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Civic Type R Tech Guide


Civic Type R Tech Guide

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									Civic Type R Tech Guide


Background                                                Involvement
                                                          High levels of feedback and involvement in terms
The Type R name was introduced by Honda                   of sound, steering response and handling. The
Motorcycles, where the letter R was added                 driver should feel part of the machine.
to conventional bike names to indicate a
performance derivative.                                   Not just speed
                                                          Going fast is part of the Type R experience, but not
For example, the CB – a standard 4-cylinder               everything. The Type R should have above average
across-the-frame bike – became the CB-R, a                levels of performance in gear change quality,
sporting model.                                           braking, steering and handling.

The First Type R                                          The driving experience should not be diluted or
                                                          interfered with by over-intrusive driving aids or
The earliest Type R car was the Honda NSX-R,
                                                          excessive sound proofing that could detract from
a stripped-down, lightweight version of the NSX
                                                          the driver’s involvement.
supercar. This was developed in response to
claims the NSX did not have enough power to
compete with rival cars from Porsche and Ferrari.
                                                          To meet the aims set by the philosophy, a
The key factor in this argument – and a point
                                                          different approach is taken during the design and
proved by the NSX-R – was the importance of the
                                                          development of a Type R. Therefore, each car
power to weight ratio.
                                                          possesses a special set of engineering qualities.

The NSX-R epitomised Honda’s approach to                  Normally aspirated
creating high performance cars, and every                 No bolting on of a turbocharger to give silly power
subsequent Type R vehicle has been built to               figures. All Type R engines are normally-aspirated,
conform to certain principles. Each follows a             which deliver smoother power delivery throughout
certain Type R philosophy.                                the rev range, allowing power to be transferred
                                                          through the chassis more easily, improving traction
Philosophy                                                and acceleration.

The Type R philosophy is not about building the           Torsional rigidity
most powerful, or fastest car in the world. It is about   A stiffer chassis improves the handling of the car
creating a car that provides a well-engineered, but       in terms of balance and adjustability. This makes
exciting driving experience. To offer this, every Type    for a more involving drive.
R needs to have certain key characteristics:
                                                          Simple technology
Racing                                                    Each Type R is based on clever, but simple
An exhilarating driving experience similar to that        engineering solutions rather than relying solely
felt when driving a racing car.                           on electronic gadgetry.

Engine &
Overview                                               Honda’s clever i-VTEC technology can maximise
                                                       engine potential over its complete range of
The Type R is powered by the naturally-aspirated,      operation, and a particularly flat, linear torque
high-revving 2.0-litre DOHC i-VTEC engine, mated       curve produced by this engine is testimony to its
to a 6-speed manual. It produces 148kW at              effectiveness: At just 2,500rpm, the engine delivers
7,800rpm. So why didn’t we put a bigger, more          90 per cent of the maximum torque available. As a
powerful, turbocharged lump in there?                  result, acceleration feels smooth and progressive.

That question is answered in part by the Type R        Under the control of the VTEC system, the valves
philosophy, a mantra followed in the approach to       remain open for a longer duration at high engine
developing any new Type R. The philosophy says         speeds to give the gases sufficient time to
that all Type R’s must be pure, balanced and offer     overcome their inertia. At low and mid range engine
a smooth power delivery. For this reason, all Type R   speeds, where valves opening for too long would
cars are supplied with normally-aspirated engines.     allow intake charge to leak back out and exhaust
                                                       gases to leak back into the cylinder, the valves
The second part of the answer is just as simple:       remain open for a shorter duration. The result
it’s not all about big power figures. While mighty     is optimised gas flows to provide good top-end
kW claims might make the headlines, Honda is           output together with low and mid-range flexibility.
more concerned about creating a performance
car with balance. There’s absolutely no doubt          The switch to the high lift, long duration operation
that our engineers could strap a huge blower on        at high engine speeds is achieved by locking the
to the i-VTEC engine and get monster results at        rocker arms operating each pair of inlet and each
the flywheel – but it would likely be at the cost      pair of exhaust valves to a third high lift rocker arm
of its smooth power delivery or stable cornering       (one on the intake side, one on the exhaust side)
under acceleration.                                    by means of a hydraulically-activated pin.

