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					A Good Safety Program Is Not
          Enough!

                  Steve Updegraff
                         Lockton




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            Traditional Safety Tasks

 Inspect (to identify things wrong).
 Hold meetings (because OSHA says we must).
 Investigate accidents (to place blame).
 Safety projects not shared with or including employees.
 Safety efforts separate from daily activities.
 Enforce rules (whose rules).
 Keep records (employee does not understand).




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          Why Safety Programs Fail

 A choice must be made daily between safety and
  production—route time schedules.
 Traditional safety efforts dictate safety program without
  employee involvement.
 Try to buy safety with incentive plan.
 Blame placing and finger pointing.
 That is just how safety programs are done:
   Not my job.
   The workers’ compensation system is unfair.




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          Why Safety Programs Fail

 Negative consequence for reporting accidents.
 Safety awards not related to behavior or efforts.
 Dependence on management for safety planning and
  decision making.
 Reliance on punishment for reducing unsafe acts.




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      Corporate Safety Attitude Comparison

 Reluctant compliers (Forced to Participate):
     Employee is responsible for accidents.
     Find fault/Place blame.
     Set rules/Enforce/Inspect.
     Discipline.
 Leaders (Want to Participate, Ownership):
   Employee is responsible for safe work environment/recognize
    employee.
   Solicit employee perceptions and ideas regarding company safety
    efforts.
   Input employee ideas/Keep flexible.



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    Classical Safety Attitudes/Perceptions

 Employees:
   Older, faulty equipment, and work conditions are the primary
    cause of accidents, not their behaviors.
   Management-written safety rules are used to place blame on
    employees.
   Employees have minimal or no input on safety process.
   Many job tasks are unsafe and can cause injury, but management
    tells us to complete task anyway.
   As long as production numbers are met, safety is not important.




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      Classical Safety Attitudes/Perceptions

 Management:
   Employees cause accidents.
   Employees are faking injuries.
   Employees could not care less about safety.
   Employees are going to speed on forklifts and climb on freight
    regardless of what we do.
   Production requirements force unsafe behaviors.




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There are two components of an effective safety program.
Most companies only have one.


1.Safety elements (the traditional and
  visible).
2.Safety culture (not visible).




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                   Safety Elements

                                           Toolbox
                                            Safety
     Driver             Smith System        Talks
   Qualification          Training
    Process


Drug and
 Alcohol                                Annual Safe
                                       Driver Training
                       Written
                       Safety
                      Programs


New Driver                                 Accident
Ride-alongs               Safety         Investigation
                          Audits
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           Safety Culture




Safety        Written Safety               New Driver
Audits         Programs                    Ride-alongs



 Toolbox                     Driver           Smith System
  Safety                   Qualification        Training
  Talks                     Training


                                            Drug and
                                             Alcohol
          Annual Safe
         Driver Training
                             Accident
                           Investigation

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                            Safety Culture

 The attitudes, values, norm, and beliefs that a particular
  group of people share with respect to safety.
 What happens when no one is watching?
     Will   the   driver comply with the speed limit?
     Will   the   driver remove trash from the van?
     Will   the   driver comply with GOAL?
     Will   the   driver pencil-whip the pretrip audit?
     Will   the   employee wear the required PBE?




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               The Water Includes:

 Assumptions.
 Attitudes.
 Beliefs.
 Acceptable behaviors, “the ropes.”
 What the work group holds in common union.
 Peer pressures.
 What is overlooked.
 The way things are done around here.
 Group attitudes!
 The unspoken rules and beliefs that drive everyone’s
  behaviors.
 Performance Measures.

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  Two Key Things We Need to Know About
                 Culture

1.The most important part of a safety culture is the part
  we cannot see; that is where the culture hazards are—
  the water.
   That unwritten code of behavior on how to answer the following
    questions:
    • How safe is safe?
    • Would it be ok to remind someone to clean trash out of the van, or
      would that result in a “mind your own business?”
    • Should we speed to meet deadlines?
    • Is it ok to stop and take safety precautions?
   Safe behaviors change. Without a culture, safety will not last.




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          How Good Is Our Water?

