Garden Tips for the South West by lindahy


More Info
									To find out your watering days, simply take the last digit of
your house or lot number and apply it to the table below:

 South of Kalbarri & Kalgoorlie Watering Days
 Last digit of your lot
                          Your 2 scheme watering days are:
 or house number

           1              Wednesday and Saturday

           2              Thursday and Sunday

           3              Friday and Monday

           4              Saturday and Tuesday

           5              Sunday and Wednesday
                                                                                                   Garden Tips
           6              Monday and Thursday

           7              Tuesday and Friday
                                                                                                   for the
           8              Wednesday and Saturday
                                                                                                   South West
           9              Thursday and Sunday

           0              Friday and Monday

                          You may water only once each day
                          either before 9am or after 6pm.

The State Government has indicated, in principle, support
for a winter sprinkler ban in June, July and August
each year for Perth, Mandurah and some towns in the
south of the State. Visit the Water Corporation website – for the latest information
about this initiative.

The Water Corporation has lots of ways you can save
                                                                November 2009 ISBN 1 74043 395 5

water, both in the home and around your garden.
Simply call the Waterwise Infoline on 13 10 39 or visit our
website at

This information is available in alternative formats
on request.
Kangaroo Paw                                                                                                                     Crepe Myrtle

        INTRODUCTION                                                  development in the easterlies to the north of the ridge of
        The South West region of Western Australia comprises          a trough of low pressure near the West Coast. For much
        of coastal communities such as Bunbury and                    of the year the ridge is located to the south allowing
        Busselton, as well as the inland towns of Donnybrook,         the east or southeasterly winds to prevail. During the
        Greenbushes, Boyup Brook, Bridgetown and Manjimup.            cooler months the ridge periodically moves to the north
                                                                      allowing cold fronts to pass over the west coast and
        The South West supports a wide range of activities such
                                                                      deliver much of the annual rainfall.
        as tourism, mining, viticulture, agriculture, forestry, art
        and craft, fishing and recreational pursuits.                 The annual mean rainfall in Bunbury is 724mm. Rain
                                                                      occurs there on about four days out of every seven on
        South West Water Supply
                                                                      average during winter. Heavy rain may be produced by
        Bunbury and Busselton are supplied with water from
                                                                      strong winter cold fronts.
        deep bores, while most inland towns in the south of the
                                                                      It is not unusual for there to be extended dry periods
        region rely on surface collected water held in dams.
                                                                      during the warmer months.
        Drinking water supplies have been under pressure for
        the last few years, due to climate change and rapid           Summer maximum temperatures near the coast are
        population growth in the South West, culminating in           strongly dependent upon the arrival time of the reliable
        water restrictions being imposed on some towns in             sea breezes. Heatwaves are associated with strong
        recent years.                                                 easterly winds and the late arrival or absence of the
                                                                      sea breeze.
        Growing a garden in this region can be challenging at
        times. This brochure has been designed to help you            Winds are mainly easterly but varied in the warmer
        develop a garden that is rewarding and friendly to the        months by reliable afternoon sea breezes and in the
        environment, your wallet and our scarce resources.            cooler months by the westerlies that are associated with
                                                                      the bulk of the annual rainfall.
                                                                      Temperatures vary across the region with Augusta being
        The region experiences a Mediterranean climate,               the coolest town in summer with a February average
        characterised by hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters.      of 23.3°C, while Bridgetown has the hottest average
        The climate is strongly influenced by the position of         temperature of 29.7°C in January. Bridgetown also has
        the axis of the band of high pressure known as the            the lowest minimum temperature with an average of
        sub-tropical ridge, and in the warmer months by the           4.4°C in July.
Cockie’s Tongue

         GARDEN DESIGN                                               Rapid air movement causes plants to transpire greater
         In the past water conservation was rarely considered        amounts of water. Hot, dry winds can cause serious
         during the process of creating a garden. We now know        damage even to quite tough plants. Protecting plants
         that garden design can play a significant role in saving    from the wind reduces both water use and stress. The
         water and we also have access to a greater range of         best protection is from a windbreak that filters the wind,
         products that will help us achieve savings without          allowing some through but slowing it down. Tough native
         sacrificing the comfort factor in the garden.               shrubs and trees make the best living windbreaks.

         The role of a lawn should be carefully considered. There    Plants have different water requirements. By placing
         is no substitute for grass as a cool, child friendly play   plants with similar needs together we can create
         area. However, many gardens have large areas of lawn        watering zones (hydrozones) where all the plants can
         that are never used or simply grown as fillers. Most        be watered only according to their needs.
         gardeners overwater their lawns. So the more lawn they      By controlling or at least moderating the effects of wind
         have, the more water they waste. In a Waterwise design      and sun it is possible to create microclimates within a
         the area of lawn should be minimised and made as            garden where some of the more delicate plants can be
         practical as possible.                                      grown. The south and southeast are generally the most
         Many gardens have areas that need no watering,              sheltered parts of a garden.
         especially paving. In a Waterwise design these areas
         should be maximised but not to the point where comfort
         is sacrificed. Large areas of unshaded paving can create    There is a large range of different soils in the region

         a heat trap that will also affect the temperature inside    from deep sands on the coast to sandy peats, loams

         the house. The value of shade in the garden is often        and clays, and complex duplex soils where one type

         overlooked. Many plants grow well in light or partial       sits on top of another. There are also areas of bare rock

         shade provided by trees, large shrubs and pergolas.         and gravel. Drainage is a major problem in winter, with

