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Biology 3201 Outcomes

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					       Unit 1
MAINTAINING DYNAMIC
   EQUILIBRIUM II
MAINTAINING DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM II



Unit Overview
Introduction                         Cells, tissues, organs, organ systems and ultimately organisms must
                                     maintain a biological balance despite changing external conditions.
                                     Homeostasis is the state of internal balance so critical to existence. It
                                     represents a dynamic equilibrium displaying constant interactions and
                                     checks and balances both within organisms and between organisms and
                                     their environment. There are a variety of systems within living things
                                     responsible for the maintenance of this delicate balance and this unit
                                     will identify and introduce the role of some of the nervous
                                     (electrochemical) and endocrine (chemical) systems in humans.



Focus and Context                    This unit has its primary focus within the area of decision-making
                                     (STSE) as social and environmental issues are considered. This STSE
                                     component contributes to the development of scientific literacy and a
                                     sense of global citizenship. In addition, there are numerous
                                     opportunities for problem-solving and scientific inquiry incorporated
                                     into the discussion of electrochemical and chemical control systems.


Science                              Biology students have studied the components of body systems at a
                                     number of different levels prior to Biology 3201. Students in the
Curriculum Links                     primary levels are introduced to the importance of maintaining a
                                     healthy lifestyle. When they reach the elementary levels they begin to
                                     discuss the role of specific body systems in growth and reproduction.
                                     The major components of the structure and function of the digestive,
                                     excretory, respiratory, circulatory and nervous systems are introduced.
                                     The skeletal, muscular and nervous systems and their contributions to
                                     movement are also integrated into this study. In addition, body defences
                                     against infection and nutritional requirements to promote health are
                                     discussed. When students reach Biology 2201, they begin to consider
                                     the factors that effect the functioning and efficiency of the human
                                     respiratory, circulatory, digestive, and excretory system and are
                                     encouraged to discover and describe examples of the interdependence of
                                     various systems of the human body. This provides a good background
                                     for the study of the role of systems in the maintenance of homeostasis
                                     within an organism. A cross-curricular link exists between the life
                                     sciences and physical sciences in the discussion of dynamic equilibrium
                                     incorporated into the Chemistry and Physics curriculum of the province
                                     of Newfoundland and Labrador.




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                                                                         MAINTAINING DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM II


Curriculum Outcomes
             STSE                                  Skills                           Knowledge
Students will be expected to         Students will be expected to         Students will be expected to

Nature of Science and Technology     Initiating and Planning              314-2 identify the role of some
115-5 analyse why and how a          212-6 design an experiment and       compounds, such as water,
particular technology was            identify specific variables          glucose, and ATP, commonly
developed and improved over                                               found in living systems
time                                 Performing and Recording
                                                                          314-3 identify and describe the
                                     213-5 compile and organize           structure and function of
Relationships between Science        data, using appropriate formats
and Technology
                                                                          important biochemical
                                     and data treatments to facilitate    compounds, including
116-4 analyse and describe           interpretation of the data           carbohydrates, proteins, lipids,
examples where technologies                                               and nucleic acids
were developed based on              Analysing and Interpreting
scientific understanding             214-10 identify and explain          314-4 explain the critical role of
                                     sources of error and uncertainty     enzymes in cellular metabolism
116-7 analyse natural and
technological systems to             in measurement and express           317-1 explain how different
interpret and explain their          results in a form that               plant and animal systems,
structure and dynamics               acknowledges the degree of           including the vascular and
                                     uncertainty                          nervous systems, help maintain
Social and Environmental                                                  homeostasis
Contexts of Science and              Communication and Teamwork
Technology                                                                317-2 analyse homeostatic
                                     215-2 select and use
                                                                          phenomena to identify the
117-11 analyse examples of           appropriate numeric, symbolic,
                                                                          feedback mechanisms involved
Canadian contributions to            graphical, and linguistic modes
science and technology               of representation to                 317-4 evaluate the impact of
                                     communicate ideas, plans, and        viral, bacterial, genetic and
118-8 distinguish between                                                 environmental diseases on an
questions that can be answered       results
                                                                          organism’s homeostasis
by science and those that cannot,
and between problems that can                                             317-5 evaluate, considering
be solved by technology and                                               ethical issues, the consequences
those that cannot                                                         of medical treatments such as
                                                                          radiation therapy, cosmetic
118-10 propose courses of
                                                                          surgery and chemotherapy
action on social issues related to
science and technology, taking                                            317-7 describe how the use of
into account an array of                                                  prescription and non-
perspectives, including that of                                           prescription drugs can disrupt or
sustainability                                                            help maintain homeostasis




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MAINTAINING DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM II

Nervous System: Structures

Outcomes                              Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• analyze the nervous system          Students should be given the opportunity to observe the principle features
  and explain its structure and       of the central nervous system, using models, dissected mammalian brains or
  dynamics (116-7)                    computer simulations, and to identify and label major physical structures
                                      and their functions from drawings or photos of that organ.
     – explain the basic structure
        and function of the central
        nervous system. Include:
       (i) brain
       (ii) spinal cord
     – explain how the nervous
        system is protected.
        Include:
       (i) skull
       (ii) meninges
       (iii) cerebrospinal fluid
     – explain the basic structure
        and function of the brain.
        Include:
       (i) cerebrum
       (ii) cerebellum
       (iii) medulla
       (iv) thalamus
       (v) hypothalamus
       (vi) midbrain
       (vii) pons
       (viii) corpus callosum
     – describe the basic             Students can prepare a chart to visually contrast the sympathetic and
        functions of a peripheral     parasympathetic components of the autonomic nervous system on
        nervous system. Include:      various parts of the body (e.g., heart, digestive tract, blood vessels,
       (i) sympathetic                bladder, bronchi, eye).
       (ii) parasympathetic




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                                                                           MAINTAINING DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM II

Nervous System: Structures

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                 Resources/Notes


Presentation                                                               MHR Biology
€      Invite a radiologist/x-ray technologist to give a presentation on
MRI, CAT, scan of EEG. Research and prepare questions related to the
topic. Working in groups, questions should be reviewed and revised.        pages 392-393
The questions selected should be asked during the presentation.
Following the presentation prepare a brief summary of the answers
given. (116-7)

Journal
                                                                           page 393
€       What happens to your body when you are faced with a stressful
situation (for example, danger, fright, and so on? How long does it
usually take for your body to return to normal? (116-7)

Pen and Paper
 €     Within your groups develop a concept map for the                     pages 399-401
electrochemical and chemical control systems that will illustrate their
close integration and interconnected nature. (116-7, 317-1)
 €   Assessment to be based on student participation and final
product as appropriate. (116-7, 317-1)

Laboratory Activities
 €   Identify regions of preserved sheep brain. (116-7, 213-5,
214-10, 215-2)


                                                                            pages 392-394




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MAINTAINING DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM II