 Do our Associates try to identify safety hazards?
 Do Associates watch each other regarding safety issues?
 Are accident trends discovered before accidents occur?
 Do our managers support safety change where
  necessary?
 Can we measure safety without failure rates?
 Have past safety programs produced long-lasting
  results?




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  Two Key Things We Need to Know About
                 Culture
1. Your safety program/elements is not your safety culture.
2. Your safety culture is the context in which we carry out
   the safety program.
   To achieve safety excellence, we need both a good safety
    program, AND a good safety culture.




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Two Key Things We Need to Know About
               Culture
 A positive safety culture/good water includes:
  •   Caring
  •   Leadership
  •   Trust
  •   Visibility
  •   Integrity
 A negative culture/bad water includes:
  •   Lack of caring
  •   Low management visibility
  •   Mistrust
  •   Prioritization of production deadlines
  •   Focus on numbers instead of people




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  Where Does Safety Culture Improvement
                 Start?
                           At the top!
1. Perform a safety culture assessment at all levels of
   management and employees. “We cannot prescribe until
   we diagnose.”
2. Different strokes for different folks.
3. Leaders shape change:
   real estate = location, location, location;
   culture change = leadership, leadership, leadership.
4. This change effort will not be sustainable until owned and
   driven by BOTH top management and employees.
5. Manager’s job is to figure out ways to allow and encourage
   employee to contribute. The employee’s job is to make
   that contribution.
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            What Ails an Organization

Symptoms                               Signs
 Uncorrected Hazards                   High incident rates
 Low employee involvement              High frequency rates
 Fear                                  High insurance claims
 Lack of Feedback                      Low safety audit scores
 Poor Safety Practices                 Increased cost per employee
 Near misses                            work hour
 Leaders not walking the talk
 Fraudulent insurance claims

                             Confirmed by:
Perception surveys, focus group interviews, and management interview
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         Why Measure Perceptions?

 “Perceptions are reality”
 Regardless of management’s intent regarding safety—
  reality is what employees perceive about safety.




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“Measuring the effectiveness of safety programs usually
    becomes an assessment of accident statistics.”



   “This is basically an exercise in measuring luck.”



                                     Dan Peterson—1996



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More safety programs (Elements) are not the
answer—there must be a new CULTURE (clean
water) where safety becomes an internal value
  that permeates every task throughout the
                  company.




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       Criteria for Safety Excellence

  “Expression of the safety culture on a regular basis vs.
     enforcement of safety rules on a selected basis.”


“Modify the elements to fit the safety culture, which varies
                      by locations.”


 “Participation of employees in a flexible system driven by
supervisors and managers that have a stake in the system
          cannot help but be perceived as positive.”



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 There is no magic key to
an effective safety program.




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          Criteria for Safety Excellence

                                           Element or Culture?
   Actively solicit ideas and opinions of workers.
   Provide personal-protective equipment.
   Establish a confidence and trust between workers
    and management regarding safe work environment.
   Install a safety committee.
   Recognize exceptional safety behaviors and provide
    positive feedback in front of peers vs. only finding
    fault of unsafe behaviors.
   Be approachable regarding safety suggestions.
   Perform monthly safety audits designed by
    corporate safety staff.

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     “Tell me and I’ll forget; show me and
I may remember; involve me and I’ll understand
                 and support.”

                 Chinese Proverb




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        Criteria for Safety Excellence

                                  Element or Culture?
 OSHA- and corporate-required training.
 Accident investigation to complete insurance
  first report of injury.
 Demonstrate that management understands
  safety issues:
   Workers’ compensation system.
   Injury control costs are a controllable business expense.
   Ideas for improvement/employee task force.
 Enforce safety rules.
 Install safety posters.

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        Criteria for Safety Excellence

                                      Element or Culture?
 Information sharing on a regular basis:
   Cost and types of employee injuries.
   Legal requirements regarding OSHA and WIC.
   Accident histories.
 Install wet-floor signs while mopping.
 Wear shoes for crews.
 Lead by example, where required (i.e., personal
  protective equipment).
 Provide fire-extinguisher training.
 Teach workers to solve their own problems vs. safety
  department and local management dictating answers.

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