         Shade drastically reduces temperatures and increases        many parts of the region becoming flooded. This partly

         the comfort of both people and plants.                      reflects the rising water table that has resulted from
                                                                     tree removal.
         Shade trees should be selected carefully to ensure they
         are appropriate for regional weather conditions such as     Several town sites are affected by rising salty

         strong winds.                                               groundwater. The most effective way of combating this
Morning Iris                                                                                                                      Mint Bush

          is to use plants that are able to draw all their water from   1 Organic matter
          the ground and thus help to lower the water table. Trees      Organic matter is anything that was once living but has
          are the most effective natural water pumps.                   subsequently been broken down by natural processes.

                                                                        Whichever material you choose it should be well
                                                                        composted and fine in texture with small particles.
          While some local native species of plants will grow in
                                                                        Garden centres sell a range of organic matter products
          natural soil without any soil improvement, most still
                                                                        that are suitable for adding to the soil including soil
          gain some extra benefit from it, especially during the
                                                                        conditioner, soil improver, soil concentrate, animal
          establishment phase. In many cases this is because
                                                                        manure and compost. Products that meet Australian
          garden soil, especially in a newly developed area, has
                                                                        Standards are recommended.
          been degraded.

          Most exotic species require the soil to be improved prior     2 Soil amendments
          to planting.                                                  These are products which when added to a soil
                                                                        permanently change its water and/or nutrient holding
          There is a range of products that can be added to soil to
                                                                        capacity. Soil amendments include Spongolite, Zeolite,
          improve its water and nutrient holding capacity. Adding
                                                                        Bentonite Clay (for sandy soils only) and Gypsum (for
          these products will:
                                                                        dispersive clays only). Soil can also be amended by the
               • Improve soil structure                                 addition of a different soil type. Amendments should be
               • Allow both water and nutrients to be retained          applied at the manufacturer’s recommended rates.
                 around a plant’s root system for longer thus
                                                                        3 Water storing granules
                 encouraging steady and healthy growth while
                                                                        These are granules that swell up as they absorb large
                 using less resources
                                                                        quantities of water. When mixed through the soil they
               • Buffer pH                                              increase its water holding capacity. These granules are
               • Ensure that the soil remains healthy and teeming       very useful when growing plants in containers. They
                 with life                                              should be hydrated and mixed with potting mix prior
          In all cases please be sure to follow recommended             to potting up.
          application rates and safety instructions.
Prostrate Eremophila

         SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF SOUTH WEST SOILS                          Saving Ideas Soil Improvement brochure for detailed
                                                                           information on establishing a new lawn. This can be
           Soil        Becomes      Water    Nutrient Benefits Benefits    found at
           Type        non‑wettable holding holding from       from Soil
                                    capacity capacity Organic Amendments   Existing lawns can be treated by spreading a thin layer
                                                      Matter   (various)
           Sand        Very          Poor   Poor    Greatly   Greatly      of fine organic material over the surface and allowing
                       commonly                                            normal watering to slowly take it into the soil. Organic
           Sandy    Occasionally Medium Medium Greatly        Some         matter should not be applied when heavy rain is likely.
                                                                           SHAPING THE SOIL
           Clay        Very rarely   Good   Medium Greatly    A little
           Rocky    Occasionally Medium Medium Greatly        A little
                                                                           Shaping the garden soil profile allows for both water
           or stony                                                        harvesting and improved drainage during the wet
           soils                                                           season. Planting on mounded ground will improve
           Potting     Very          Good   Good    NA        A little     drainage in clay soils and reduce the risk of loss due
           mix         commonly
                                                                           to water-logging after heavy rain.

         IMPROVE THE SOIL PRIOR TO PLANTING                                NON‑WETTABLE SOILS
         Organic matter and amendments should be added prior               As indicated in the previous table, some soils become
         to planting out or laying a new lawn.                             non-wettable when they reach a certain stage of
         The majority of a plant’s feeder roots are in the top 25cm        dryness. After that point when water is applied it will not
         of the soil. It is recommended to dig a hole 30cm deep            penetrate the soil but rather will remain on the surface
         and as wide as possible but never less than 3 times the           where it is subject to evaporation. The net result is that
         diameter of the pot. Half the soil from the hole should be        although water may be applied, it does not reach the
         removed and mixed with organic matter before replacing            plant’s root system. Soils underneath lawns can also
         in the hole around the plant. The plant should be hand            becomes non-wettable. Though your local soil may be
         watered immediately.                                              a type that does not normally become non-wettable,
                                                                           most lawns are laid on a sandy soil base that can
         For new lawns, the area should be cleaned of weeds
                                                                           develop the condition. The patchy growth that results is
         and debris, then smoothed and levelled according
                                                                           often misdiagnosed as a pest or disease problem. If the
         to site. Please refer to the Water Corporation’s Water
                                                                           lawn is patchy and there is no hard evidence of pests or
                                                                           diseases, treat the surface with a soil wetting agent.
Barrens Regelia