Nervous System: Neurons

Outcomes                               Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• explain how the nervous              The nervous system is responsible for receiving information from internal
  system helps to maintain             and external stimuli and the quick response to that information. Four
  homeostasis (317-1)                  requirements are necessary for a nervous response to occur: sensory receptors
                                       to detect a stimulus (skin, eye, ear); method for impulse transmission
                                       (neurons); interpretation and analysis of impulses (brain, spinal cord);
                                       response carried out by an effector (muscle, gland).
     – describe the structure of       Students can observe microscopically the structure of neurons and
        the typical neuron and         neuromuscular junctions on prepared microscope slides within the
        explain the function of        laboratory. Teachers should note that the axon terminal is not
        each part. Include:            specifically named in the textbook. The axon terminal is described as
       (i) dendrite                    the bulb-like ends of the axon. Other terms for this structure may
       (ii) cell body                  include end brushes or terminal endings.
       (iii) axon
       (iv) axon terminal
       (v) Schwann cells (myelin
             sheath and nodes of
             Ranvier)
     – describe the function of
       sensory neurons, motor
       neurons and interneurons
     – explain the ion                 Students should be able to describe the role of the sodium-potassium
       distribution on the             (Na+ /K+ ) pump as it pertains to ion distributions. Discussion of action
       membrane of a neuron (at        potential should also be included here.
       rest, depolarization and
       polarization) and the
       influence of myelin
     – explain the meaning of the
       term threshold and
       describe the all-or-none
       principle
     – describe the transmission       Students may investigate the neurological and physiological basis
        of an impulse along the        behind the effectiveness of acupuncture and the production of a
        length of a neuron, across a   “runners high”. Students can investigate how nerve poisons interfere
        synapse or neuromuscular       with synaptic transmission (curare, botulism, tetanus, organophosphate
        junction, and the effects of   pesticides, nerve gas).
        transmitters involved
       (i) acetylcholine
       (ii) noradrenaline
       (iii) glutamate
       (iv) GABA
       (v) dopamine
       (vi) serotonin
26                                                                               BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                              MAINTAINING DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM II

Nervous System: Neurons

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                    Resources/Notes


Laboratory Activities                                                         MHR Biology
€      Perform the available laboratory activities provided to illustrate     page 392
some aspects of the nervous system. These may include microscopic
examination of components of the nervous system, dissection of
specimens, or observation of models in order to observe the structure of
the nervous system. Assessment would depend on the nature and depth
of the activities selected. Enrichment may be provided by allowing            page 395 and 404
students the opportunity to design their own investigations from
questions that arise from these activities. (317-1)
€       Perform the available laboratory activities provided to illustrate
some aspects of the nervous system. These may include activities to
investigate reflex times, observation of the behaviour in response to
stimuli of specimens like Planaria or the effect of the stimulant caffeine
on Daphnia. Assessment would depend on the nature and depth of the
activities selected. Enrichment may be provided by allowing students
the opportunity to design their own investigations from questions that
these activities may generate. (212-6, 213-5, 214-10, 215-2, 317-1)
                                                                               pages 395-396
Paper and Pencil
€      Research the effects of drugs (such as codeine, heroin, caffeine) on
the synapse. Write up your findings in the form of a magazine article.         pages 402-404
(317-1)

Performance
€     Design a model of an electro-chemical event across a synapse.
(317-1)
                                                                              pages 402-403




                                                                              pages 405-406




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Nervous System: Neurons (continued)

Outcomes                             Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• identify the role of certain       Cells within the nervous system require enormous amounts of energy to
  compounds to neuron                function. This energy is provided by the processing of glucose and the
  function (oxygen, glucose,         production of ATP within these tissues, requiring an adequate supply of
  ATP, sodium ions) (314-2)          carbohydrates and oxygen (Na+ /K+ pump). ATP energy is required to
                                     operate the sodium-potassium pump which convert cellular chemical
                                     signals into electrical signals along a nerve cell and between them
                                     (synapse).
• analyze homeostatic                Students can design and/or perform experiments to investigate the other
  phenomena to identify the          physiology of reflex arcs (pupil dilation and reaction time, page 410 -
  feedback mechanisms                optional activity)
  involved (317-2)
     – describe a reflex arc
• perform an experiment to           The Laboratory outcomes 212-6, 213-5, 214-10 and, in part, 317-2 are
  investigate and collect data on    addressed by completing The Nervous System and Reflex Responses CORE
  the nervous system (reflexes)      LAB #1.
  and identify specific variables
  involved (212-6)
• compile and organize data,
  using appropriate formats and
  data treatments to facilitate
  interpretation of the data
  (213-5)
• identify and explain sources of
  error and uncertainty in
  measurement and express
  results from this nervous
  system activity in a form that
  acknowledges the degree of
  uncertainty (214-10)




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Nervous System: Neurons (continued)

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                   Resources/Notes


Journal                                                                      MHR Biology
€       With a partner, test each others’ reflexes (for example, knee jerk   pages 397, 402
test or reaction time). What do you think can be learned from tests like
this? (317-2)

Paper and Pencil
€     Construct a flow chart that shows the path of a reflex arc. (317-2)
                                                                             pages 395-396
€     Draw a cartoon strip of ATP in action. (317-2)




                                                                              Core Lab #1: “The Nervous System
                                                                              and Reflex Responses”, pages 396-
                                                                              397




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Nervous System: Disrupting Homeostasis

Outcomes                              Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• describe disorders linked to        Specific pathologies of the nervous system should be discussed or
   the nervous system and their       researched along with the capability of technology to diagnose, treat or
   effect on homeostasis of the       cure the problem. During this discussion students should investigate
   system and the organism as a       the physiological basis and causes of neurological diseases (e.g.,
   whole. (317-4)                     Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, epilepsy, Tourette’s Syndrome, ALS, and
    Include:                          Huntington’s) and discuss the effectiveness and the ethics of new
       (i)     Multiple Sclerosis     innovative treatments (e.g., transplant of fetal brain tissue into patients
       (ii)    Alzheimer’s Disease    as a treatment for Parkinson’s). Students may be interested in other
       (iii)   Parkinson’s Disease    conditions related to nervous function, such as polio, stroke, Bell’s palsy
       (iv)    Meningitis             or mental disorders related to chemical imbalances.
       (v)     Huntington’s Disease
• analyze why and how                 Students may investigate and discuss how advances in science and
  technologies related to the         technology influence our ability to explore the human brain, for
  treatment of nervous system         example, MRI, CAT scan, EEG.
  disorders were developed and
  improved over time (115-5)
     – describe the technologies
       (i) MRI
       (ii) EEG
       (iii) CAT Scan
• analyze why and how                 Students may evaluate the consequences of damage or injury to the nervous
  technologies related to the         system (e.g., stroke, spinal injury). Students may investigate the research
  treatment of nervous system         being done on treatments for the conditions of stroke and spinal injury and
  disorders were developed and        the potential these have for the improvement of the lifestyle of victims of
  improved over time (115-5)          these conditions.

     – describe the methods used      Teachers should note that a curriculum connection exists with Core STSE
       to treat stroke and spinal     #2 which covers stem cell research and its potential for curing spinal cord
       cord injury                    injury, however, Core STSE #2 is covered in the Reproduction and
                                      Development, Unit 2.




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Nervous System: Disrupting Homeostasis

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                   Resources/Notes


Presentation                                                                 MHR Biology
 €     Introduce students to individuals knowledgeable in nervous            pages 406-408
system pathologies by using community resources such as physicians,
organizations (Alzheimer Society, Parkinson Foundation, Heart and
Stroke Foundation, Canadian Mental Health Association, Multiple
Sclerosis Society), sufferers of, or caregivers of those who possess these
disorders. (317-1, 317-4, 317-7)
 €     Introduce students to individuals knowledgeable in the influence
of the use of prescription and non-prescription, legal and illegal drugs
on the maintenance of homeostasis within the human system by using
community resources such as physicians, pharmacists and available
organizations. (317-1, 317-4, 317-7)                                          pages 398-399
 €     Research and prepare questions related to the topic being
presented by the guest speaker. Working in groups, these questions
should be reviewed and revised, and questions selected to be asked
during the presentation. Following this presentation, you may be asked
to prepare a brief summary of it, or of the answer to your question.
Assessment may be based on a student summary of the guest’s talk or
answers provided to one of their questions. (317-1, 317-4, 317-7)
€       Working within your assigned groups, select a nerve poison to
investigate. Report to the class on the physiological effect it has on the    pages 404-405
nervous system, its source, and the historical and/or current reasons for
its use. (317-4, 115-5)
€      Working within your assigned groups, select a substance
(chocolate might be an example) or procedure (acupuncture) that affects
the nervous system. Report to the class on its physiological effect on the
nervous system. (317-4, 115-5)




