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64 Biological Science groups together the disciplines dealing with

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64 Biological Science groups together the disciplines dealing with Powered By Docstoc
					     Biological Science groups together the disciplines dealing with living systems.
     Biological Science includes Biochemistry, Zoology, Physiology, Botany,
     Entymology, Microbiology, and Vetinary Medicine within each field numerous
     subspecialties exist such as Molecular Genetics and Molecular Biology, Invertebrate
     Zoology and so on. The Medicinal or Health sciences include the Therapies,
     Physiotherapy, Speech Therapy/Pathology, Occupational Therapy, Dieticians, and
     the Medical specialities.
     Biological Sciences and Medicine can be broadly grouped into the numerous sub-
     disciplines which follow. The grouping presented here is not arbitrary and reflects
     the disciplines shared interest and methodology, it may not however reflect the
     grouping of these disciplines on campus and is not exhaustive. A complete listing
     of the vast number of sub-disciplines would stretch to several pages and be
     unnecessary as most share the same needs and require the same tools.

     Computer Usage
     The biological and medical sciences use computers in document preparation for
     publication and presentation. Material produced includes academic papers for
     submission, lecture materials, assignments and theses. Computers are also finding
     wide application in laboratory and practical sessions, for CAL and as an on-line
     source of information extracted from CD ROM databases and eletronic networks-
     the important area of bioinformatics.
     As class sizes expand service courses such as Anatomy are turning more and more
     to Computer Aided Instruction(CAI).
     For research use specialised software is available, for example Gene Jockey,
     Plasmid Artist, EndNote,, Chem3dPlus, Spyglass and NIH Image find use in
     Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Microbiology and academic Medicine. Laboratory
     research work is enhanced using analogue to digital converters as interfaces and
     products like MacLab to provide virtual instruments and for programmable control
     of laboratory instruments. GeneJockey is used to identify restriction enzyme sites
     on DNA, Plasmid Artist is an elegant way to track operations on DNA and provide
     illustrations for documentation, NHI Image processes medical imaging resources,
     Chem3DPlus are used in molecular analysis and imaging.




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ACADEMIC ADVANTAGE


                             Biological Sciences

Essential Tools for Biological Sciences
Basic Needs:
Statistics/Numerical                  Network Communication                       Stimulation/Modelling
Computer Aided Learning               Visualisation/Graphics                      Database
Presentation/Documentation            Interface to other operating systems

Special Needs:
DNA sequencing productivity tools, CAD modelling packages for analysis and design of biochemical
compounds. Visualisation of modelling or experimental data. Acquisition and analysis of laboratory
experiments. Database use for living organisms, ecosystems, biochemical structures and biologically
active compounds. Laboratory management and stock control
Key Solutions;
See Product Guide for: Filemaker Pro 5.0 www.filemaker.com.au, 4th Dimension 6.5
www.namadgi.com, Gene Construction Kit 2.0.13 and Gene Inspector 1.5 www.textco.com, Gene
Jockey II 2.2 www.biosoft.com, LabView 5.1 www.ni.com,MacLab www.adinstruments.com, SPSS 9.0
www.spss.com SPSS Australasia Pty Ltd (1800 024836), Data Desk 6.1 www.datadesk.com.,
Statistica 4 www.hearne.com.au, Stata 6.0 www.stata.com, Statview 5.0.1 www.addsoft.com.au, SAS
www.addsoft.com.au, DeltaGraph Pro 4.5 - www.spss.com, CLR Anova 1.1 www.members.aol.com/,
CodeWarrior Professional 5.0 www.code.com.au, Tools Plus Libraries + Framework 5.0
www.interlog.com/~wateredg, FutureBASIC II and Program Generator www.aapda.org.au , MathType
3.6 www.mathtype.com.
Other specialist solutions: DNA Parrot 3.0.1/2 www.ttres.com, Mac NMR 5.5 www.tecmag.com, CAChe
Worksystem 4.1 www.oxmol.com,Maple www.maplesoft.com Oxford Systematics (03 9459 9671),
ChemDraw 5.0 www.camsoft.com.