         Wetting agents are available as either a liquid or          Organic Waterwise mulches include chipped tree
         granules. All have a similar active ingredient. Choose      prunings and proprietary products.
         the one that suits you best. Wetting agents may need        Inorganic Waterwise mulches include stone, pebbles,
         to be applied more than once during the dry season          coarse gravels etc.
         and should always be watered in as soon as possible
                                                                     Organic products that contain a high proportion of soft,
         after application.
                                                                     small, highly water absorbent or almost totally broken
         Applying wetting agents just before the breaking rains      down particles are excellent for improving the soil but
         will minimise run-off from the garden.                      not very effective as a mulch. They may still be spread
         NB: Clay soils have a very slow rate of water penetration   over the soil surface but should then be covered with a
         that can lead to ponding on the surface. This should        layer of a Waterwise mulch as described above.
         not be confused with non-wettable soils. Wetting agents     Waterwise mulches should be spread a minimum
         have no effect on clay soils.                               thickness of 50mm, kept just clear of trunk and
                                                                     stems and topped up as necessary to maintain the
                                                                     original thickness.
         There are many different mulch materials on the market.
                                                                     Before you apply mulch, make sure you prepare the
         Some are better than others. Waterwise mulches are
                                                                     soil properly and have installed sub mulch irrigation.
         those that consist of large, irregularly shaped particles
         that hold little, if any, water.
                                                                     WATERWISE WATERING
         A Waterwise mulch will:                                     Since the introduction of the new water efficiency
            • Dramatically reduce moisture loss from the             measures for regional WA on 1 October 2007, all
                  soil surface                                       communities on scheme water in the South West may
            •     Reduce erosion from both wind and rain             only water on two days of the week, allocated according
            •     Reduce germination of annual weeds                 to the house or lot number.

            •     Reduce stress on plants’ root systems              To find out more about water efficiency measures, visit
            •     Improve the look of the garden           
            •     Feed the soil as it breaks down (organic           The State Government has indicated in principle support
                  mulches only)                                      for a winter sprinkler ban in June, July and August each
Dampiera                                                                                                                              Kwowdjard

           year for Perth, Mandurah and some towns in the               Watering lawns
           south of the State. Visit the Water Corporation website –    Lawns are best watered with subsurface irrigation
  for the latest information       systems that deliver water directly to the root system.
           about this initiative.                                       These systems can be installed under the turf before a

           Many gardens are watered through a reticulated system        new lawn is laid or can be installed into existing lawns

           that is governed by a controller. These watering systems     using specialised machinery. Installing subsurface

           are not intelligent. The controller simply turns solenoids   irrigation requires specialist knowledge and equipment.

           (electric taps) on and off according to the programme        It is recommended that you consult an irrigation specialist.

           that has been put into it. In order to make an automatic     If your existing system uses pop-up sprinklers, replacing
           system as efficient as possible it is necessary to:          the nozzles with low volume stream sprinklers such as
                                                                        MP rotators should be considered. These have a lower
             • Group plants in such a way that all plants on each
                station have similar water needs                        evaporative loss and a greater accuracy than standard
                                                                        spray nozzles. It is important to note that when replacing
             • Use catch cups, ice cream containers or similar
                                                                        spray nozzles, ALL the nozzles on any line must be
                straight sided containers to determine how much
                                                                        replaced, not just some of them. The lower application
                water is being applied to each area over a set time
                                                                        rate of MP rotators makes them the best choice for soils
                in order to set the station times correctly
                                                                        with a low water penetration rate. Please refer to your
             • Adjust the programme according to seasonal
                                                                        local Waterwise Irrigator for further information.
                demand and make sure it is turned off when
                the ground is already wet. Fitting a rain sensor        Watering garden beds
                will automatically prevent watering when it is          The most effective garden bed watering system for use
                not necessary                                           in the South West is sub-mulch irrigation, which is very
                                                                        efficient and simple to install. Integrated dripper pipe is
           A properly designed, installed and programmed watering
                                                                        laid along the soil surface in an appropriate pattern to
           system will save water, when compared with manual
                                                                        the plantings, pegged down every metre or so to prevent
           watering. Specialist irrigation stores offer professional
                                                                        movement, and then covered with a waterwise mulch.
           advice for anyone considering adding a watering system
                                                                        The emitters deliver water at several points directly to
           to their garden.
                                                                        the plants’ root zones thus encouraging the root systems
                                                                        to spread. Having water delivered at several points also
                                                                        overcomes the potential loss of a plant due to blockage
Honey Gem

        of a single point delivery system. The covering of          The list includes many Eremophilas. The name
        Waterwise mulch ensures that evaporative loss is kept       Eremophila means desert lover. The common name
        to a minimum.                                               Poverty Bush also indicates the toughness of these
                                                                    plants, which occur in a wide range of shapes and sizes.
        WATERWISE PLANTS FOR THE SOUTH WEST                         They are among the toughest and most beautiful of our
        The following list of plants is not intended to be          flora and are also very good plants for attracting birds
        comprehensive, rather it is meant to be an indication       into the garden. Unfortunately small plants grown in
        of the potential to create a garden that is practical,      pots for sale tend to be straggly and open and are often
        ornamental and environmentally friendly, and needs little   overlooked. Have faith. Seek Eremophilas out and plant
        water to maintain once it is established. A much larger     them in your garden. They are the ugly ducklings of the
        choice of plants (with photographs) can be found by         plant world.
        following the links on the Water Corporation website to
        “Waterwise Plants for Perth Gardens”. Nearly all of those
        plants will also be suitable for South West gardens.