                                                                             page 408




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Nervous System: Disrupting Homeostasis (continued)

Outcomes                              Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• describe how the use of             The CORE STSE component of this unit incorporates a broad range of
  prescription and non-               Biology 3201 outcomes. More specifically it targets (in whole or in part)
  prescription drugs can have a       317-1, 317-4, 115-5, 317-7, 118-8 and 118-10. The STSE component,
  role in maintaining or              Drugs and Homeostatasis, can be found in Appendix C.
  disrupting homeostasis              Students may analyze evidence concerning the influence of anaesthetics,
  (317-7) Include:                    drugs and chemicals, natural and synthetic, on the functioning of the
     (i) anaesthetics                 nervous and endocrine systems and their relationship to addiction theory
     (ii) prescription drugs          (e.g., nicotine, morphine, LSD). Students may compare the relative
     (iii) illegal drugs              physiological and societal impacts of chemical and drug use on adult
     (iv) legalized drugs (alcohol,   development as compared to fetal development.
           nicotine, caffeine)
• distinguish between questions
  that can be answered by
  science and those that cannot,
  and between problems that
  can be solved by technology
  and those that cannot (118-8)
     – debate the merits of using
       drugs for treatments of
       nervous disorders against
       the long-term side effects
• propose courses of action on
  social issues related to science
  and technology, taking into an
  array of perspectives, including
  that of sustainability. (118-10)
     – debate the legalization of
       certain drugs such as
       marijuana for medicinal
       purposes




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Nervous System: Disrupting Homeostasis (continued)

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                       Resources/Notes


Presentation                                                                     Core STSE #1: “Drugs and
€       Use outside sources (media, Internet, etc.) to find out how drugs        Homeostasis”, Appendix C
affect the central nervous system. Discuss student findings and create a class
chart that summarizes the effects of common drugs. (317-7)

Paper and Pencil
 €      Select a particular pharmaceutical or drug to investigate. Include the
sources of the chemical, medical or non-medical uses, effects of use, and any
other appropriate information. You will present your information to the
class. This will provide for a comprehensive overview. Assessment to be
based on completeness and accuracy of information obtained. (115-5,
116-4, 118-8, 118-10, 317-7)




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Nervous System: Sense Organs

Outcomes                             Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• explain how the eye as a sense     The investigation of sense organs serves as a cross-curricular link with the
  organ helps maintain               waves/sound/light sections of high school physics. Students should observe
  homeostasis (317-1)                the principal features of the mammalian eye or ear, using models, dissected
                                     structures or computer simulations, and identify and label major visible
     – describe the general
                                     structures and their functions from drawings or photos of those organs.
        structure and function of
        the eye. Include:            For an elaboration on the blindspot see Minilab on page 413.
       (i) lens
       (ii) iris
       (iii) retina
       (iv) cornea
       (v) choroid layer
       (vi) fovea
       (vii) rods
       (viii) cones
       (ix) pupil
       (x) blind spot
     – trace the path of light       Student activities dealing with the sensory organ of the eye can illustrate
       through the eye and           binocular vision, dominant eye, focusing, resolution, blind spot and retinal
       explain how the amount of     fatigue. Students could design and/or perform experiments to distinguish
       light entering the eye is     objects visually and to hear a range of sounds.
       regulated
• analyze and describe examples      Students may discuss causes and treatments for the common visual defects
  of disorders of the eye and        of myopia (near-sightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness). Students may
  where technologies for the         also research the development of new technologies for the treatment of
  correction of visual defects       sensory malfunctions (e.g., corneal laser surgery and extended wear contact
  were developed based on            lenses).
  scientific understanding (116-
  4)
     – eye disorders - glaucoma,
       astigmatism, myopia,
       hyperopia
     – treatments for the eye
       disorders - corneal
       transplant, laser surgery




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Nervous System: Sense Organs

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                       Resources/Notes


Laboratory Activities                                                             MHR Biology
 €      Following the procedure outlined, dissect the sheep eye provided, and     page 409
identify the parts. Complete the table that relates the structure of the parts    pages 409-413
of the eye with their function. (317-1)

Journal
€       Birds of prey often have much greater visual resolution (the
ability to distinguish between objects at great distances) than humans,
what is it about a birds eye that gives it this ability? (317-1)

Performance
€     Design an experiment to investigate the effect of light intensity
on pupil diameter. Show your procedure to your teacher for approval.
Include all safety precautions and procedures. (317-1)

Presentation
€       Construct a chart of eye disorders (for example; cataracts, crossed       pages 411-413
eyes, sty, etc.). Describe the disorder and the possible medical
treatments. This could be done individually or in groups, with each group
completing one eye disorder and the results combined to make a class
display. (116-4)
                                                                                  page 413




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                                   35
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Nervous System: Sense Organs (continued)

Outcomes                               Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• explain how the ear as a sense
  organ helps maintain
  homeostasis (317-1)
     – describe the general
        structure and function of
        the ear. Include:
       (i) tympanic membrane
       (ii) ossicles (i.e., malleus,   The ossicles are also known as the hammer, anvil and stirrup respectively.
             incus, stapes)
       (iii) eustachian tube
       (iv) semi-circular canals
       (v) cochlea
• analyze and describe examples        Students should research and discuss the potential health effects of repeated
  of disorders of the ear and          exposure to loud noises (noise pollution and the use of cochlear and digital
  where technologies for the           implants).
  correction of auditory defects
  were developed based on
  scientific understanding
  (116-4)
     – ear disorders - conduction
       deafness, nerve deafness
     – treatments for the ear
       disorders - eustachian tube
       implants, hearing aids
• evaluate, considering ethical        The ethical issues regarding the treatment of visual and auditory disorders
  issues, the consequences of          may include the sense of loss experienced by the treated individual. These
  medical treatments for visual        individuals may then find themselves excluded from the deaf and blind
  and auditory disorders               community. The long term success of laser surgery and the potential risks
  (317-5)                              can be evaluated.
     – sense of exclusion              Cornea transplant is one of the most successful transplant surgeries. The
     – manadatory organ                chance of rejection is low and the operation is relatively quick and cost-
       donation                        effective. Many people, however, suffer because too few donor cornea are
                                       available. One possible solution is for mandatory donation to be enforced.
                                       This could be a very contraversal solution and should be discussed by
                                       students.




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Nervous System: Sense Organs (continued)

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                    Resources/Notes


Paper and Pencil                                                               MHR Biology
€      Construct a flow chart that shows the path of sound energy through      pages 414-416
the auditory system. (317-1)
€      Investigate the development of new technologies for the
correction of malfunctions of the sense organs and/or the potential
health effects of environmental factors such as noise pollution and
extended wear contact lenses. Be prepared to present your findings to
the class. Assessment may be on completeness and accuracy of research
as observed during presentation to the class by the students or through
a written summary. (116-4, 317-5)

Presentation
€      Introduce students to individuals knowledgeable in sensory organ        pages 415-416
pathologies by using community resources such as physicians,
organizations (Canadian National Institute for the Blind, Eye Banks,
Canadian Association for the Deaf and Blind), corneal and cochlear
transplant recipients or sufferers of these disorders. Research and prepare
questions related to the topic being presented by the guest speaker.
Working in groups, these questions should be reviewed and revised, and
questions selected to be asked during the presentation. Following this
presentation, you may be asked to prepare a brief summary of it, or of
the answer to your question. Assessment may be based on a student
summary of the guest’s talk or answers provided to one of their questions.
(317-5)

                                                                               page 416




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Nervous System: Sense Organs (continued)