                                                       The VTC system takes into consideration engine
The Engine in Detail
                                                       load and involves the engine control unit varying
The 2.0-litre engine combines Honda’s VTEC             the inlet camshaft position relative to that of the
system, which varies the timing and amount             exhaust camshaft by means of a hydraulically
of lift of the valves, with VTC (Variable Timing       driven, compact vane-type pump located on the
Control). VTC is able to advance and retard inlet      front end of the inlet camshaft.
valve opening by altering the phasing of the inlet
camshaft to best match the engine load at any          During periods of high engine load (i.e.
given moment.                                          acceleration), VTC is set at a relatively small
                                                       degree of valve overlap which provides the
The two systems work together under the close          optimum output, the valve opening angle fully
control of the engine management system,               utilising the inertia effect of the intake air. In
delivering improved cylinder charging and              addition, as engine speed builds, the VTEC
combustion efficiency, reduced intake resistance,      mechanism switches from the low speed cam to
and improved exhaust gas re-circulation.               the high speed cam (i.e. optimal torque to optimal
                                                       power), but with the same degree of overlap.

Engine &
In contrast, at high engine speeds in situations       The VTEC technology was later adapted for use in
where the engine is not under heavy load, for          the NSX, Accord and Civic.
example during motorway cruising, there is much
greater valve overlap and this is advantageous in      How Does it Work?
reducing pumping losses, maximising the exhaust        Most road cars spend a lot of their time at low
gas recirculation effect for reduced NOx levels        rpm, and only occasionally at high rpm. The ideal
and providing the best balance between fuel            engine then would suit both requirements, with
consumption and output.                                valves that open wide for maximum performance
                                                       at high rpm, and only open a fraction at low rpm
Finally, at idle and low engine speeds during light    to save fuel. And Honda’s VTEC technology does
load conditions, inlet valve opening is retarded       just that.
for minimal overlap, generating strong swirl and
therefore good mixing. EGR is reduced and this         VTEC is an electronic and mechanical valve
stabilises combustion.                                 control system that effectively allows the engine
                                                       to have multiple camshafts. As the engine moves
So What’s VTEC Then?                                   into different rpm ranges, the engine’s computer
                                                       can activate alternate lobes on the camshaft and
The History                                            change the cam’s timing. In this way, the engine
As is nearly always the case with a Honda              gets the best features of low speed and high-
innovation, VTEC (Variable Valve Timing and Lift       speed camshafts in the same engine.
Electronic Control System) was the result of a
dream: a dream to achieve 74kW per litre.              Each cylinder of a standard DOHC engine has
                                                       four valves and thus four cam lobes, each directly
The man with the dream was Ikuo Kajitani, Large        operating a valve. But in a Honda VTEC engine,
Project Leader for Engine Development. At the          there are two more cam lobes, in between each pair
time he was working on the next Honda Integra, but     of standard lobes. These ‘extra’ two are high rpm
it was 1986, and his vision for such performance       lobes, while the other four are the low rpm lobes.
from a 1.6-litre engine seemed preposterous. It
would mean raising the maximum rpm to 8,000 –          As the engine accelerates through the rev range,
thus increasing the forces and loads on internal       it passes through the power peak of the low-rpm
engine parts – but the Integra still had to meet       lobes. Then, at an engine speed and throttle
mass-production reliability targets. To say it would   position programmed into the car’s computer
be a challenge was a huge understatement.              map, a signal is sent which electronically opens a
                                                       valve to direct oil pressure to a mechanical sliding
However, Kajitani’s team of engineers took on the      pin. This pin locks the rocker arms operating the
challenge, and – after three years of research,        valves to the cam follower on the high rpm cam
development and testing – they combined to             lobe, meaning just this steeper, higher lift lobe is
produce an engine with a complex, but tough            now the only one effective.
and lightweight valve operating system. VTEC
was born and Kajitani’s dream was realised. The        The valve timing and the engine’s power band are
1989 Honda Integra DOHC VTEC had a 1.6-litre           thus altered for maximum performance – and it all
engine that produced 117kW at 7,600rpm and             happens within milliseconds.
redlined at 8,000rpm.

Engine &
6-Speed Manual Transmission
The DOHC i-VTEC engine is mated to a 6-speed
close-ratio manual gearbox. Designers and
engineers have worked hard to ensure high levels
of driver enjoyment.