        There are many other regions of the world that have
        similar soils and climate to the South West. Plants from
        these regions are often very much at home in local
        gardens. Unfortunately some are too much at home
        and have become, or have the potential to become,
        environmental weeds. These plants have been excluded
        from the list.
Esperance Tea Tree

             Common Name       Botanical Name          Origin*         Habit                                    Description

          Painted             Marianthus bicolor N               Climber to 1.5m   A shrubby semi climber with dark brown winding stems carry small
          Marianthus                                                               dark green leaves and creamy white flowers with violet markings in
                                                                                   summer and autumn. Prune lightly to maintain shape.
          Bluebell Creeper, Billardiera            N             Climber to 3m     A vigorous semi climbing shrub which will form a rounded shape on
          Australian Bluebell heterophylla                                         its own or cover a support. Has reddish stems, bright green foliage
                                                                                   and small clusters of pendant blue bell shaped flowers in spring and
                                                                                   summer followed by small fleshy fruits.
          Native Wisteria     Hardenbergia         N             Climber to 4m     A vigorous plant that will run along the ground or grow over itself to
                              comptoniana                                          form a mound if there is no support. It has medium sized leaves,
                                                                                   usually in groups of three and massed small pea flowers in winter
                                                                                   and lingering into spring. The normal flower colour is blue.
          Wisteria            Wisteria sinensis    E             Climber to 5m     A vigorous deciduous climber that is often slow to get established.
                                                                                   Short dense pale mauve blue flower clusters droop from the plant
                                                                                   in mid spring usually before the foliage emerges. A white flowered
                                                                                   form, Alba is also available.
          Coral Carpet        Adenanthos           N             Groundcover       A spreading plant with wedge shaped leaves that are grey at maturity
                              cuneatus ‘Coral                                      but strongly tinged with pink and purple when new. Small, hardly
                              Carpet’                                              noticeable, bird attractant flowers over the warmer months.
          Midyim Berry,       Austromyrtus         N             Groundcover       Spreading shrub with slight weeping habit. New foliage is an
          Midgen Berry        dulcis                                               attractive pink. Small white flowers along the stems in autumn to
                                                                                   winter are followed by small but tasty speckled berries in spring.
          Pudjarn, Couch      Banksia nivea        N             Groundcover       A spreading plant to about 30cm high and a metre across with
          Honeypot            (previously                                          clusters of long dark green deeply divided leaves and yellow orange
                              Dryandra)                                            flower clusters in spring and summer. Full sun or light shade.
          Prostrate Banksia   Banksia petiolaris   N             Groundcover       A fast growing prostrate banksia with a stout creeping stem from
                                                                                   which large long broad leaves arise to form a clump of up to 2m
                                                                                   across. Yellow flowers tinged with pink are produced close to the
                                                                                   end of the stems in mid spring to early summer.
          Silver Bush         Convolvulus          E             Groundcover       Low mounding shrub with dense silver grey foliage and massed
                              cneorum                                              white open trumpet flowers in spring and summer. Needs full sun
                                                                                   to flower well.
Morning Iris

               Common Name         Botanical Name          Origin*         Habit                                Description

           Prostrate             Eremophila glabra     N             Groundcover   There are several prostrate forms of E. glabra spreading to about 2m
           Eremophila                                                              wide. Some have highly ornamental silver foliage. The best known
                                                                                   cultivar is Kalbarri Carpet.
           Bronze Rambler        Grevillea ‘Bronze     N             Groundcover   A spreading low groundcover to 3m across. Dense dark green deeply
                                 Rambler’                                          divided foliage and dark red toothbrush flowers through the warmer
                                                                                   months. Bird attractant.
           Prostrate Grevillea   Grevillea nudiflora   N             Groundcover   A low sprawling shrub to more than a metre across. Dense fine
                                                                                   foliage near the centre of the plant but fine long stems that radiate
                                                                                   out are bare towards the ends and carry small clusters of red and
                                                                                   yellow flowers from late winter through spring. Bird attractant.
           Magic Lantern,        Grevillea preissii    N             Groundcover   Highly ornamental spreading groundcover to about 60cm high and
           Gilt Dragon, Sea      ‘Magic Lantern’                                   as much as 1.5m wide. Fine grey green foliage and massed red
           Spray                                                                   flowers from winter to early spring. Bird attractant.
           Creeping Boobialla Myoporum                 N             Groundcover   A prostrate ground cover to 40cm high and 1.5m wide with much
                              parvifolium                                          branching layering stems and small white spring flowers. Forms
                                                                                   include Broad leaf, Broad leaf with pink flowers, Purple leaf and
                                                                                   Fine leaf.
           Bright Eyes           Scaevola aemula       N             Groundcover   A prostrate perennial that usually grows to only 20cm high and
                                 ‘Bright Eyes’                                     spreads to 1.5m wide. Masses of fan flowers radiate out from the
                                                                                   upper part of the stems through spring and summer. The flowers are
                                                                                   violet blue with a white eye. Prune after flowering.
           Prostrate             Eremophila            N             Groundcover   A very prostrate shrub that spreads to 3m or more wide, often
           Eremophila            biserrata                                         forming roots as it spreads. Bright green foliage is maintained
                                                                                   year round, small reddish yellow flowers are produced in spring
                                                                                   and summer.
           Prostrate             Eremophila            N             Groundcover   A yellow flowered prostrate form of E. maculata that spreads to 3m
           Eremophila            maculata ‘Aurea                                   and flowers sporadically through most of the year.
           Yellow Kangaroo       Anigozanthos          N             Perennial     Vigorous clumping plant with bright green strap leaves to about
           Paw                   flavidus                                          50cm and tall flowering stems to as much as 1.8m bearing yellow
                                                                                   green flowers in spring and intermittently through the warmer
                                                                                   months. Resistant to ink disease and bird attractant.
Native Fuchsia