Outcomes                             Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• explain how the endocrine          The endocrine system of animals releases chemical hormones into the blood
  system helps maintain              to be circulated that help maintain homeostasis by causing or preventing
  homeostasis (317-1)                change in specific organs or tissues of the body. The endocrine system is
                                     slower in producing an effect than the nervous system; however it is a more
     – understand the general
                                     sustained effect. It is important for students to realize that the nervous
       concept of a hormone and
                                     system and endocrine system work together in a coordinated fashion.
       target cell or organ
     – explain how protein and       Review the basic biochemical structure of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids/
                                     steroids. Students should examine diagrams that illustrate the location of
       steroid hormones cause
                                     receptors for protein hormones compared to steroid hormones. In doing
       changes in target cells
                                     this, they should recognize the importance of the solubility of steroid
     – identify the location and     hormones in the cell membrane and the critical nature of the shape of
        function of principal        protein hormones. Additional hormones may also be of interest to students
        endocrine glands in the      (ADH - antidiuretic hormone, cortisol, aldosterone).
        human organism. Include:
       (i) pineal                    Students should be provided with the opportunity to observe the principal
       (ii) hypothalamus             features of the endocrine system, utilizing models, dissection or computer
       (iii) pituitary               simulations and to identify and label those structures through the use of
       (iv) thyroid                  drawings or photographs.
       (v) parathyroid               Ovaries and testes have a dual function. For this reason they are dealt with
       (vi) adrenal                  in more detail in the Reproduction section of the course.
       (vii) pancreas (Islets of
              Langerhans)
       (viii) thymus
       (ix) ovaries




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Nervous System: Sense Organs (continued)

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                      Resources/Notes


Laboratory Activities                                                            MHR Biology
€       Perform the laboratory activities provided to illustrate some aspects    pages 420, 422
of the endocrine system. These may include the following:
– microscopic examination of pancreas to distinguish endocrine tissue from       page 422
digestive enzyme producing tissue
– effect of epinephrine on the heartbeat of Daphnia
– metamorphosis of tadpoles                                                      pages 424-425
– development of models to illustrate visually the concept of negative
feedback
– growth of plants in response to hormonal stimulation (e.g., Giberlic           page 422
acid)
– investigate the activity of an inorganic catalyst and/or an enzyme
– design experiments to determine the optimum pH or temperature for
enzyme activity                                                                  page 438
                                                                                 page 427
Assessment would depend on the nature and depth of the activities
                                                                                 pages 427-431
selected. Some of these activities involve collection of data that maybe
                                                                                 pages 431-432
tabulated and graphed. Enrichment may be provided by allowing students
                                                                                 pages 433-434
the opportunity to design their own investigations from questions that these
                                                                                 page 441
activities may generate. (317-1)
                                                                                 page 435
                                                                                 page 440
                                                                                 pages 490-493
                                                                                 pages 486-487




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                                  39
MAINTAINING DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM II

Endocrine System: Maintaining Homeostasis

Outcomes                             Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
     (x) testes                      Students can discuss the social, ethical and health issues associated with
• identify and describe the          hormone therapy for the treatment of humans (e.g., growth hormones,
  structure and function of          steroid use in sports, hormone use to slow the effects of aging or to
  important biochemical              minimize jet lag). This may lead to questions such as “Should physicians
  compounds, including               provide HGH as a treatment for individuals who have normal levels of
  protein and steroid hormones       human growth hormone yet are genetically shorter than average, simply to
  (314-3)                            increase their height?” Students may investigate the hormonal connection
                                     with biorhythms, seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Students may
     – identify the following
                                     investigate the abuse among athletes of steroid hormones as they attempt to
        hormones, their source
                                     build body tissue quickly and increase their athletic prowess, and the long-
        gland, and explain their
                                     term side effects that result.
        general effect on the
        human organism. Include:     Because of the volume of information and the way it is inter-related,
       (i) melatonin                 teachers could use a series of tables to summarize the glands, their hormones
       (ii) thyroxine                and functions. An extension of this may include problems with
       (iii) adrenaline              hypersecretion and hyposecretion of the hormone and target organs.
       (iv) somatotropin (HGH–
             human growth
             hormone)




40                                                                             BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                               MAINTAINING DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM II

Endocrine System: Maintaining Homeostasis

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                     Resources/Notes


Laboratory Activities                                                           MHR Biology
€       Develop a visual model that illustrates enzyme function. The design     pages 424-425
of these models may range from physical ones to visual animations, so you
can be creative! The assessment will be based on accuracy and effectiveness
of the product submitted and/or presented to the class. (317-1)

Presentation
€      Within a debate format you will be required to display the results
of research and “argue” against other stakeholders concerning issues such
as, “Should doctors prescribe HGH as a treatment for individuals who
have normal levels of human growth hormone in their system yet are
genetically shorter than average, simply as a means to increase their           page 440
height?”, “Should steroids (performance enhancing drugs) be legalized           page 432
for use by all athletes?”, “Should random drug testing of athletes be           pages 444-446
permitted or is it an invasion of privacy?”, “Should hormones be used           pages 428-429
within the beef industry to increase production?” Assess the
participation of students, preparation of the argument, thoroughness of
the research and their familiarity with the topic. (314-3)

Pencil and Paper
€     You will be provided with a partial flow chart to illustrate
hormones and feedback systems within the human body. Working
within your groups, complete the chart. When this is complete, within
your own group, develop partial charts of your own design for
completion by other groups within the class. (317-2, 314-3)
 €    Select a hormone and investigate the effects of its hypersecretion and
hyposecretion in the body. Prepare a visual display to illustrate this.
Hormones may include HGH, aldosterone, cortisol, thyroxine, insulin, or
glucagon. (317-1, 314-3)




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                                 41
MAINTAINING DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM II

Endocrine System: Maintaining Homeostasis (continued)

Outcomes                             Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• analyze homeostatic phenomena      Students should be able to use flow charts to describe representative positive
  to identify the feedback           and negative feedback mechanisms in living systems. They may compare
  mechanisms involved (317-2)        technological feedback control systems with the natural electrochemical
                                     control systems of organisms and discuss sensitivity, response time,
                                     effectiveness.
     – explain how the               Within the discussion of the hypothalamus-pituitary complex include RF
       hypothalamus-pituitary        (releasing factor), pituitary hormones and target tissues (e.g., TSH on
       complex functions as a        thyroid).
       feedback control
     – describe the regulation of    Teachers could contact Canadian Diabetes Association or a net search to
       blood sugar by controlled     obtain sample data concerning blood and/or urine composition can be
       release of insulin and        analyzed and interpreted in order to infer the role of hormones in
       glucagon and explain the      homeostasis. Students may perform an experiment to investigate the
       consequences of any           presence of sugar in simulated urine samples, and compare the results with
       malfunction                   other urinalysis data. Using a table, students may compare the conditions of
                                     juvenile diabetes and adult-onset diabetes. Headings may include age of
                                     onset, cause, severity, method of treatment. Students may research and
                                     present modern approaches to the detection, treatment and control of
                                     diabetes. e.g., The onset of diabetes in related to diet and exercise and
                                     culture (some populations).
• describe disorders and             Students may hypothesize the effect on organisms of the oversecretion
  treatments linked to the           (hypersecretion) or undersecretion (hyposecretion) of hormones.
  secretions of the endocrine
  system and their effect on the
  homeostasis of the system and
  the organism as a whole.
  (317-4) Include:
       (i)     dwarfism
       (ii)    giantism
       (iii)   hyperthyroidism
       (iv)    hypothyroidism
       (v)     diabetes mellitus
• analyze examples of Canadian
  contributions to science and
  technology (117-11)
     – investigate the role played   Students should be aware of the importance of Canadian researchers
       by Frederick Banting and      Frederick Banting and Charles Best in the discovery of insulin and the
       Charles Best in the           control of diabetes.
       discovery of insulin



42                                                                             BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                          MAINTAINING DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM II

Endocrine System: Maintaining Homeostasis (continued)

