Sirens Report – September 2003 by fjzhangweiqun

VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 21

									Contents Page

Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 2
What is Sirens…................................................................................................................ 2
What is While u were sleeping? ....................................................................................... 2
What is the identified need? ............................................................................................. 2
What are the substances used in drug assisted assault? ................................................ 3
Alcohol ............................................................................................................................... 4
GHB .................................................................................................................................... 5
Rohypnol ............................................................................................................................ 5
The effects of drug assisted sexual assault on the victim ............................................... 5
The psychological impact of sexual assault and rape .................................................... 5
Health Impact .................................................................................................................... 6
Male sexual assault and rape ........................................................................................... 7
Spiking for other motives ................................................................................................. 7
Sirens.. Pilot Programme ................................................................................................. 7
Statistical Information ...................................................................................................... 9
Sirens… activity questionnaire ...................................................................................... 10
Young People’s Voices .................................................................................................... 11
Additional evidence of need ........................................................................................... 12
The next phase of the project ......................................................................................... 16
The future of the project ................................................................................................ 16
Taking the next step ........................................................................................................ 16
Sirens… ‘While u were sleeping…’ Request for information ..................................17
Sirens… ‘While u were sleeping…’ Worker referral form .......................................18
Sirens… ‘While u were sleeping…’ Advertising Poster .................................... 19
Sirens… ‘While u were sleeping…’ Session advertisment ................................ 20
Sirens… ‘While u were sleeping…’ Booking Form ........................................... 21




                                                                                                                                        1
Introduction

The Sirens… project was started in the year 2001 as a Youth Service partnership between
the „Right 2 Respect‟ Young Women‟s project and the Wrexham Response team. The
two lead workers are Sarah O‟Connell from the „Right 2 Respect‟ Young Women‟s
project and Jim Smith from the Response substance misuse team.
The Sirens.. project worker is Beth Parry.

What is Sirens…

Sirens.. is a partnership project aimed at providing high quality substance misuse and
related information targeted primarily at young women. Additionally Sirens.. aims to
offer this education in the context of the real life experiences of young women within the
Wrexham community and therefore the sessions will be delivered as

   Workshop within youth centres, schools and related projects
   Short interventions within pubs and clubs across Wrexham and
   Profile raising campaigns across the county culminating in larger events within the
    town centre at busy times of the year

In order to make sure that the message of Sirens.., resonates across the county we will
also offer training to

   Youth workers and other professionals interested in offering the sessions within their
    projects
   Bar managers, bar staff and door staff on the impact of drug assisted assault and what
    they can do to support the safety of women socialising in their establishments
   Taxi companies and their employee‟s so they can be aware of how they can support
    the safety of their client groups.

What is While u were sleeping?

While u were sleeping is a mini project under the Sirens... banner focusing on drink
spiking and drug assisted assault.

What is the identified need?

Drinking is a common rite of passage for many young people in the UK and
experimenting with alcohol is nothing new or different. However over recent years there
has been an increase in fear and awareness of the concept of spiking and drug assisted
assault and its link to drinking and socialising. For young women this fear and
perception of fear is a very real thing and affects their ability to socialise and drink within
their communities and within licensed establishments.

Additionally life is changing for young men and the male gender as a whole.


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“Life for men is less certain and less predictable than the model of masculinity in
existence 70 years ago.”
Biddulph and Blake, 2002

Although men have the ability to be exceptionally positive contributors to society they
can also demonstrate “ misogynist, sexist and violent behaviour towards women…”
Biddulph and Blake 2002

According to the ESRC Violence Research Programme Brunel University 1998 – Taking
stock What do we know about violence?