                 Common Name     Botanical Name         Origin*         Habit                               Description

          NZ Rock Lily,        Arthropodium         E             Perennial     Strap-like blue green leaves to 40cm high and masses of white
          Rengarenga,          cirratum                                         flowers on 70cm stems in late spring to summer. Frost hardy.
          Renga Lily                                                            Cultivars include Joy Pink (pink flowers), Matapouri Bay and Parnel
                                                                                (larger leaves and flowers).
          Dampiera             Dampiera linearis    N             Perennial     A small sprawling herbaceous plant usually no more than 30cm
                                                                                high but often spreading much wider due to its suckering habit.
                                                                                Small dull green leaves and massed blue flowers in winter and
                                                                                spring. There is considerable variation within the species from
                                                                                which many selections have been made
          Knobby Clubrush      Ficinia nodosa       N             Perennial     A hardy green rush that forms thick clumps of dark green rounded
                                                                                stems to 70cm high and across. Flower clusters form small round
                                                                                brown knobs at the growth tip.
          Long Leaf Mat        Lomandra             N             Perennial     Long slender arching green strap like leaves forming a clump to
          Rush                 longifolia                                       1.3m high and wide. Yellow green flower spikes are produced in
                                                                                spring. Available cultivars include Cassica (broader more rigid
                                                                                upright leaf with more blue coloration) and Katrinus (slender more
                                                                                weeping leaf. Slightly smaller plant).
          Morning Iris         Orthrosanthus        N             Perennial     A clumping perennial to 40cm high and 70cm wide. Upright
                               laxus                                            medium green leaves and upright branching flowering stems
                                                                                carrying blue flowers over much of spring. Each flower only lasts
                                                                                one day but is quickly replaced. Tolerates light shade.
          Lamb’s Ears          Stachys byzantina    E             Perennial     A low growing plant to 30cm high and 50cm wide. Large, very
                                                                                woolly, silver grey leaves and short upright stems bearing small
                                                                                purple flowers in summer.
          Bird of Paradise     Strelitzia reginae   E             Perennial     An evergreen perennial that forms a clump of stout stems to 1.2m
                                                                                high and wide. The stems are blue green with a leaf on the tip.
                                                                                Large, showy and unusually shaped, mostly orange flowers are
                                                                                produced in winter and spring.
          Fringed Lily         Thysanotus           N             Perennial     A highly ornamental but usually short lived clumping perennial to
                               multiflorus                                      40cm high and wide. Bright green upright strap leaves and slender
                                                                                flowering stems bearing small groups of blue flowers with ornately
                                                                                fringed petals in mid to late spring.
Gungurru                                                                                                                                                Midyim Berry

             Common Name       Botanical Name        Origin*        Habit                                   Description

           Little John       Callistemon         N             Shrub to 1m     Slow growing shrub with compact dense blue grey foliage and short
           Bottlebrush       viminalis ‘Little                                 dark crimson red terminal flowers over a long period.
           Correa, Native    Correa Hybrids      N             Shrub to 1m     A range of relatively fast growing, dense shrubs mostly with grey
           Fuchsia           and Cultivars                                     green to dark green foliage. All bear colourful long tubular, pendant
                                                                               flowers in late winter to early spring.
           Emu Bush,         Eremophila glabra   N             Shrub to 1m     Highly ornamental, evergreen, small shrubs or ground covers. All are
           Fuchsia Bush      Cultivars                                         very hardy and carry tubular, bird attractant flowers in spring and
                                                                               summer. They grow and flower best in full sun.
           Kunzea            Kunzea pauciflora   N             Shrub to 1m     A spreading shrub to 1m high and 2m wide. Fine light green foliage
                                                                               and a spectacular display of rose pink flowers from mid to late
                                                                               spring. Flowers best when not given any fertiliser.
           Eremophila        Eremophila          N             Shrub to 1.5m   A very hardy shrub with an erect growth habit. Small dark green
           ‘Peaches and      racemosa                                          leaves clothe the stems which carry cream buds and pink flowers
           Cream’                                                              in winter.
           Spider Net        Grevillea           N             Shrub to 1.5m   Highly ornamental spreading shrubs growing to 1.5m wide. Fine grey
           Grevillea         preissii syn. G                                   green foliage and massed red flowers from winter to early spring.
                             thelemanniana                                     Bird attractant. Many cultivars available.
           Tea Tree          Leptospermum        N             Shrub to 1.5m   A range of ornamental shrubs selected for size, shape and flower
                             Hybrids and                                       colour. All have small dense foliage, should be pruned after flowering
                             Cultivars                                         to maintain shape and prefer a sunny position. Most flower in spring.
                                                                               A few have an extended flowering season.
           Mint Bush         Prostanthera        N             Shrub to 1.5m   A small fast growing shrub with dense narrow green foliage and
                             ‘Poorinda                                         massed white flowers in spring. Needs to be pruned back by about
                             Ballerina’                                        a third after flowering to prevent it from becoming straggly. Full sun
                                                                               or light shade.
           King Protea       Protea cynaroides   E             Shrub to 1.5m   A compact low shrub with large thick leaves and very large terminal
                                                                               flowers in spring and summer. Responds well to pruning for cut
                                                                               flowers. A compact form called Mini King, is also available.
           Native Rosemary   Westringia          N             Shrub to 1.5m   An evergreen shrub with small, grey green, slightly hairy leaves and
                             ‘Wynyabbie Gem’                                   blue mauve flowers with spotted throats mostly in spring. Responds
                                                                               well to pruning.
Prostrate Banksia

