-In-Time (JIT) production.
        Although this field of study includes the handling of bulk (solid- or liquid-phase) material and
individual goods, this Chapter will only focus on the latter (i.e., “unit loads”) with a primary emphasis on
material-handling equipment, as opposed to facility planning and movement control. In Sections 12.1 to
12.3, we review industrial trucks (including automated guided vehicles), conveyors and industrial robots
as the primary mechanized/automated material-handling equipment, respectively. We also briefly review
the automated storage and retrieval of goods in high-density warehouses, as well as the important issue of


B. Benhabib                                    5/15/03                                                      5/7
automatic part identification (including bar codes) in Sections 12.4 and 12.5, respectively. The Chapter is
concluded with a discussion on automobile assembly (Section 12.6).


Chapter 13: INSTRUMENTATION FOR MANUFACTURING CONTROL
In Flexible-Manufacturing Systems (FMSs), control is carried out at multiple levels and at different
modes. At the lowest level, our interest is on the control of individual devices (e.g., milling machine,
industrial robot, etc.). At one level above, our concern would be with the control of a collection of
devices working in concert with each other. Here, the primary objective is the sequencing of tasks
through the correct control of parts’ flow. In both cases, however, automatic control relies on accurate
and repeatable feedback, in regard to the output of these processes, achieved through intelligent
instrumentation.
         In this Chapter, the focus is on the description of various sensors that can be used for automatic
control in manufacturing environments. A brief generic introduction to the control of devices in the
continuous-time domain (Section 13.1) precedes the discussion of various pertinent manufacturing
sensors: Motion sensors, force sensors, and machine vision, in Sections 13.2 to 13.4, respectively. A
brief discussion of actuators in Section 13.5 concludes this Chapter.


Chapter 14: CONTROL OF PRODUCTION AND ASSEMBLY MACHINES
In reprogrammable flexible manufacturing, it is envisaged that individual machines carry out their
assigned tasks with minimal operator intervention upon receipt of an appropriate high-level execution
command. Such, automatic device control, normally, refers to forcing a servomechanism, employed by a
production or assembly machine, to achieve (or yield) a desired output parameter value in the continuous-
time domain. In this Chapter, our focus will be on the automatic control of two representative classes of
production and assembly machines: Material-removal machine tools (Section 14.1) and industrial robotic
manipulators (Section 14.2), respectively.


Chapter 15: SUPERVISORY CONTROL OF MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS
In manufacturing industries that employ FMSs, automation has significantly evolved since the
introduction of computers onto the factory floors. Today, in extensively networked environments,
computes play the role of planners as well as high-level controllers. The preferred network architecture is
a hierarchical one: Namely, in the context of production control, a hierarchical network of computers
(distributed on the factory floor) has complete centralized control over the sets of devices within their
domain, while receiving operational instructions from a computer placed “above” them in the hierarchical
tree.
         In a typical large manufacturing enterprise, there may be a number of FMSs each comprising, in
turn, a number of Flexible Manufacturing workCells (FMCs). The focus of this chapter is the
autonomous supervisory control of parts flow within networked FMCs. We first address two of the most
successful DES-control theories developed by the academic community: Ramadge-Wonham automata
theory and Petri-nets theory, Sections 15.1 and 15.2, respectively. It is expected that, in the future,
industrial users will employ such formal DES-control theories in the supervisory control of their FMCs.
The description of PLCs, used for the autonomous DES-based supervisory-control of parts flow in FMCs
(Section 15.3), thus, concludes this Chapter.


Chapter 16: CONTROL OF MANUFACTURING QUALITY
Definition of quality has evolved over the past century from “meeting the engineering specifications of
the product” (i.e., conformance) to “surpassing the expectations of the customer” (i.e., customer


B. Benhabib                                    5/15/03                                                     6/7
satisfaction). Quality has also been defined as a loss to customer in terms of deviation from the nominal
value of the product characteristic, the farther the deviation the greater the loss.
         The management of quality, according to J.M. Juran, can be carried out via three processes:
Planning, control and improvement. Among the three processes specified by Juran for quality
management, the central issue addressed in this Chapter is quality control with emphasis on on-line
control (versus post-process sampling): Measurement technologies as well as statistical process-control
tools. In Section 16.1, a brief history of quality management strategies is presented. Section 16.2, defines
inspection and presents some common techniques and technologies in the field of metrology. Some
basics in probability and statistics theories are presented in Section 16.3 as prelude to the discussion of
statistical process capability and control in Sections 16.4 and 16.5, respectively. A discussion of ISO
9000:2000 concludes this Chapter.


For enquiries please contact Prof. Beno Benhabib at the following address:

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,
University of Toronto
5 King’s College Rd.
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 3G8
E-mail: benhabib_book@mie.utoronto.ca




B. Benhabib                                   5/15/03                                                    7/7

								
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