Over 40% of women report having been subjected to rude or abrasive comments in the
street
One in six women report having been followed in the street
95% of rape victims are female
Over 80% of domestic attacks on women involve their partner or ex partner

According to the Home Office Research Directorate 1996

The highest victimisation rates for rape were in the 10-15 ages group (59 per 100,000)

According to Thompson and Pleck in „The structure of male norms‟ in Kimmel M (ed)
„Changing men: new directions in research on men and masculinity‟ 1987
There are three main norms that can be used to identify masculinity:-
Toughness, status and anti-femininity

These three aims are in themselves nothing more than a framework which men work
against to decide who they are and what they believe in. Indeed many men choose to
reject these norms and redefine their masculinity. However for some men these three
norms are adapted into an aggression and negativity which they feel boosts their
masculinity. The toughness becomes aggression, status becomes a quest for power over
others and the anti-femininity often changes to an anti female attitude. It is this
perversion of the positive attributes of masculinity, which often lead to anti female crimes
such as rape and drug assisted assault. The „Sirens… While u were sleeping‟ project is
focused on raising awareness and harm reduction. It intends to offer realistic and
relevant information to young women so that they can protect themselves and become
empowered individuals armed with knowledge and not bogged down by fear and
misinformation.

What are the substances used in drug assisted assault?

According to the Sturman report the following drugs have been detected in drug rape
samples submitted to the Forensic Science Laboratory
Alcohol
GHB
Zoplicone

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Dixtromethorpine
Prometazine

In addition the following drugs whilst not detected are either suspected of having been
used or have the potential to be used
GBL
Benzodiazepines such as:
Alprazolam ( Xanax)
Bromazepam ( Lexotan)
Chlordiazepoxide (librium)
Clonazepam ( Rivotril)
Diazepam(Valium)
Diphenhydramine ( Benadryl etc)
Flunitrazepam ( Rohypnol)
Flurazepam (Dalman)
Lorazepam (Ativan)
Nitrazepam (Mogadon)
Tamazepam (Restoril)
Triazepam (Halcion)
Ketamine
Chloroform
Zolpidem
Scopolamine
Yohimbine
Morphine
Barbituates
Atropine

Alcohol

According to the Sturman Report 54% of complainants were given a drug via alcohol.
Alcohol is regularly being detected in drug rape and assault samples. As a society we
accept alcohol of part of our culture and therefore always assume that underhand attacks
will take place via unusual drugs and substances. However alcohol is easily available
and can be used to spike other drinks or other alcohol to enable an attack to take place.
As the Sturman report states
“Alcohol… is undoubtedly the oldest „Mickey Finn‟ ”

When alcohol is mixed with other substances it can form a potent mixture. Alcohol is not
simply the vehicle for the drug it reacts with the drug and can often speed up its affects
on the body. According to the Sturman report “the rise in allegations of drug assisted
assault have roughly mirrored the proliferation of alcopops.” This may indicate that
people –especially young people who are the main target group for alcopop producers -
are drinking more than they realise and are falling prey to sexual attack.



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GHB

Gamma Hydroxy Butyrate is a synthetic drug used as an anaesthetic. Its is a colourless,
practically odourless substance that can have a slightly salty taste. It is now used as an
illegal recreational drug, sex drug and body building drug. According to the Sturman
report GHB “may not be detectable by means of toxicology beyond eight hours after
ingestion.” Information from the USA indicates that alcohol and GHB are probably the
drugs used most often in drug assisted sexual assault. This according to the Sturman
report is supported “by toxicology findings, symptoms displayed by complainants,
seizure of the drug from offenders and admissions by offenders.” GHB is a depressant
and therefore slows down body action. A small dose will have a similar impact as having
a few drinks. At higher doses it can cause nausea, sleepiness, muscle stiffness and
confusion. Additionally GHB can cause feelings of euphoria or induce fits or
unconsciousness. The effects have been known to last for a day.

Rohypnol

Rohypnol is the drug most commonly linked to drug assisted assault in the minds of the
public. However this is a misunderstanding developed when people tried to educate
themselves about spiking. The Internet was the main source of information on spiking
and drug assisted assault however much of the information on the Internet was from
America where a few convictions based on Rohypnol had taken place. According to the
Sturman report “Rohypnol has not been detected in any suspected drug rape samples
submitted to the Forensic Science Service.”