              Common Name     Botanical Name         Origin*        Habit                                    Description

           Mirror Bush       Coprosma            E             Shrub to 2m     A wide range of generally tough shrubs grown for their decorative
                                                                               glossy foliage. Modern cultivars offer a wide range of plant size, leaf
                                                                               size and colour but are a little variable in hardiness.
           Tar Bush          Eremophila glabra   N             Shrub to 2m     Upright or spreading shrub with small leathery dull green or silvery
                                                                               green foliage and red to orange flowers mainly in winter and spring.
           Native Fuchsia    Eremophila          N             Shrub to 2m     An extremely variable shrub with a range of sizes, shapes and flower
                             maculata                                          colours. Adaptable to a wide range of conditions and generally
                                                                               flowering in winter and spring. There are many named cultivars.
           Rosemary          Rosmarinus          E             Shrub to 2m     A shrub with stiff upright branches clad in short thin, aromatic, dark
                             officinalis                                       green leaves. Small flowers emerge between the leaves on the upper
                                                                               portions of the stems in spring and early summer. Regular pruning
                                                                               will maintain the desired shape and size.
           Pigeon Berry,     Duranta erecta      E             Shrub to 2.5m   An adaptable shrub with slender branches and sky blue spring
           Golden Dew Drop   Cultivars                                         flowers followed by massed golden berries. Several cultivars have
                                                                               been selected for either their flower colour, leaf colour or growth habit.
           Robyn Gordon      Grevillea ‘Robyn    N             Shrub to 2.5m   A rounded shrub with dark green divided foliage and large, deep
           Grevillea         Gordon’                                           red flowers for most of the year.
           Pink Ice Protea   Protea ‘Pink Ice’   E             Shrub to 2.5m   An evergreen shrub with erect branching smooth stems and dark
                                                                               green leaves that have sulphurous smell when crushed. Large showy
                                                                               pink flowers are produced in autumn and winter.
           Cockies Tongue    Templetonia         N             Shrub to 2.5m   An evergreen shrub normally growing in a rounded shape with grey
                             retusa                                            green thick leaves and massed, bright red pea flowers in winter. Flower
                                                                               colour can vary between red and yellow. Prune lightly after flowering.
           Albany Woolly     Adenanthos          N             Shrub to 3m     Fast growing upright shrub with fine, dense, hairy silver green
           Bush              sericeus                                          foliage. Easily pruned to shape. Makes a good hedge. Small pale red,
                                                                               bird attractant tubular flowers are hidden among the foliage.
           Showy Dryandra    Banksia formosa     N             Shrub to 3m     A fast growing, upright evergreen shrub with upright stems that carry
                             (previously                                       dense, dark green, slender, deeply divided leaves and large orange
                             Dryandra)                                         yellow flowers in spring.
Gungurru Eucalyptus caesia

             Common Name       Botanical Name         Origin*        Habit                                 Description