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                Resources/Notes


Pencil and Paper
€     Analyze and interpret the data provided on blood or urine
composition. Use it to determine the role of hormones in homeostasis.
(317-2)
€     Prepare a short report on the role played by Canadian researchers
Frederick Banting and Charles Best in the discovery of insulin.           MHR Biology
Assessment to be based on quality of work submitted. (117-11)             pages 427, 432

Journal
€      Describe an everyday example (such as thermostat) to explain the   pages 435-438
process of negative feedback. (317-2)

Presentation
 €     Introduce students to individuals knowledgeable in endocrine
system pathologies by using community resources such as physicians,
organizations (Canadian Diabetes Association) or sufferers of these
disorders. (317-1, 317-4, 317-7)




                                                                          page 429

                                                                          page 432

                                                                          page 437




                                                                          page 439




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                            43
MAINTAINING DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM II

Endocrine System: Feedback Mechanisms

Outcomes                             Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• perform an experiment to           The Laboratory outcomes (212-6, 213-5, 214-10) and, in part, 317-4 are
  investigate and collect data on    addressed by completing Identifying Diabetes Mellitus CORE LAB #2.
  the endocrine system and           Teachers should note that the Core Lab requires the preparation of four
  identify specific variables        solutions of glucose for the students to test. An easy method to prepare a
  involved (212-6)                   class set of stock solutions is to prepare the most concentrated solution first
                                     and then prepare the others by diluting it with water. The folowing table
• compile and organize data,
                                     (procedure) will produce enough for a class of thirty students.
  using appropriate formats and
  data treatments to facilitate
                                       Solution        %             Solute                           Solvent
  interpretation of the data
  (213-5)                                  A          1.7       8.5g of C6H12O 6                   500.0 mL H2O

• identify and explain sources of          B          1.3       50.0 mL Soln A       Add To        15.0 mL H2O
  error and uncertainty in                 C          0.85      50.0 mL Soln A                     50.0 mL H2O
  measurement and express                  D          0.3       50.0 mL Soln A                     230.0 mL H2O
  results from this endocrine
  system activity in a form that     Other possible laboratory investigations can be used to further illustrate
  acknowledges the degree of         some of the effects that hormones have. In season, tadpoles (preferably
  uncertainty (214-10)               bullfrog tadpoles with legs) can be placed in a solution of one part thyroxine
                                     to five million parts water at room temperature. The first metamorphic
                                     changes induced by the hormone, which would normally take two to three
                                     years under natural conditions, may occur after two days. The effect of
                                     epinephrine on the heartbeat of Daphnia can be investigated and data
                                     collected. Treatment of additional Daphnia with quantitative or qualitative
                                     data that can be compared, interpreted and extrapolated via the question
                                     “Based on the results of this experiment, what effects might you expect these
                                     chemicals to have on the heartbeat of humans?”
• explain how neural and             Students may research, identify and summarize the main hormonal and
  endocrine systems help             nervous components of reactions to stress. They may discuss why some
  maintain homeostasis (317-1)       individuals may experience the following symptoms when they are
– reaction to stress                 nervous - cool hands, knots in their stomach, dilated pupils, dry mouth,
                                     rapid heart rate.




44                                                                              BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                                   MAINTAINING DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM II

Endocrine System: Feedback Mechanisms

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                         Resources/Notes


Laboratory Activities                                                               Core Lab #2: “Identifying Diabetes
 €      Perform the available laboratory activities provided to illustrate some     Mellitus”, pages 436-437
aspects of the nervous system. These may include activities to investigate the
sensitivity of the touch receptors of the skin and/or the taste receptors of the
tongue. Assessment would depend on the nature and depth of the activities
selected. Some of these activities involve collection of data that may be
tabulated and graphed. Enrichment may be provided by allowing students
the opportunity to design their own investigations from questions that
these activities may generate. (212-6, 213-5, 214-10, 215-2, 317-1)
€      Develop a physical working model to illustrate visually the concept of
negative feedback. (317-1)

Performance
€     Design an experiment to show the effects of the removal of the
thyroid gland in mice. Identify the physiological characteristics that
should be observed and explain how the data should be recorded. (214-10)




                                                                                    MHR Biology
                                                                                    pages 441, 445-446




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                                       45
MAINTAINING DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM II

Endocrine System: Feedback Mechanisms (continued)

Outcomes                               Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• distinguish between questions        Students may investigate and discuss the development and use of
  that can be answered by              technologies to maintain, prolong, sustain or terminate life and the resulting
  science and those that cannot,       social, moral, ethical and legal issues.
  and between problems that            Note: Outcomes 118-8, 118-10 can be used in other units such as
  can be solved by technology          Reproduction.
  and those that cannot
  (118-8)
     – debate the merits of
       developing and using life
       support technology,
       identifying questions that
       are scientific, technological
       and social in nature
• propose courses of action on
  the social issues related to life
  support technologies, taking
  into account an array of
  perspectives (118-10)




46                                                                               BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                              MAINTAINING DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM II

Endocrine System: Feedback Mechanisms (continued)

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                    Resources/Notes


Paper and Pencil                                                              MHR Biology
€       Select a nervous system disorder or injury. Research the modern       page 445
treatments for it. You will be expected to make a brief presentation to the
class and submit a written report. Assessment to be based on the quality of
the information presented to the class and the written report. (115-5, 116-
4, 118-8, 118-10, 317-7)

Presentation
€      Research and prepare questions related to the topic being
presented by the guest speaker. Working in groups, these questions
should be reviewed and revised, and questions selected to be asked
during the presentation. Following this presentation, you may be asked
to prepare a brief summary of it, or of the answer to your question.
Assessment may be based on a student summary of the guest’s talk or
answers provided to one of their questions. (215-2, 118-8)




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                                47
MAINTAINING DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM II




48                                   BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
            Unit 2
REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT
REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT



Unit Overview

Introduction                   This unit helps the student to understand the principles of how living
                               organisms reproduce and develop at both the cellular and individual
                               levels. The primary emphasis is placed on human systems. Students
                               should begin to appreciate the complexity and importance of
                               reproductive technologies and be able to discuss and analyse from a
                               variety of perspectives the relative risks and benefits these technologies
                               create.


Focus and Context              This unit has its primary focus on scientific inquiry and observation.
                               However, through its review of reproduction and development there
                               are numerous opportunities to meet curriculum outcomes utilizing
                               decision-making (STSE). Discussions concerning the potential
                               impacts of reproductive technologies lead into problem solving and
                               technology.


Science                        Students begin at the primary level to discuss life cycles of familiar
                               animals and the changes that humans undergo as they grow, and to
Curriculum Links               investigate the life cycle of some plants. At the elementary level,
                               students begin to relate body changes to growth and development and
                               the role played by body systems in helping both humans and other
                               organisms grow and reproduce. At the intermediate level students are
                               introduced to the differences between sexual and asexual reproduction.
                               Although not specifically taught in the intermediate science program,
                               other curriculum areas such as health cover the structure and function
                               of the human reproduction systems.