The Market:
Presence of operating systems;
Macintosh              UNIX              Windows
Challenges
Educate regarding software solutions on the Apple Macintosh. Educate the market on competitive
pricing, reliability, connectivity. Emphasise the effectiveness of the Apple Macintosh as a laboratory
control and data acquistion tool, alos ease of interfacing with other computer systems from mainframes
to specialist workstations.
Macintosh strengths
Interconnectivity Networking             Expandability       Technology edge Cost effectiveness
Macintosh OS           Ease of use       Reliability         Upward compatiblity
Commitment to Higher Ed through AUC and Higher Ed websites



                             The Biological Sciences, also known as the life sciences share a common interest in
                             living systems, their function, chemistry, structure and behaviour. It includes fields
                             as diverse as Agriculture and Molecular Biology, but all sharing a common interest
                             natural organisms and compounds and their interactions, functions and uses.
                             Biotechnology describes the attempts to modify, control and enhance biological
                             systems from bacteria through to plants and higher animals. The techniques of
                             Biochemists and Molecular Biologists have radically altered work in these fields
                             with rapid advances in our understanding of cellular processes and genetics, and
                             wide ranging effects on the Medical, Physical and Biological Sciences. The single
                             most important tool apart from our understanding of the transcription/translation

                                                                                                                65
                              of DNA and RNA, has been the application of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
                              used to amplify segments of genetic material to provide useful quantities of DNA
                              for research and development.
                              Agriculture is the science of farming, the cultivation of trees, crops, plants and
                              animals.
                              Biochemistry is the study of the chemical reactions of life, from sub-cellular
                              organelles to entire living systems. Biochemistry shares close ties with Organic
                              Chemistry, Pharmacology, Microbiology and Chemical Engineering.
                              Botany is the study of structure, function, form, and identification of all plant life.
                              Entomology is the study of insects, their life cycles, ecosystems, behaviour,
                              interactions with the environment, identifications and classification.
                              Environmental Science has strong links with microbiology and chemical
                              engineering, and studies the interaction between components of biosystems and
                              the effects of changes imposed on those systems.

NIH Image can be used for
processing Biomedical
images. Here a combination
of NIH Image and a scanner
to input agarose gel
electrophoresis of DNA. is
used. The DNA is cut with
restriction enzymes and
amplified by the Polymerase
Chain Reaction in work on
gene expression.
Macintosh has a large slice
of marketshare in the
molecular biosciences.




                              Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, bacteria, yeasts or fungi, blue-green
                              algae and viruses. Microbiology has provided the raw material from which
                              advances in Biochemistry have been made. It is a fertile field of academic
                              endeavour and one from which significant changes in technology are being
                              derived.
                              Molecular Biology     is the study of the structure and function of molecules found
                              in living cells.
                              Parasitology is the study of parasitic organisms and their complex host/parasite
                              interactions. Investigation, treatment, management of infection, identification,
                              classification, and study of life cycle and behaviour comprises the bulk of a
                              parasitologists work.
                              Physiology and Pharmacology          is the study of living organisms, their constituent
                              organs, their function and effects, the study of the action of drugs on the organs

66
ACADEMIC ADVANTAGE                                                              Biological and Medical Sciences




 Gene Jockey (www.biosoft.com) is one of the most sophisticated tools for DNA sequencing available. DNA sequences can be
 searched for specific palindromes and sites, it provides voice annotation, open reading frames and primer searches for PCR work,
 identifying the best theoretical primer sites. There are numerous applications available for DNA sequencing and analysis including
 GeneWorks, MacVector and Gene Construction Kit (seeproduct descriptions section in this book).



                                       and the whole body, the uptake and removal of drugs, and the interaction and
                                       effects of combinations of drugs.
                                       Veterinary Science is a much more diverse field than Medical Science, with which
                                       it shares common methodologies and needs. It is the medical treatment and study
                                       of animals, from domestic animals to animals of production and exotic or wild
                                       species.
                                       Zoology is the study of life and is the origin from which many of the discoveries
                                       and advances in the other Life Sciences have been made. Zoology is divided into
                                       vertebrate and invertebrate zoology and is basically the study of animals, ranging
                                       from multicellular microorganisms to creatures as large and complex as cetaceans.




 Current Contents from ISI is a citation database used by Biological and Biomedical researchers to keep up to date with the latest
 developments in their fields and areas of interest. The database is available on 3.5 inch disks every fortnight or CD ROM quarterly. The
 database an includes abstracts and a specialised searching engine enabling researchers to search on topics of interest. Exported
 bibliographic files can be read by EndNote Plus and Pro-Cite bibliographic packages. Although most research libraries have such
 databases as Medline on CD, they are also accessible via the web.