          Butterfly Bush,    Buddleia davidii     E             Shrub to 3m   A group of very hardy, mainly summer flowering shrubs with dense
          Buddleya           Cultivars                                        spikes or balls of fragrant tubular flowers that are very attractive
                                                                              to butterflies. Regular pruning after flowering encourages bushy
                                                                              growth. Plants flower best in full sun.
          Kwowdjard, One     Calothamnus          N             Shrub to 3m   A variable shrub growing to as much as 3m high and across.
          Sided Bottlebrush, quadrifidus                                      Fine foliage around the stems and small bunches of claw flowers
          Netbush                                                             emerging directly from the stems. Responds well to pruning
                                                                              after flowering.
          Hybrid Eremophila Eremophila            N             Shrub to 3m   Perhaps the showiest of the Eremophilas with light green foliage
                            bignoniiflora x                                   and stems bearing masses of large white to lilac flowers over a
                            polyclada                                         long period.
          Olive Grevillea    Grevillea olivacea   N             Shrub to 3m   Spreading, open natured, hardy shrub with olive shaped leaves, dark
                                                                              green above and lighter green or grey green underneath. Red flower
                                                                              clusters are produced on older wood from late winter to summer.
          Rose of Sharon     Hibiscus syriacus    E             Shrub to 3m   Fast growing, deciduous upright branching shrub with dense foliage
                                                                              and large flowers in various shades of white, pink, or mauve, usually
                                                                              with strong markings in the throat.
          Baxter’s Kunzea    Kunzea baxteri       N             Shrub to 3m   An evergreen shrub that may be pruned to shape but with caution
                                                                              for it flowers only on old wood. Small leaves closely packed along the
                                                                              stems and large deep red flower clusters, usually in late winter.
          Esperance Tea      Leptospermum         N             Shrub to 3m   An ornamental shrub to 3m high and 2m wide with small silvery
          Tree, Silver Tea   sericeum                                         grey green foliage and showy pale pink flowers through winter to
          Tree                                                                mid spring. Prune regularly to maintain shape.
          Pincushion Plant   Leucospermum         E             Shrub to 3m   Fast growing rounded shrub with dark green leaves along the mostly
                             cordifolium                                      upright stems which are topped with large pincushion flowers in
                                                                              spring. Several forms have been selected for their flower colour.
          Common Myrtle      Myrtus communis      E             Shrub to 3m   An evergreen shrub with fine dark green leaves and small white
                                                                              flowers in spring. Can be kept smaller and shaped by regular
                                                                              pruning. Variegated and compact forms are also available.
          Lilli Pilli        Syzygium australe    N             Shrub to 3m   The cultivated forms are generally less than 4m high and 2m wide.
                             Cultivars                                        In the warmer months they carry a dense cover of shiny green leaves
                                                                              with small white flowers in spring followed by brightly coloured edible
                                                                              berries. Easily pruned to shape either as a standard or a hedge.
Baxter’s Kunzea

             Common Name       Botanical Name         Origin*        Habit                                 Description

          Laurustinus        Viburnum tinus       E             Shrub to 3m   A fast growing evergreen shrub with dense dark green foliage and
                                                                              clusters of creamy white perfumed flowers in spring often followed
                                                                              by small purple black berries. Responds well to regular pruning.
                                                                              Often used for hedging.
          Cut-leaf Banksia   Banksia              N             Shrub to 4m   A fast growing erect bushy shrub with small lightly toothed green
                             praemorsa                                        leaves clasping the stout stems and red bird attractant flowers in
                                                                              winter and spring.
          Harkness           Callistemon          N             Shrub to 4m   Tough, large, semi weeping evergreen shrub with showy and bird
          Bottlebrush        ‘Harkness’                                       attractant, very large bright red bottlebrush flowers during spring.
                                                                              Prefers full sun. May be pruned hard after flowering.
          Judas Tree         Cercis               E             Shrub to 4m   Usually a many branched deciduous shrub. Can be pruned to a tree.
                             silaquastrum                                     Pink purple pea flowers in crowded bunches along the stems are
                                                                              followed by heart shaped leaves and massed seed pods. Very showy
                                                                              in flower.
          Honey Gem          Grevillea ‘Honey     N             Shrub to 4m   A fast growing shrub to 4m high and 3m wide with finely divided
                             Gem’                                             grey green foliage. Large orange yellow flower heads are produced
                                                                              throughout the year with the main flush in late winter and early spring.
          Wedding Bush       Ricinocarpus         N             Shrub to 4m   Fast growing evergreen shrub. Slender shiny dark green foliage
                             tuberculatus                                     and massed clusters of white fragrant flowers throughout spring.
                                                                              Needs to be pruned regularly to maintain size and shape.
          Swish Bush         Viminaria juncifolia N             Shrub to 4m   An informal weeping evergreen shrub or small tree. Long dark green
                                                                              leafless stems swish about in the wind. Massed bright yellow pea
                                                                              flowers are produced in spring. Tolerates winter water logging.
          Ashby’s Banksia    Banksia ashbyi       N             Shrub to 5m   A shrub with long, deeply toothed leaves and bright orange, bird
                                                                              attractant flowers in winter. Needs full sun to flower. Can be pruned
                                                                              after flowering. The dwarf form is similar but only grows to about
                                                                              2m high.
          Heath leaved       Banksia ericifolia   N             Shrub to 5m   A fast growing shrub or small tree with bright green slender leaves
          Banksia            Cultivars                                        and long slender golden brown spikes of flowers partly hidden
                                                                              among the foliage. Will tolerate light shade.
Coral Carpet

               Common Name     Botanical Name         Origin*         Habit                                Description