The drug Rohypnol has been redesigned to minimise its potential for use in sexual
assault. Rohypnol now gives off a blue dye and particles will float to the top of any
liquid that it is placed in. It will take about twenty minutes to fully dissolve. Rohypnol is
a tranquilliser drug which has been used legitimately for short term treatment of sleep
disorders, as it produces sedative- hypnotic effects including muscle relaxation and
amnesia.

The effects of drug assisted sexual assault on the victim


The psychological impact of sexual assault and rape

Drug assisted sexual assault and rape are always about using force or power to humiliate,
control hurt or violate the victim rather than about sexual desire or passion.

Any person can be subjected to sexual assault or rape regardless of their status, age,
cultural background, occupation or previous relationships is irrelevant. For most women
sexual assault and rape is the most serious life crisis they will have to deal with. The
victim will undergo a range of emotions including fear, rage, panic attacks and feelings of
worthlessness. However there is no such thing as a normal reaction and therefore women
will react in a wide variety of ways.

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According to the national council of psychotherapists article Rape the victim perspective
(www.natcouncilofpsychotherapists.org.uk) fear is the most common response to sexual
assault and rape. It could be fear of seeing the perpetrator again, or they may associate
sounds places and smells with danger. However fear may just be manifest as a general
loss of personal security and inner peacefulness. The victim may also feel very depressed
and have feelings of guilt, worthlessness or self disgust. Rape victims often experience a
significant loss of self-esteem that often lasts for a considerable length of time.

Victims of drug assisted assault often find it harder to work through the feelings and
emotional trauma linked to sexual assault if they have had memory losses or been
unconscious during the assault. This often means that the victim has had ownership of
her body, mind and memory taken away by the perpetrator. For victim‟s there is the
constant questioning of when, where and how they were assaulted that will often never be
fully answered. It is increasingly recognised that rape victims may suffer from Post
Traumatic Stress Disorder. This is a normal reaction seen in normal people who have
been through a terrifying situation that they had no control over. According to the
psychiatric diagnostic journal manual DSM-IV the following criteria are some of the
criteria that have to be met

a) The person must have been exposed to a traumatic event involving actual or
   threatened injury or death during which they responded with panic, horror and
   feelings of helplessness.
b) They re-experience the trauma in the form of dreams, flashbacks, intrusive memories
   or unrest at being in situation that remind them of the original trauma.
c) They show evidence of avoidance behaviour
d) They experience physiological hyperarousal as evidenced by insomnia, agitation,
   irritability or outbursts of rage.

Health Impact

There are several impacts on health from being the victim of a drug assisted sexual
assault or rape. Firstly the actual assault or rape may have caused physical injury to the
body – including cuts, bruises and more serious injuries that will require treatment.
Secondly the substance used for the spiking may have an impact on the victims health in
the short term. For example if the victim has been plied with high levels of alcohol they
may feel extremely nauseous and physically ill for a number of days after the event.

In terms of sexual health there are a number of checks that will need to take place. The
victim will have to undertake a range of sexually transmitted infection (STI) tests to
ensure that they have not been infected by the perpetrator. Whilst many of these tests can
take place fairly quickly a test for HIV will take six months to give the all clear to the
victim. Obviously even if all these tests are clear the process itself can be very
distressing and emotional for the victim. This is obviously increased considerably if a
victim is informed that they have acquired an STI from the perpetrator. They will then
have to undergo treatment in the short, medium and long-term depending on the specific
infection they have.

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If the victim realises that they have been sexually assaulted or raped soon after the event
they may take the morning after pill to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. Alternatively
pregnancy testing will be something that the victim will have to consider. Again simply
participating in the test can be very traumatic with the victim having to consider the
possible responses. If the result is positive the victim will have to be supported to make
the decisions that is right for them. Whatever the result of the test the victim will need
support to deal with the emotions and feelings that taking a pregnancy test under such
circumstances will produce.

Male sexual assault and rape

It is important to note that men are often the victims of sexual assault and rape and are
therefore also at risk of drug assisted sexual assault.