50                                                                      BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                              REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT


Curriculum Outcomes
              STSE                                    Skills                            Knowledge
Students will be expected to            Students will be expected to          Students will be expected to
                                                                              313-2 describe in detail mitosis
Nature of Science and Technology        Initiating and Planning
                                                                              and meiosis
115-1 distinguish between               212-3 design an experiment
scientific questions and                identifying and controlling major     313-3 analyse and describe the
technological problems                  variables                             structure and function of female
                                                                              and male mammalian reproductive
Relationships between Science           212-8 evaluate and select             systems
and Technology                          appropriate instruments for
                                        collecting evidence and appropriate   313-4 explain the human
116-2 analyse and describe              processes for problem solving,        reproductive cycles
examples where scientific               inquiring, and decision making        313-5 explain current reproductive
understanding was enhanced or                                                 technologies for plants and animals
revised as a result of the invention    Performing and Recording
of a technology                                                               313-6 evaluate the use of
                                        213-3 use instruments effectively     reproductive technologies for
116-3 identify examples where           and accurately for collecting data    humans
technologies were developed based       213-5 compile and organize data,
on scientific understanding                                                   317-5 evaluate the physiological
                                        using appropriate formats and data    and ethical consequences of
116-7 analyse natural and               treatments to facilitate              medical treatments such as
technological systems to interpret      interpretation of the data            radiation therapy, chemotherapy
and explain their structure and                                               and cosmetic surgery
                                        213-7 select and integrate
dynamics                                information from various print and
Social and Environmental                electronic sources or from several
Contexts of Science and                 parts of the same source
Technology
                                        Analysing and Interpreting
117-4 debate the merits of funding
                                        214-9 identify and apply criteria,
specific scientific or technological
                                        including the presence of bias, for
endeavours and not others
                                        evaluating evidence and sources of
118-4 evaluate the design of a          information
technology and the way it functions
                                        214-18 identify and evaluate
on the basis of a variety of criteria
                                        potential applications of findings
that they have identified themselves
118-6 construct arguments to            Communication and Teamwork
support a decision, using examples      215-2 select and use appropriate
and evidence and recognizing            numeric, symbolic, graphical, and
various perspectives                    linguistic modes of representation
118-8 distinguish between               to communicate ideas, plans, and
questions that can be answered by       results
science and those that cannot, and
between problems that can be
solved by technology and those that
cannot




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                                    51
REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

Cell Division

Outcomes                                Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• describe mitosis in detail            Classroom or laboratory simulations of the processes of mitosis or meiosis
  (313-2)                               may be useful. Students may use pipe cleaners to simulate chromosomes and
                                        follow the process by preparing pipe cleaner models of chromosomes during
     – describe, in detail, the
                                        each stage in mitosis or meiosis. Crossing over (chiasma) in meiosis can
       events of interphase,
                                        also be illustrated through this activity if different pipe cleaner colours are
       mitosis and cytokinesis
                                        available. This provides the student with a visual confirmation of the
       (the cell cycle)
                                        exchange of genetic information and its effect on randomizing gene
     – explain the importance of
                                        combinations within the chromosomes.
       maintaining chromosome
       number through the
       processes of cell and
       organism reproduction
• use instruments effectively           The Laboratory outcomes (213-3, 212-3, 212-8, 213-5) and, in part, 313-2
  and accurately for collecting         are addressed by completing Observing the Cell Cycle in Plant and Animal
  data on the cell cycle                Cells CORE LAB #3. A complimentary laboratory approach would be to
  (213-3)                               have the students propagate their own fast growing plant tissue (onion root
                                        tips) and prepare their own slides for viewing by fixing, squashing and
     – observe, identify and
                                        staining the fresh tissue.
        describe (using prepared
        slides of plant and animal      Students can observe some chromosomal detail and banding patterns
        cells) the events of the cell   from an observation of prepared slides of chromosomes. The common
        cycle. Include:                 fruit fly, Drosophila, with its large chromosomes is useful for this study.
       (i) growth                       Should apparatus and materials be available, students can prepare,
       (ii) cytokinesis                 squash and stain slides of the salivary gland chromosomes that they
       (iii) chromosome                 extract themselves from Drosophila.
             behaviour                  Students should be given the opportunity to observe and investigate the
• perform an experiment,                stages of the cell cycle and cytokinesis within both plant and animal
  identifying and controlling           cells through laboratory or computer simulations, diagrams,
  major variables to observe the        photographs, laser disc or time lapse video technology. Stages of mitosis
  chromosomes during cell               can be observed using prepared slides of plant cells (onion root tips) or
  division (212-3)                      animal cells (whitefish blastula). Some comparisons between the process
                                        of mitosis in plant and animal cells may be demonstrated by careful
• select appropriate instruments        examination of these prepared slides. Students may be asked to identify,
  for collecting evidence on cell       sketch, and discuss what is occurring during each of the stages. Use of a
  division and appropriate              video microscope display can assist the teacher in initially illustrating as
  processes for problem solving,        a class activity how to distinguish between cells in each of the different
  inquiring, and decision               stages. Good videos and laser disc clips are available to show mitosis and
  making (212-8)                        meiosis.
• compile and organize data,
  using appropriate formats and
  data treatments to facilitate
  interpretation of the data on
  cell division (213-5)

52                                                                                 BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                                     REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

Cell Division

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                          Resources/Notes


Laboratory Activities                                                               MHR Biology
 €      Perform available laboratory activities to illustrate some aspects of the   pages 460-465
process of cell division. These may include examination of prepared
microscope slides of chromosomes, preparation of squashes of Drosophila
salivary glands, examination of prepared microscope slides of animal and
plant cell mitosis and cytokinesis or growth of onion root tips and
preparation of squashes to observe chromosomes. Assessment would depend             pages 461-462
on the nature and depth of the activities selected, ranging from the
development of microscope diagrams, answering of questions to a more
detailed discussion of procedures and results.
€       Enrichment may be provided by allowing students the
opportunity to design their own investigations from questions that these            Core Lab #3: “Observing the Cell
activities may generate. (212-3, 212-8, 213-3, 313-2, 213-5)                        Cycle in Plant and Animal Cells”,
€     Using a prepared root tip slide, predict the amount of time spent             pages 466-467
by these cells in each stage of mitosis. (212-3, 212-8, 213-3, 313-2,
213-5)

Paper and Pencil
€     Develop a glossary of new terms that you discover and will use
during your discussions in this reproduction unit. (313-2)
€      Using pipe cleaners of two colours, construct models of a pair of
homologous chromosomes and follow their progress through the stages
of meiosis (reduction-division). Construct one member of the pair from
one colour, the second from another. Illustrate an example of crossing
over and follow its transmission. Assessment to be based on accuracy of
models and completeness of exercise. (215-2, 313-2)




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                                       53
REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

Cell Division (continued)

Outcomes                              Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• evaluate the physiological and      Students should research the biological basis behind the use and effectiveness
  ethical consequences of             of radiation and chemotherapy for the treatment of cancers in particular, and
  medical treatments such as          evaluate both the positive and negative aspects of these treatments.
  radiation therapy and               Students may research some alternative methods of the treatment of cancer
  chemotherapy in cell division       that are currently being developed.
  (317-5)                             One significant side effect of these treatments is sterility (as a result of its
                                      impact on cell meiosis). Teachers may incorporate this as an introduction to
                                      the further study of meiosis.
• describe meiosis in detail
  (313-2)
     – describe, in detail, the
       events of meiosis
       (reduction-division)
       and cytokinesis
     – explain the necessity of
       chromosome reduction
       during the production of
       sex cells
     – describe the crossing-over     Teachers should note that chromosomal disorders associated with crossing-
       process and explain its role   over are done in detail in the genetics unit.
       in helping randomize the
       gene combinations for sex
       cells
• analyze and describe the
  structure and function of female
  and male mammalian
  reproductive systems (313-3)
     – examine the processes of       To highlight the differences between spermatogenesis and oogenesis,
       spermatogenesis and            students could develop a table or chart which summarizes gamete formation.
       oogenesis
     – explain why there is only
       one functional egg
       produced during oogenesis
     – describe the structure of
       sperm and egg cells




54                                                                               BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                                 REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

Cell Division (continued)

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                      Resources/Notes


Paper and Pencil                                                                MHR Biology
€       Research a method of the treatment of cancer that is currently being    pages 468-469
developed. Examples you may choose from include monoclonal antibodies,
immunotherapy using tumour infiltrating lymphocytes, hyperthermia—
utilizing heat, cryotherapy—cold, photodynamic therapy—light, or you
may choose an alternate as appropriate. Discuss the pros and cons of each
method of treatment. (317-5)