           White Banksia      Rosa banksiae       E             Shrub to 5m    A tall thornless, evergreen rose spreading by producing long weeping
           Rose                                                                branches. For about 3 weeks in spring it carries massed clusters of
                                                                               small, lightly fragrant flowers. Cultivars include Alba (double white)
                                                                               and Lutea (double yellow).
           NZ Christmas Tree Metrosideros         E             Shrub to 6m    An evergreen shrub or small tree with red new growth that becomes
                             kermadecensis                                     creamy yellow variegated as it matures. Red flowers in summer and
                                                                               autumn. Very hardy. Tolerates coastal exposure.
           Weeping Mulberry   Morus alba          E             Tree to 3.5m   A small deciduous tree with a straight trunk to 2m on which is
                              ‘Pendula’                                        grafted a weeping form that can take the height to 3.5m and width
                                                                               to 2.5m. Long weeping stems reach back down to the ground.
                                                                               Can be pruned to shape. Carries some edible fruit in spring.
           Fuchsia Mallee,    Eucalyptus          N             Tree to 4m     Usually has a single low branching trunk with smooth bark. Large,
           Fuchsia Gum        forrestiana                                      four sided red buds and fruits hang from the branches for most of
                                                                               the year.
           Quince             Cydonia oblonga     E             Tree to 5m     A decorative small deciduous tree with large showy pink or white
                                                                               flowers in spring followed by hard fruits somewhat like an apple.
                                                                               Very hardy once established but grows best when protected from
                                                                               the wind.
           Crepe Myrtle       Lagerstroemia       E             Tree to 5m     Deciduous shrubs or small trees that may be pruned to a single
                              Hybrids and                                      trunk when young. Leaves are dark green and dense. Massed showy
                              Cultivars                                        crinkled flowers are produced in spring and summer. Cultivars
                                                                               include: Biloxi, Natchez, Sioux and Tuscana. Most are resistant to
                                                                               powdery mildew.
           Barren’s Regelia   Regelia velutina    N             Tree to 5m     Large evergreen shrub or small tree to as much as 6m high but
                                                                               usually less in the garden. Upright branches with small blue green,
                                                                               formally arranged leaves along stems that are topped with clusters
                                                                               of deep red powder puff flowers in spring to early summer.
           Irish Strawberry   Arbutus unedo       E             Tree to 6m     A small tree with dense dark green foliage and clusters of creamy
           Tree                                                                white bell flowers followed by round fruits, which turn strawberry red
                                                                               at maturity. The fruits are edible but bland and gritty. Very hardy.
           Gungurru, Caesia   Eucalyptus caesia   N             Tree to 6m     A many trunked tree with a pronounced weeping habit. Younger
                                                                               branches, leaf stalks buds and nuts are covered in a silver grey
                                                                               bloom. Showy pink to red flowers hang down in small clusters in
                                                                               autumn and winter. Bird attractant. Can be hard pruned if necessary.
Long Leaf Mat Rush

             Common Name        Botanical Name         Origin*         Habit                                Description

          Bald Island         Eucalyptus           N             Tree to 6m    A medium, evergreen, bushy rounded tree with smooth light grey to
          Marlock, Bushy      conferruminata                                   brown bark. Unusually long bud caps fall off to reveal tight clusters
          Yate                                                                 of greenish yellow flowers in late spring to summer. Persistent
                                                                               clusters of nuts resemble the head of a club.
          Sea Urchin Hakea Hakea petiolaris        E             Tree to 6m    Ornamental large upright shrub or small tree with broad light green,
                                                                               slightly weeping, strongly veined foliage and round ‘sea urchin’
                                                                               flowers borne directly on older branches in winter. Prune to maintain
                                                                               shape. Bird attractant.
          Red Flowering       Corymbia ficifolia   N             Tree to 8m    Usually a small to medium tree with a short trunk and dense, dark
          Gum                                                                  green foliage that provides useful shade. In early summer large
                                                                               clusters of strongly coloured flowers are held clear of the foliage.
                                                                               Grafted cultivars ensure strongly coloured flowers.
          Revolution Gold     Melaleuca            N             Tree to 8m    A small evergreen tree with highly ornamental fine, golden green,
                              bracteata                                        foliage. Regular pruning is necessary to maintain the shape. Small
                              ‘Revolution Gold’                                white flowers in spring often go unnoticed.
          Olive               Olea europa          E             Tree to 8m    A medium sized evergreen tree that be pruned to shape. Attractive
                                                                               foliage, dark green above and silvery grey underneath forms a
                                                                               canopy of medium density. Small pale yellow flowers are produced
                                                                               in mid spring followed by fruit which matures in winter. Many
                                                                               cultivars are available.
          Locust Tree,        Gleditsia            E             Tree to 20m   Fast growing deciduous trees with fine lacy foliage and a slight
          Honey Locust        triacanthos                                      weeping habit. Most are thornless. All are very hardy. Cultivars
                              Hybrids and                                      include Lime Gold, Ruby Lace, Shademaster and Sunburst.
          E = Exotic   N = Native
Bluebell Creeper

              Common Name        Botanical Name        Origin*   Habit                                Description

           Couch Winter         Cynodon dactylon   E                     Winter Green is the best known and most widely planted couch
           Green                ‘Winter Green’                           cultivar. It needs at least 5 hours of direct sun each day and is
                                                                         damaged by frost. However, it has excellent drought tolerance.
           Kikuyu               Pennisetum         E                     Extensively used in recreation parks and is a hard wearing if coarse
                                clandestinum                             looking lawn. It is used in town gardens but has an invasive nature
                                                                         which can cause problems.
           Buffalo Grass        Stenotaphrum       E                     Suitable for sunny or lightly shaded areas. Soft leaved varieties
                                secundatum                               include ‘Palmetto’ and ‘Sir Walter’. Soft leaved cultivars should never
                                                                         be mowed closed to the ground.
           Zoysia               Zoysia japonica    E                     Becoming increasingly available. It is claimed to need much less
                                                                         mowing and to be able to go into dormancy during the dry season
                                                                         and regenerate with the first rains.
           Grass alternatives
           Lippia               Phyla nodiflora    E                     Covers the ground like a mat. It is a perennial, broadleaf herb, with
                                                                         grey green leaves 10 to 20mm long and numerous small, round
                                                                         lilac flowers.
           See also Groundcovers

To top