Spiking for other motives

There are a number of other reasons why spiking takes place. Firstly there is a common
trend to use spiking as a way to humiliate or embarrass someone and make them look a
fool in front of other people. The perpetrator can be someone who has a grudge or
grievance against the victim and wants to humiliate them or simply someone who enjoys
being in control. Alternatively the perpetrator(s) may be an individual or a group of
people who enjoy spiking victims and sitting back and enjoying the effects. The victim
unknowingly takes their spiked drink and then as the effects hit them they may fall over
or knock things over and then panic as the effects of the substances take hold, all of
which brings entertainment and hilarity to the perpetrator(s)

Additionally a simple use of spiking is to enable thieves to steal property from victims.
They spike a target and then as the substances start to take an effect they steal a bag, coat
or car keys. The victim is too busy dealing with the effects of the drug to notice their
property has disappeared and the perpetrator has ample opportunity to get away.
Whatever the motive for spiking the way to protect yourself is the same. Therefore it is
important that young women have the skills and knowledge to minimise their risk from
spiking whatever the motive.

Sirens.. Pilot Programme

A sessional worker for the Sirens.. project was employed in early 2003. She has been
instrumental in bringing life to the project and offering new views and ideas. A
workshop was put together on Sirens… aimed at delivery within youth centres across
Wrexham. This workshop offered an opportunity for groups of young women to talk
about their fears around spiking, learn accurate information and share ideas about
reducing their risk. The programme was run as a pilot to see whether the interest or need
in the community was there and also to see how the session could then be taken into more
social environments. During the session the young women were given a range of
promotional materials including leaflets on Sirens… and a pen and a key ring. The key
ring was designed with a bottle opener attached so that young people who were drinking
in the streets or at house parties could open their own bottles and therefore have control
                                                                                           7
over what they were drinking. These proved to be very popular additions to the activity
and acted as an aide memoir to young people when socialising – connecting what they
had learned in the session to their real activities.




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Statistical Information

This information gives details of who attended the sessions.

Youth Centres                  Numbers in          Percentage of total
                               attendance
Garden Village       12                            16.4%
Gresford             10                            13.7%
Johnstown            6                             8.3%
Pentre Maelor        4                             5.5%
Rhos Detached        5                             6.8%
Holt                 2                             2.7%
Rhos                 11                            15.1%
Voluntary      Youth
Organisations
Bettisfield          4                             5.5%
The Venture          8                             10.9%
Plas Madoc Youth 11                                15.1%
Partnership
TOTAL                73                            100%




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Sirens… activity questionnaire

This questionnaire completed by 44 of the 73 participants (60.3% return) offered the
following contribution to the evaluation.


Number      of    young   Numbers responding   Percentage of total
people who thought
session was
GOOD                      36                   81.8 %
OK                        8                    18.2%
BAD                       0                    0
TOTAL                     44                   100%
Was the size of the
group
GOOD                      34                   77.3%
OK                        10                   22.7%
BAD                       0                    0
TOTAL                     44                   100%
Was the length of time
GOOD                      33                   75%
OK                        9                    20.5%
BAD                       2                    4.5%
Were the instructors
GOOD                      41                   93.2%
OK                        3                    6.8%
BAD                       0                    0
TOTAL                     44                   100%




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Young People’s Voices

Young people who took part in the sessions were asked to evaluate the sessions and offer
suggestions for its improvement. Here are a selection of the responses.

What was the best thing about the Sirens… activity?

“Learning about getting your drinks spiked”
“Learning about the drugs involved and what they can do”
“Learning stuff such as do not have a shower if you have been raped”
“Learning all the stuff that we did- like finding out what to do if you did get spiked”
“Learning that when you go out keep an eye on your drinks”
“The dangers…,”
“We were discussing what had happened in our past”
“Learning about the drugs and learning to take precautions”
“Talking”
“learnt a lot about date rape”
“You get to know things that you didn‟t know before”
“Knowing all the facts about the drugs and what it does”
“To make sure you stay safe”
“How your drinks are very easy to be spiked”
“The free stuff”
“I got to understand things clearly and I‟ve learnt a lot”
“learning different advice”
“fun and learning”

What was the worst thing?