The transmission is matched to a high
performance clutch, which uses a lightweight
flywheel for quicker response and fast changes
between gears. These quick shifts are enhanced
by triple cone synchronisers for first and second
gears, as well as carbonised synchronisers on
third, fifth and sixth gears – ensuring gear changes
are speedy and precise.

The gear level stroke is short and light to give a
‘race’ feel to the transmission.


Overview                                                  Torsion beam-type suspension was selected to
                                                          maintain a good balance between the demands of
An important part of the Type R philosophy is             packaging, performance and weight. Importantly,
to make the driving experience as involving as            the torsion beam used on the Civic also makes the
possible – and most responsibility for this lies in       cabin a much nicer place to be as NVH levels are
the chassis dynamics.                                     improved. It also increases cornering rigidity, thus
                                                          contributes to the overall improvement in stability
The Type R had to be rewarding to drive, but it also      in bends.
had to be predictable and easy to adjust. Honda
engineers often talk about the ‘balance’ of a car.        Meanwhile, the efficient electric power steering
And that’s exactly what Type R needed. It had to          system (EPS) provides optimum steering feel and
feel like a race car – but still be easy to drive every   weighting at all speeds. Compared to a hydraulic
day. It needed to be as comfortable on a trip to          system there are loads of benefits, including a
the shops as it was on a smooth racetrack. It had         lower inertia, increased rigidity, lower friction,
to give the driver precise steering feel, but still be    improved NVH and lower fuel consumption.
manoeuvrable. It required a precise balance.
The Chassis in Detail
                                                          The Civic Type R offers one of the stiffest body
The MacPherson strut/torsion beam chassis –               structures in the UKC segment, (small cars in
a popular configuration in Europe – provides              Australia). There is extra strengthening of the floor
the basis for the Civic Type R. Much of the               cross member just ahead of the central fuel tank,
development of the chassis was carried out in             around the upper front suspension mountings
Europe, with European drivers, to ensure ride and         and in the lower cross member at the front of the
handling characteristics that suited the roads and        engine bay, to create an even stiffer platform upon
the customers. As the UK is by far the biggest            which the suspension can work to its full potential.
market for Type R in Europe, much consideration
and time was spent setting the car up for British         In addition, heavier and firmer steering feel, a
roads. Honda UK engineers also visited Australia to       quicker ratio and stiffer steering box mountings
understand and sample our unique road conditions          all provide more precise responses to steering
and competitors when developing the Type R.               wheel input.

Suspension                                                The Civic Type R provides predictable handling
                                                          characteristics with damper and spring settings
At the front is a MacPherson strut design featuring       delivering enhanced ride comfort – in keeping with
a high castor setting and a quick steering ratio for      the need to make the car easy to use everyday.
excellent response to driver input. The stiffness of
the front end further reduces vibrations, thereby
improving overall comfort and refinement.

At the rear the torsion beam configuration has
been used to give sharper steering response and
more stable cornering ability. High-response mono
tube dampers are used, with coil springs, and both
have been tuned especially for this Type R.

Perhaps the most important consideration when
developing a performance car is the effectiveness
of the brakes, and in the Type R, Honda engineers
have created a set-up that stops the car amazingly
fast in both wet and dry conditions.

It’s down to a combination of large ventilated discs
at the front (300mm), 260mm solid discs at the
rear, and the application of Electronic Brake force
Distribution, which adjusts front-to-rear brake effort
to achieve maximum braking performance and
stability. Further intervention is provided by a brake
assist system, which functions during emergency
braking. All Type Rs are also equipped with ABS.

VSA (Vehicle Stability Assist) is standard – but
has an exclusive setting for Type R. The VSA
system is designed to assist the driver in
maintaining control during cornering, acceleration
and sudden manoeuvres by applying brake force
to the right or left hand wheels as necessary
and managing the throttle and ignition systems.
The system is calibrated to provide stability
and predictability, without stifling the driving
enjoyment of the carefully engineered chassis.
The VSA system can be switched on or off using
a button on the dashboard.