Presentation
€      Invite a guest speaker to talk about the diagnosis, treatment, and
recovery from the various types of cancer. Suggestions include a
representative from the Canadian Cancer Society, a palliative care nurse,       pages 470-475
or oncologist. (317-5)
€      Create a moving image, using a flip-chart book, slide show, video,
or digital animation to show the sequence of events in cell division.
                                                                                pages 470-471
Present your finished product to the class. (213-2, 215-2, 313-2)
 €      Introduce students to individuals knowledgeable in the
importance of cell division and the effects on the homeostasis of an
organism should it be disrupted, by using community resources such as           pages 471, 473
physicians or available organizations (Canadian Cancer Society).
Research and prepare questions related to the topic being presented by
the guest speaker. Working in groups, these questions should be
reviewed and revised, and questions selected to be asked during the
presentation. Following this presentation, you may be asked to prepare a
brief summary of it, or of the answer to your question. Assessment may
be based on a student summary of the guest’s talk or answers provided
to one of their questions. (213-7, 215-2, 313-2)

Performance                                                                     pages 477-478
€       Make a model and demonstrate the events of meiosis. The model
should include homologous chromosomes, dominant and recessive
alleles. Illustrate the randomness of allele assortment during meiosis.
Sample materials that may be used include marshmallows, pipe
cleaners, Plasticine, Popsicle sticks, Velcro TM, toothpicks, push pins, etc.
(315-2, 315-3)

Journal
€     Select a website that contains activities on meiosis and/or mitosis.
Perform an activity that interests you and write a brief report, including
the web address, activity, and any comments about it. (313-2)


BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                              55
REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

Cell Division (continued)

Outcomes                              Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• analyze and describe the            Students could investigate fetal abnormalities or deficiencies that can be
  structure and function of           diagnosed through these prenatal genetic techniques and the ethical
  female and male mammalian           considerations affected parents potentially face.
  reproductive systems (313-3)        Students can investigate the role of biotechnology in cell growth and the
  (Cont’d)                            potential it may hold for the regeneration of damaged tissues or parts of
     – compare the structure of       organisms. They may evaluate the role of cell division in the
        sperm and egg cells.          development of cancer and how knowledge of cell division might be applied
        Include:                      to limiting cancerous growth in plants and animals. They may investigate
       (i) relative sizes             the newer approaches to the chemical treatment of cancer, and the basis
       (ii) energy reserves           upon which they are effective.
       (iii) mitochondria
       (iv) numbers produced
       (v) motility
       (vi) importance of the
             enzyme cap
• identify examples of                Students can investigate the role of biotechnology in cell growth and the
  technologies that were              potential it may hold for the regeneration of damaged tissues or parts of
  developed based on the              organisms. They may evaluate the role of cell division in the development of
  understanding of cell division.     cancer and how knowledge of cell division might be applied to limiting
  (116-3) Include:                    cancerous growth in plants and animals. They may investigate the newer
       (i) cloning                    approaches to the chemical treatment of cancer, and the basis upon which
       (ii) stem cell research        they are effective.

• integrate information on            The CORE STSE component of this unit incorporates a broad range of
  technologies based on cell          Biology 3201 outcomes. More specifically it targets (in whole or in part)
  division (213-7)                    116-3, 317-4, 115-5, 213-7, 118-6 and 117-4. The STSE component,
       (i)     cell transplant        Stem Cell Research, can be found in Appendix C.
       (ii)    cancer treatment
       (iii)   spinal cord injury
       (iv)    therapeutic cloning
       (v)     reproductive cloning
• construct arguments to
  support a decision, using
  examples and evidence and
  recognizing various
  perspectives (118-6)
• debate the merits of funding
  specific scientific or
  technological endeavors and
  not others (117-4)


56                                                                               BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                                  REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

Cell Division (continued)

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                        Resources/Notes


Paper and Pencil
 €      Select an aspect of biotechnology related to cell division that is of
interest to you (e.g. regeneration of lost limbs) or a type of cancer for which
you will study causes, treatments and statistics. Be sure to investigate your
topic using more than one source of electronic or print information. You
will be required to prepare a written summary and to present your topic to        MHR Biology
the class. Assessment will be based on accuracy and relevance of information
                                                                                  page 478
gathered and completeness of research based upon written report and class
presentation. You may also be evaluated based on your response to questions
generated by the class during the discussion. (116-2, 212-8, 213-7, 214-18,
215-2, 317-5)




                                                                                  pages 478-479




                                                                                  Core STSE #2: “Stem Cell
                                                                                  Research”, Appendix C




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                                57
REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

Reproductive Systems: Strategies

Outcomes                             Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• analyze natural reproductive       Investigation of the range of reproductive strategies found within the plant
  strategies to interpret and        and animal kingdom serves to reinforce the concept of biodiversity. This
  explain their structure and        information can be presented to the class in the form of charts, tables or
  dynamics (116-7)                   diagrams.
     – distinguish between           See Appendix A Table 1: Modes of Reproduction
       asexual and sexual            Students can investigate or research the strategy involved in the use of
       reproduction                  reproductive technologies with an agricultural plant like canola, an
     – define various types of       aquaculture animal like the salmon, or any other appropriate example.
        asexual reproduction.
        Include:
       (i) budding
       (ii) binary fission
       (iii) spore production
       (iv) fragmentation
       (v) parthenogensis
• compile and organize data,         The Laboratory outcomes 213-5, 215-2 and, in part, 313-2 are addressed
  using appropriate formats to       by completing Reproductive Structures in Flowers CORE LAB #4.
  facilitate interpretation of the
  data (213-5)
• select and use appropriate
  symbolic and linguistic
  modes of representation to
  communicate results (215-2)




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Reproductive Systems: Strategies

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                 Resources/Notes


Paper and Pencil                                                           Table #1: “Modes of Reproduction”,
 €     Select a reproductive strategy found within the animal or plant     Appendix A
kingdom and present the information collected to the class in the form
of charts, tables, diagrams, visual animation or any other appropriate
format. Use your initiative to find and present unusual or interesting
reproductive strategies. Assessment to be on accuracy and relevancy of
information gathered and completeness of research based upon the
quality of the class presentation. (116-2, 116-7, 213-5, 213-7, 215-2)

Laboratory Activities                                                      MHR Biology
€      Observe the examples of the reproductive processes provided for     pages 184, 456
you within the laboratory. These may include prepared slides or wet        page 134
mounts of budding in yeast, budding in hydra, or wet mounts of mold        pages 166, 154
spores. Assessment would depend on the nature of the activities selected   pages 186, 155
and could range from the development of microscope diagrams to the         page 186
answering of questions. (212-3, 212-8, 213-3, 215-2, 313-2)
                                                                           Core Lab #4: “Reproductive
                                                                           Structures in Flowers”, pages 176-
                                                                           177




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                               59
REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

Reproductive Systems: Strategies (continued)

Outcomes                            Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• describe mitosis and meiosis      Students can observe the male and female reproductive structures of a
  within plant reproduction         flowering plant through the use of models, charts, computer simulations or
  (313-2)                           the dissection of a flower within a laboratory setting.
     – observe, identify and give
        the function of the basic
        structures of sexual
        reproduction in flowering
        plants. Include:
       (i) pistil
       (ii) stamen
       (iii) pollen
       (iv) ovules
       (v) seed
       (vi) fruit

     – compare the structure of
       monocot and dicot seeds
     – describe the process of      The process of sexual reproduction in flowering plants is a complex process.
       sexual reproduction in       The description should be taken from pollenation to the production of a
       flowering plants             seed. Discussion of pollen containing: 1. a generative nucleus producing
                                    two sperm nuclei and; 2. the tube nucleus producing the pollen tube should
                                    be included. The process of one sperm nuclei (n) uniting with the egg (n)
                                    to produce a diploid zygote (2n) and the other sperm nuclei (n) uniting
                                    with two haploid polar nuclei (n each) to produce a triploid endosperm
                                    (3n), food source, should also be included.