“talking about people who don‟t know what happened to them”
“hearing the terrible things that can happen to young people”
“Nothing”

How could the pens / key rings be improved?

“Key rings should be smaller and made of metal so they don‟t break.”
“Key rings should be funkier”
“Pens are nice as they are”




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Additional evidence of need

An additional pie of research was undertaken in July / August 2003. Two groups of
young women were asked a series of questions about their drinking and socialising and
their awareness of drug assisted assault and spiking.

The sessions took place in a relaxed atmosphere and the young women involved were
briefed on the meaning of confidentiality and were told that the evidence used from the
discussion would be used in a report and also would inform the development of the
Sirens... project.

GROUP ONE
The first group consisted of twenty young women aged between twelve and sixteen years
of age.

Question one
Where do you socialise in your community?

Park                                                                    12     60%
Friends houses                                                          18     90%
Bus stop                                                                9      45%
Back of garages, back of businesses (sheltered, undeveloped ground)     15     75%

Question two
Where do you get access to alcohol?

Buy from shop                                                           4      20%
Take from home / friends homes                                          9      45%
Older friends, relatives buy from shop and give to you                  15     75%
Turn up at meeting place and buy alcohol off friends,                   18     90%
older young people etc.
Turn up at meeting place and wait to be offered a drink from friends    18     90%

Question three
Have you ever accepted a drink from a young person you did not know?

Yes                                                                     18     90%
No                                                                      2      10%

Question four
Have you ever accepted an opened drink from someone when socialising?

Yes                                                                     18     90%
No                                                                      2      10%

Question five

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Do you know what drug assisted assault or spiking is?

Yes                                                                        17     85%
No                                                                         3      15%

Question six
What is spiking?
Sample of responses:
“Drink that has a drug put into it by someone”
“ When someone tries and gets you drunk or out of it by putting stuff in your drinks”

Question seven
Why do people spike drinks?
Sample of responses:
“ To get girls to relax so they can tap off with them”
“To get people drunk or whatever so they can rape them or rob from them”
“To get you in a state where they can take the piss out of you”

Question eight
What is used to spike drinks?
Sample of responses:
“Drugs”
“ Stuff that they buy off the Internet or from sex shops”
“Alcohol that they can‟t taste”

Question nine
What kind of person spikes?
Sample of responses:
“Anyone – it could be anyone”
“Strangers or people who don‟t like you”

GROUP TWO
The second group consisted of twenty young women aged between eighteen and twenty-
four years of age.

Question one
Where do you drink alcohol?

Pubs in town                                                               19     95%
Pubs where I live                                                          19     95%
Clubs in town                                                              17     85%
At my house or friends houses                                              19     95%
Don‟t drink alcohol at all                                                 1      5%
In the park or other similar place                                         10     50%

Question two

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Where do you get access to alcohol?

Buy from shop                                                              19      95%
Buy at pub or club                                                         19      95%
Get given alcohol at parties, social gatherings                            19      95%

Question three
Have you ever accepted a drink ( alcoholic or non – alcoholic) from a person you did not
know?

Yes                                                                        15      75%
No                                                                         5       25%

Question four
Why have you accepted drinks from people you do not know?
Sample or responses:
“If you are in town and you haven‟t got a lot of money it is a way of getting a few drinks.
A friend of mine goes to town and has a competition to see how many drinks she can get
bought for her”
“Men buy you drinks because they think it is impressive but if you are not interested the
drink won‟t change your mind”
“ If you fancy someone and they offer you a drink and then you say no it looks as if you
are saying get lost so it is difficult isn‟t it?”
“If you are out with a group of friends sometimes a few people you don‟t know very well
turn up with someone else in the group. If they buy a round it would look rude to say no
wouldn‟t it.”