Limited Slip Differential (LSD)
The Civic Type R features an advanced Limited Slip
Differential (LSD) to maximise traction and prevent
wheel slip during fast or tight turns. LSD increases
power to the tyre with the most grip, limiting slip
on the spinning wheel. So you get the kind of
traction and handling you’d normally find on a

Design &
Overview                                               The doors, rear three-quarter panels, lower sills,
                                                       and front and rear bumpers are unique to 3-door
It wasn’t going to be difficult to make the Type       Civics. In particular, the lower edge of the rear
R look good – after all, it’s based on the body        side window tapers upwards more steeply for a
shape of the already stunning, extremely sporty        more sporty profile.
European 5-door Civic.
                                                       Sculpted side skirts flare outwards and blend
But the Concept vehicle still managed to draw a        seamlessly into the front and rear wheelarch
satisfying gasp from onlookers when it debuted         surrounds. These in turn flow into the front and
at Geneva in 2006. The former Large Project            rear spoilers to complete the lower body structure,
Leader of Type R, Mikio Suzuki, talks about his        all of which is finished in the body colour.
aim to create “the ultimate sporting Honda”, and
acknowledges that the look of the car is key to        The deep front spoiler and large air intake are
attracting the target customer for this new Type R.    possibly the most aggressive styling features
“Of course, how the car looks is very important,” he   at the front end (although that intake does do a
says. “The previous model used to attract mostly       job, allowing a clearer flow of air to the induction
younger drivers, but with this new model we’ve         system). Meanwhile, a black honeycomb mesh
developed a Type R that will attract a more mature     grille replaces the central glass panel of the
driver as well. I’m very proud of the outcome.”        European Civic 5-door, and this houses the all
                                                       important red ‘H’ badge.
When Suzuki-san says ‘mature’, he doesn’t mean
‘pensioner’. What the LPL perhaps refers to is the     To give another indication of its potency, the
more corporate customer, the grown-up buyer of         Type R sits on 18-inch seven-spoke alloy wheels,
hot hatches who appreciates the performance,           tucked under the wheelarches due to the 15mm
and wants his or her car to look sporting, not         drop in ride height.
“blinged” or “pimped”.
                                                       Other features include the large triangular front
As a result, the unique styling features on Type       foglamps, which mirrors the shape of the large
R are subtle and fully integrated, and were            exhaust tailpipes. At the back, a distinct body-
considered when the shape of European Civic            coloured tailgate rear spoiler follows the kick-up
was conceived. It’s also the reason for discreet       line from the rear quarter windows, and provides
Type R badging on the car, although logos do           added downforce, as well as giving the effect of a
feature throughout – most prominently on the           more aerodynamic shape.
front brake callipers and more subtly on the
stainless steel door sills.

Exterior Design
While the new Civic Type R shares the same
silhouette as the European Civic 5-door, it has a
number of features that set it apart and further
emphasise the coupé-like shape of the body shell
in profile.

Design &
Civic Family Architecture
All European Civic hatchbacks feature an
undercover extending from bumper to bumper for
greater aerodynamic efficiency. The Civic also
aims for best in class NVH characteristics, so the
shape of the door mirror profile has minimised
wind noise, while the flat blade wipers are a key
element in arriving at a very low windscreen
noise. Further contributions come from the use
of lightweight and noise absorbing materials and
pillar shape.

NVH has also been significantly reduced by
adopting torque rod engine mountings and a front
sub-frame. Other noise suppression measures
include a lightweight anti-noise body structure that
integrates a foam agent in the lower sections, an
anti-noise undercoat, an absorption roof lining and
dashboard insulating material.

Ease of entry and exit from the interior and good
general usability are essential in a in a car that is
likely to be used for a wide range of purposes.
Honda has therefore provided doors with three
stage opening to assist in a variety of situations:
an initial 24 degrees (328mm) opening; an
intermediate 44 degrees (722mm) opening; and a
class-leading 58 degrees (988mm) when fully open.

An electrically assisted tailgate release offers
better operation, eliminates a release handle and
enhances vehicle security since there is no cable.