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                              Therapies and Paramedical

 Essential Tools for Therapies and Paramedical
 Basic Needs:
 Database                              Computer Aided Learning                    Numerical/Statistical
 Presentation/Documentation            Visualisation/Graphics                     Modelling/Simulation

 Special Needs:
 Database management and analysis tools, biosignal acquisition and visualisation. Laboratory control
 tools. Documentation and presentation tools. Modelling and simultaion tools for training and research
 work. CAD in special situations.
 Key Solutions;
 See Product Guide for: A.D.A.M. Astrosoft info@astrosoft.com.au, LabView 5.1 www.ni.com,MacLab
 www.adinstruments.com,Extend 4.1 www.addsoft.com.au, Stella 5.1.1 www.hps-inc.com, MacroMedia
 Director www.firmware.com.au,4th Dimension 6.5 www.namadgi.com, Filemaker Pro 5.0
 www.filemaker.com.au, SPSS 9.0 www.spss.com SPSS Australasia Pty Ltd (1800 024836), Statview
 5.0.1 www.addsoft.com.au,CLR Anova 1.1 www.members.aol.com/clrsch/clr_anova.html, DeltaGraph
 Pro 4.5 - www.spss.com.
 Other specialist solutions: Diagnostic Reasoning www.kbpub.com
 Dietary Planning CD-ROM www.raysoft.com LYA Pty Ltd (02 9477 6666)


 The Market:
 Presence of operating systems;
 Macintosh           UNIX               DOS
 Challenges
 Misconceptions regarding Macintosh solutions, Educating the market of current competitive pricing, this
 discipline has a strong histroy of command-line computing.
 Macintosh strengths
 Interconnectivity Networking ease Expandability        Technology edge Upward compatiblity
 Ease of use       Reliability       Cost effectiveness Macintosh OS
 PowerBooks perfect for ward round data entry and query, portable, reliable, powerful.
 Commitment to Higher Ed through AUC and Higher Ed websites



                              The therapies and paramedical disciplines are essential components of health
                              services and in most countries are taught at degree levels.
                              Physiotherapy is the treatment of disease, disfunction or weakness by applying the
                              appropriate regimes of exercise, manipulation and treatment with applied energy.
                              Patient management, diagnosis and treatment is required in addition to an
                              extensive technical knowledge of the uses and application of biomedical
                              instrumentation, from ultra-sound, to infra-red, imposed electric fields, and lasers.
                              Further education for specialisation in Academic Medicine is encouraged and
                              includes specialities in Respiratory, Cerebral-Spinal, and Sports medicine among
                              others. There is a requirement for CAL tools, presentation and documentation,
                              input devices for laboratory work, database, and numerical tools.
                              Speech Therapy and Occupational therapy involve a large degree of patient
                              involvement, management and contact. These therapies are particularly relevant in
                              patient rehabilitation and recovery after illness or injury. They also find wide

68
ACADEMIC ADVANTAGE                                                             Biological and Medical Sciences


                                      application in the on-going care and treatment of the handicapped and for patients
                                      with chronic conditions. Specialised needs include stimulating programs for
                                      handicapped, communication and empowering handicapped or injured individuals,
                                      CAL, CAD tools for design of appropriate utensils and environments,
                                      documentation/presentation, numerical.
                                      Human movement study is primarily related to physical education and sports
                                      medicine. Skills required include anatomy, physiology, diagnosis and treatment of
                                      minor injuries, training and development strategies. Specialist tools needed, CAL,
                                      analysis of movement, mechanics modelling and motion analysis, input devices for
                                      laboratory work, physiological testing and study, database, numerical,
                                      documentation/presentation. Postgraduate specialisation includes Physiology and
                                      Sports Medicine.
                                      Nursing has in some countries only recently made the shift from vocational to
                                      degree qualification and are still being integrated into the Higher Education
                                      hierarchy. All are included as Medical Sciences all require extensive anatomical and
                                      physiological skills, and all deal with the treatment, rehabilitation, and management
                                      of injury or illness. Nursing is primarily patient care and management. It involves
                                      patient monitoring, recognition of symptoms and analysis of symptoms, patient
                                      treatment, administering of medication, supervision of treatment regimes and
                                      emergency care, the quick application of life saving procedures in emergency
                                      situations. Further education in Nursing, conducted under Hospital Medicine,
                                      include intensive care, operating theatre, midwifery, psychiatric, etc. Technical
                                      skills are required to operate complex apparatus, software needs include CAL,
                                      video demonstration, database, presentation and documentation.