Question five
Have you ever accepted an opened drink from someone when socialising?

Yes                                                                 20     100%
No                                                                  0

Sample of responses:
“Its worse at people‟s houses cause they pour out the drinks from bottles and stuff. At a
bar you can see the person pour the drink and give it to you. At a party you don‟t”

Question six
Do you know what drug assisted assault or spiking is?

Yes                                                                        17      85%
No                                                                         3       15%

Question seven
What is spiking?
Sample of responses:

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“When drugs are slipped in your drinks”
“ When a man drugs you in a pub”

Question eight
Why do people spike drinks?
Sample of responses:
“ To have sex with women”
“To get you to do whatever they want”
“So they can get away with raping you”

Question nine
What is used to spike drinks?
Sample of responses:
“Drugs”
“Rohypnol I have heard of… but probably lots of stuff”
“Alcohol”

Question ten
What kind of person spikes?
Sample of responses:
“Men who like to control you”
“People who want to humiliate people”

From this research it is clear that although the young women involved in the discussions
had some idea of what spiking was most of them still were happy to accept drinks from
strangers. They also showed that they felt it was safe to accept opened drinks from
friends and relatives and saw drug assisted assault as a crime perpetrated by strangers.




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The next phase of the project

The following centres will be targeted over the next three months (September to
December 2003)

Brynteg
Garden Village
Llay
Marchwiel
Queen‟s Park
Rhos
Rhostyllen
Victoria Youth Centre

Centres that have not so far been approached will be targeted in early 2004 ( January to
March)

The future of the project

The sessions delivered as workshops in youth centres have been improved with the
addition or Sirens.. specific word searches, cross words and quizzes. The content of the
sessions is being updated and will cover a wider range of areas connected to drug assisted
assault. The merchandise is being reviewed in partnership with young people.

A referral form (see Appendix A) will be completed by the Sirens.. worker after every
session delivered in a youth centre or project. The referral form is a tool to inform
relevant Youth Service projects of the information that we have learnt from the sessions.
Obviously as the sessions are confidential no names will be mentioned or identifying
information provided. However after each session the worker will review if there were
any particular areas of concern that need to be addressed. With the nature of the sessions
and the evidence gained from the pilot of Sirens.. we anticipate that any information will
be connected to substance misuse and sexual health and information. Therefore a referral
from will be sent to the Information Shop and Response so that it can be used to inform
their work.

In addition a self-referral form (see Appendix B) has been produced which will be
completed by any young person participating in the session who requires additional
information or support.

Taking the next step

The workshop session will be condensed into a five minute intervention which will be
delivered by the Sirens.. team on five nights in early 2004. This will then be evaluated to
judge its success. In 2004 a strategy to take the project forward into more clubs and pubs
will be designed after the team has had an opportunity to reflect on the success of the
Christmas 2003 approach.

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Wrexham Youth Service

Sirens…
 A Youth Service Partnership Project between the ‘Right 2 Respect’
 Young Women’s Project and the Response Substance Misuse team


‘While u were sleeping…’
  Project providing information on drug assisted assault and drink
           spiking for young women in the Wrexham area

I want more info…


Name…………………………………………………
Address………………………………………………
……….………………………………………………
E – mail……………………….………………………
Phone /Mobile……………………………………….


I want more info on;

Sexual health…………………………….…………..


Substance and Alcohol use…………………………...


Any other issues?…………………………………….


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Wrexham Youth Service

Sirens…
  A Youth Service Partnership Project between the ‘Right 2 Respect’
  Young Women’s Project and the Response Substance Misuse team


‘While u were sleeping…’
   Project providing information on drug assisted assault and drink
            spiking for young women in the Wrexham area


A Sirens… session was delivered in …………………………………………
Young Peoples Centre on……………………………………………………..

The following issues which were raised in the session are being forwarded to
you for your information:

Sex/Relationships

Substance Misuse

Miscellaneous




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Advertising Poster




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Session advertisment




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Booking Form




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