Overview                                                Seats
Perhaps the key piece of design on all Civic            A great deal of time and thought has been invested
models is the centrally-mounted 50 litre fuel tank      in the front seats for the new Type R to increase
beneath the floor, a feature which was introduced       comfort and support for driver and passenger.
in the Jazz in 2002. It means the tank is well-
protected in the event of an accident, but more         The aim was to create seats that hug the driver,
importantly it improves passenger and load space        and provide superior lumbar support. The
and allows the inclusion of a useful flat rear floor.   resulting race-style seats have wide, banked
The interior in the Type R is based on the same         side bolsters for increased lateral support during
imaginative thinking from Honda’s design team.          cornering. The cushion material is also much
That means it’s functional, stylish and more than a     better at absorbing vibration.
bit space age.
                                                        Finished in black Alcantara with red stitching, and
The cabin is focused around the unique ‘Dual Zone’      a red fabric centre cushion and base, the seats
dash, which has become such a distinctive feature       match the look of the rest of the interior. A lever-
of the current model Civic, all around the world.       type height adjuster is available on the driver’s
                                                        seat. The front seats also have a range of fore/
The dash design places instrument panels and            aft and reclining adjustment, while the steering
controls in a rational way, with the most essential     column has both tilt and telescopic adjustment,
information appearing at the very top of the            providing more room for taller drivers, as well as
fascia and far forward. The concept is particularly     improved interior versatility.
effective in displaying information without
compromising the driver’s concentration on the          The gear shift knob is crafted from machined
road. Secondary information and controls are then       aluminium and is fitted with a black boot with
organised around and below this central focus.          red stitching.

It’s clear to see the key colour inside the Type R      Exclusive Serial Number Plaque
is red, reflecting the ‘red H’ badge that adorns
the front grille. The two-tier dash features red        Placed just ahead of it, and to make each Type R
illuminated dials set off by gun-metal effect switch    even more exclusive, is a plaque engraved with the
panels on either side of the central display. A new     car’s unique global serial number.
feature is an i-VTEC indicator which illuminates
once engine revs rise above 5,400 rpm, indicating
the switch to high-lift, long duration valve timing.

Red features again on the steering wheel, used for
stitching around the black leather-wrapped wheel.
It also features gun-metal colour spokes, which
house audio and cruise control buttons. There’s
also the traditional red ‘H’ emblem in the centre of
the wheel.


Outstanding Interior Flexibility                         Safety
As you’d expect in a modern Honda, the rear seats        As well as the active safety equipment on Civic
offer outstanding flexibility and convenience. It        Type R (ABS, EBD, VSA etc), the car also has a
only takes one easy lift to collapse either section of   number of passive safety features. Front, side
the 60:40 split rear seat completely into the deep       and curtain SRS airbags are fitted to the Type R
footwell, without removing the headrests.                and there are double pre-tensioners on the front
                                                         seatbelts and an innovative seatbelt reminder
The 485 litres (VDA) of unobstructed space               system for rear passengers.
increases to a massive 1,352 litres to the window
line with the rear seats folded down.                    Like the Legend, the reminder system consists
                                                         of a graphic of the two belted occupants
There are also loads of practical storage areas          when seatbelts are in use, switching to a solid
scattered throughout the interior, with lids where       depiction when they are unfastened and is
possible to ensure everything is neatly concealed.       viewed through the multi-information display in
A 14-litre capacity glove box includes a map             the centre of the tachometer.
pocket inside the lid and in-box illumination.
There’s also a large centre box to fit maps or CDs.

The front doors are equipped with storage that’s
ideal for bottles (500ml) and maps (just how many
maps do you need?), while the rear side panels
are sculpted to form a fabric-covered armrest
containing both a silver-rimmed cup holder and a
rear audio speaker.

From Petrolhead to Production                             The Central Rev Counter
Three years ago, a group of Type R fans from the          “The old Civic had a pretty standard dash, and we
UK were invited to west London to meet a team of          suggested looking at other performance cars –
Honda designers and engineers. These ‘hardcore’           things like the Subaru Impreza and Mitsubishi Evo.
enthusiasts took part in a consultation meeting           Those both had large rev counters as the central
about a proposed Type R, based on the then                display in the dash board, and we liked that idea.
forthcoming eighth generation Civic.                      We thought it would work perfectly with the Type R.”

As usual, Honda listened to its customers, took           The i-VTEC Indicator
the feedback on board, and incorporated the
passionate ideas of real Type R enthusiasts into          “People have been adding these lights to VTEC-
the development of the latest performance Civic.          engined Hondas for years. They light up when the
Stuart Pridham was one of those fans consulted.           cam changes over. On the last Civic Type R a few
He tells his story…                                       of us put them in place of the hazard warning light.
                                                          You can have them in all sorts of different colours.
“When we were invited down to Honda, I was a bit          One of the cars we brought down to Honda had a
sceptical at first, but they asked us to bring a few of   VTEC indicator light fitted, and the designers were
our members’ modified Civic Type R’s for inspiration,     very interested in it. They took loads of photos, did
so it was clear someone was quite serious.                a few sketches on their big A3 pads, and later the
                                                          indicators appeared on the new car.”
“We met with several Japanese designers and
R&D people, who didn’t speak any English but              The Start Button
had a translator working with them. I gave a short
presentation to them about the club and about             “This is now on every new Civic hatch, but the
what we liked about our Civics and what we’d              idea came from a modification that we do to tuned
done to them. We then had an open discussion              Civics. The cigarette lighter hole is the exact same
about what we’d like to see on the new car. There         size as the starter for an S2000. So we take the
were definitely some things we didn’t want to see         lighter out, poke a start button in and wire it up.
as well.                                                  Job done.”