 LabVIEW is used by A.M. Minetti
 of Istituto Tecnologie
 Biomediche Avanzate - Consiglio
 Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milano
 to measure quantitatively the
 amount of “fuel” used during
 the motion and to understand
 the mechanisms that contribute
 to energy saving in different
 ways of walking. Images of
 people walking are input via
 sensors and the potential and kinetic energy of the motion is inferred. Minetti feels that LabVIEW is the most appropriate environment
 for his research work, and the virtual instruments developed at ITBA are now essential to the work of motion analysis, processing and
 simulation.




                                                                                                                                      69
                                 Dentistry and Pharmacy

     Essential Tools for Dentistry and Pharmacy
     Basic Needs:
     Statistics/Numerical                   Network Communication                     Stimulation/Modelling
     Computer Aided Learning                Visualisation/Graphics                    Database
     Presentation/Documentation             Interface to other operating systems

     Special Needs:
     CAD in special situations. Business management tools. Database management and analysis tools,
     biosignal acquisition and visualisation. Laboratory control tools. Documentation and presentation
     tools. Modelling and simultaion tools for training and research work.
     Key Solutions;
     See Product Guide for: A.D.A.M. Astrosoft info@astrosoft.com.au, LabView 5.1
     www.ni.com,MacLab www.adinstruments.com, Extend 4.1 www.addsoft.com.au, Stella 5.1.1
     www.hps-inc.com, MacroMedia Director www.firmware.com.au,4th Dimension 6.5
     www.namadgi.com, Filemaker Pro 5.0 www.filemaker.com.au, SPSS 9.0 www.spss.com SPSS
     Australasia Pty Ltd (1800 024836), Statview 5.0.1 www.addsoft.com.au,CLR Anova 1.1
     www.members.aol.com/clrsch/clr_anova.html, DeltaGraph Pro 4.5 - www.spss.com, Data Desk 6.1
     www.datadesk.com, Adobe Photoshop 5.5 www.pacific.adobe.com
     Other specialist solutions: DentalWorks www.bitesoft.com,M.E.D.PATIENT www.jamsoft.com.au,
     The Specialist: Patient Management System www.home.aone.net.au/medfront/pages,Visible
     Human CD Collection 2.0 www.rsinc.com.


     The Market:
     Presence of operating systems;
     Macintosh              Windows
     Challenges
     Educate regarding software solutions on the Apple Macintosh. Educate the market on competitive
     pricing, reliability, connectivity. Emphasise the effectiveness of the Apple Macintosh as a laboratory
     control and data acquistion tool, alos ease of interfacing with other computer systems from
     mainframes to specialist workstations.
     Macintosh strengths
     Interconnectivity Networking             Expandability       Technology edge Cost effectiveness
     Macintosh OS           Ease of use       Reliability         Upward compatiblity
     Commitment to Higher Ed through AUC and Higher Ed websites




                                 Dentistry deals with all aspects of dental and oral medicine. Dentists provide
                                 treatment and management of dental disease and injury. Specialisations include
                                 surgery, faco-maxillary reconstruction, Anesthesiology and General Practise.
                                 Specialist tools required Medical imaging, modelling/CAD, database, stock control,
                                 payroll and accounting.
                                 Pharmacy is the science of medication and the preparation of medically active
                                 compounds for patient treatment of illness and injury. They may diagnose for and
                                 recommend some medication, provide mixtures and preparations required by all
                                 fields in the Medical Sciences. From General Practise the Pharmacist may pursue
                                 further qualifications in Hospital Pharmacy and Research in Pharmacology, the
                                 study of biologically active compounds in plants, drugs, their effects and uses.

70
 ACADEMIC ADVANTAGE                                                                Biological and Medical Sciences




PharMACokenetix by Russ Rackley from the University of Tennessee, USA has developed a public domain simulation program designed
to examine the effect of changing pharmokenetic parameters of various dosage regimes, theoretical plasma concentration-time profiles.
The program has on-line help.


                                         There is a requirement for CAL tools, database, chemical modelling, accounting,
                                         business, stock and payroll tools, in addition to presentation and documentation.




QuickTime is being used by the University of Hamburg Dentistry School for Computer Aided Teaching of Dental students. Material is
generated in live settings, filmed and digitised for incorporation in CAL material. The Dentisry School have been able to satisfy increased
student demand and maintain or increase instructional content by using CAL. Student comprehension and interest is high and the quality
of graduates has been maintained if not increased.

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Description: 64 Biological Science groups together the disciplines dealing with