“When we saw the concept car at Geneva [early             Not a 5-Door Hatch
2006], we were pretty stunned. As I say, I was pretty
sceptical, but we could see straight away that our        “This was something we actually urged Honda
ideas and suggestions were actually taken on              not to do. A Type R can’t have five doors. Look
board. I thought ‘Jeez, they’ve kept to their word!’.     back into history and you’ll see that apart from the
                                                          Accord Type R (four door), all Type R’s have had
“Some people think car makers are really insular          three doors. The new Civic version couldn’t have a
and never listen, but this shows that manufacturers       five-door variant. It would have been sacrilege.”
like Honda embrace enthusiasts, and can
recognise and appreciate us.”

Those ideas that became a production reality.

Key Personnel
Isao Akimoto                                               inertia movement and further improves handling
                                                           performance. We think the handling of this vehicle
(Dynamic Chassis Engineer)
                                                           is very responsive and well balanced.”
On the Aims
                                                           On the Passion Behind Type R
“The aim of this car is to make people smile when
                                                           “Type R embodies Honda’s DNA – it represents our
they look at it, but for their smiles to widen and
                                                           racing spirit and the fun-to-drive characteristics.
their hearts to beat faster when they drive it – this
                                                           All Honda engineers aim to create a vehicle they
is the element we think is missing from cars from
                                                           would enjoy driving, and so all engineers want to
the competition. The Type R makes you feel alive.
                                                           be part of creating a car like Type R. We love cars
It is fun to drive and invigorating. We like to think of
                                                           and driving, and to us, the job is an extension of
it as three stages of smile: one when you look at
                                                           our hobbies.”
the car, two when you sit in it, and three when you
drive – the smile should get bigger at each stage.”
                                                           Wrap Up
                                                           “This Car Had to Quicken the Pulse of the Driver”
On European demands
“Firstly, it was a challenge. It wouldn’t have
been so difficult to create another VW Golf, for           Toshiya Sakai
example, but we wanted to boost the positives of           (New Large Project Leader, Civic Type R)
the previous Type R, and deliver the refinement
demanded by Europe. And this Type R had to be a            On the Feeling
car that would quicken the pulse of the driver.”           “Looking at this Civic Type R, strong, aggressive,
                                                           sporty and energetic images float through my mind.”
On the Steering
“As the Type R has outstanding engine                      On Living Up to the Name
performance, it needed to have good handling               “I believe this car is worthy of the red ‘H’ badge,
and sharp steering. When Honda developed the               which is a symbol of a true Type R. I think everyone
5-door Civic, we started using a more expensive,           will feel the same way once they have experienced
more sophisticated high performance electric               the engine with much higher rpm compared to
power steering system. It’s actually the same              the previous model, and sharp and comfortable
system as used in the flagship Legend model, so            handling produced by a refined chassis set-up.”
it’s high standard.
                                                           On What’s Next for Type R
“This EPS system enabled us to better modify the           “I would like to keep developing this Civic Type
weight of the steering. We did a lot of endurance          R, a car which truly-represents Honda’s sporty
testing in Europe to determine the individual              image. I think this Type R is a car that offers an
settings. As a guide, the Civic 5-door has the             exceptional blend of fast acceleration and ride
lightest feel, Type S is heavier, but Type R is the        comfort. I would like to continue developing the
heaviest, which gives the most responsive feel.”           car to epitomise the Type R moniker.”

On the Suspension                                          Wrap Up
“The torsion beam type suspension works well               “This Car is Worthy of the Red ‘H’ Badge”
during cornering and more spirited driving and
the car feels well balanced. The centre of gravity
is right in the centre of the vehicle, which reduces


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