60                                                                            BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
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Reproductive Systems: Strategies (continued)

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                         Resources/Notes


Laboratory Activities
€      Perform the available laboratory activities to illustrate some aspects of
the reproductive process. These may include examination of prepared
microscope slides of ovaries and testes (egg and sperm cells), examination         MHR Biology
of the reproductive parts of a flower, comparison of a monocot and dicot
                                                                                   pages 175-181
seed, examination of a composite flower (daisy, dandelion). Assessment
would depend on the nature of the activities selected, ranging from the
development of microscope diagrams to the answering of questions.
        Enrichment may be provided by allowing students the
opportunity to design their own investigations from questions that these
activities may generate. (313-3)
€        Dissect a flower from the lily family. Draw a picture of each part,
label it, and reconstruct the flower using your individually drawn sketches.
(313-2)
                                                                                   page 175

                                                                                   pages 175-181




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                                61
REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

Reproductive Systems: Regulation

Outcomes                              Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• analyze and describe the            Students should be provided with the opportunity to observe and discuss
  structure and function of the       the function of the principal features of the male reproductive system using
  male human reproductive             models, dissections or computer simulations, and to identify and label the
  system. Include: (313-3)            major structures from drawings or photos of that organ system.
       (i)    testis
       (ii)   scrotum
       (iii)  seminiferous tubules
       (iv)   epididymis
       (v)    sperm duct (vas
              deferens)
       (vi) Cowpers
              (bulbourethral) gland
       (vii) seminal vesicle
       (viii) prostate
       (ix) urethra
• explain the human male
  reproductive cycles (313-4)
     – identify the principal         Students can analyze sample data on blood hormone levels and physiological
        reproductive hormones of      events, and infer the roles of the male sex hormones. Students may
        the human male. Include:      investigate the role of nurse cells in the protection of developing sperm.
       (i) inhibin                    Students can discuss the role of steroid use in sports and run a risk/benefit
       (ii) follicle stimulating      analysis. They can debate the issue of mandatory doping tests on athletes to
             hormone (FSH)            determine the presence or absence of banned substances. They can research
       (iii) luteinizing hormone      and develop a list of these banned substances and answer the questions, “Are
             (LH)                     any of these substances found in over-the-counter medication?”, “If so, for
       (iv) testosterone              what purpose are they used?”

     – explain the function and
       interactions between these
       hormones in; maintaining
       the male reproductive
       system, and, development
       of primary and secondary
       sex characteristics




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Reproductive Systems: Regulation

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                        Resources/Notes


Presentation                                                                      MHR Biology
 €      Individuals such as; Canadians athletes, Ben Johnson, Ross Rebliati       pages 486-487
or Silken Laumann; suffered some consequence of a doping test found to be
positive for a banned chemical substance. You will be divided into groups
and asked to prepare an argument in support of or against one of the
following statements:
–     Doping tests should be mandatory for all professional and
amateur athletes.
–    A positive doping test should result in a lifetime ban from his/her
competitive sport for the athlete involved.
      Your team will be given the opportunity to research and confer
on the approach you will take to your position on this statement. A class
debate will ensue. (313-3, 313-4)

Paper and Pencil                                                                  pages 488-489
€        Trace the path of a sperm cell from where it is formed to the point of
fertilization. (313-3, 313-4)




                                                                                  pages 488-489




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                               63
REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

Reproductive Systems: Regulation (continued)

Outcomes                            Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• analyze and describe the          Students should be provided with the opportunity to observe and discuss
  structure and function of the     the function of the principal features of the female reproductive system using
  female human reproductive         models, dissections or computer simulations, and to identify and label the
  system. Include: (313-3)          major structures from drawings or photos of that organ system.
      (i) ovary
      (ii) follicles
      (iii) oviduct (fallopian
             tube)
      (iv) fimbriae
      (v) uterus
      (vi) endometrium
      (vii) cervix
      (viii) vagina
• compile and organize data,        The Laboratory outcomes 213-5, 213-7, 214-18, 215-2 and, in part, 313-4
  using appropriate formats and     are addressed by completing The Menstrual Cycle CORE LAB #5.
  data treatments to facilitate
  interpretation of the data
  (213-5)
• select and integrate
  information from various
  print and electronic sources or
  from several parts of the same
  source (213-7)
• identify and evaluate
  potential applications of
  findings (214-18)
• select appropriate numeric,
  graphical, and linguistic
  modes of representation to
  communicate ideas, plans,
  and results (215-2)




64                                                                            BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
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Reproductive Systems: Regulation (continued)

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                  Resources/Notes


Presentation                                                                MHR Biology
€      Select a suitable article from a publication, electronic, or media   pages 490-491
source for critique and analysis. (214-9)
€   Create an STSE question that could be discussed with class
members. (214-9)

Paper and Pencil
 €     Use a case study to analyze data on blood hormone levels and
physiological events during a female menstrual cycle. Investigate how
the cycle is regulated using positive and negative feedback and the roles
of pituitary and ovarian hormones. Assessment to be based upon the
logical analysis of data and conclusions drawn. (313-3, 313-4)

Portfolio                                                                   Core Lab #5: “The Menstrual
€       Research information and prepare a written risk/benefit analysis    Cycle”, pages 494-495
on topics such as steroid use in sports or hormone treatments for women.
Assessment can be based on the analysis presented within the written work
of the student. (214-18, 215-2, 313-3, 313-4)




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                             65
REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

Reproductive Systems: Regulation (continued)

Outcomes                              Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• explain the human female            Students can analyze sample data on blood hormone levels and the
  reproductive cycles (313-4)         physiological events of a single menstrual cycle, and infer the role of the
     –    identify the principal      female sex hormones.
          reproductive hormones of
          the human female.
          Include:
         (i) estrogen
         (ii) progesterone
         (iii) luteinizing hormone
         (iv) follicle stimulating
               hormone
     – explain the function and
       interactions between these
       hormones in; the
       menstrual cycle, and, the
       development of primary
       and secondary sex
       characteristics
     – research and evaluate the      This estrogen/progesterone hormone treatment may involve the use of
       uses and effects of            synthetic chemicals, herbal and natural sources found within the diet or
       estrogen/progesterone          taken as dietary supplements. Students can investigate the purposes of this
       treatment on the health of     hormone therapy among menopausal women.
       women. Include hormone
       therapy among
       menopausal women and
       the use of birth control
       pills.
     – research and evaluate the      Students may select from the variety of STI’s, such as chlamydia, herpes,
        potential health risks on     HIV, human papilloma virus, syphilis, gonorrhoea, or hepatitis, to conduct
        individuals and society       their study. They should be encouraged to consider not only immediate
        associated with exposure to   health concerns, but also societal impacts (effects on future children, health
        sexually transmitted          care systems).
        infections. Include:
       (i) HIV and AIDS
       (ii) chlamydia
       (iii) hepatitis
       (iv) genital herpes
       (v) syphilis
       (vi) gonorrhea




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Reproductive Systems: Regulation (continued)

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                   Resources/Notes


Presentation                                                                 MHR Biology
       Introduce students to individuals knowledgeable in a variety of       pages 490-492
aspects of human reproductive health and sexually transmitted
infections by using community resources such as physicians or available
organizations (Sexual Health Centres). Research and prepare questions
related to the topic being presented by the guest speaker. Working in
groups, these questions should be reviewed and revised, and questions
selected to be asked during the presentation. Following this
presentation, you may be asked to prepare a brief summary of it, or of
the answer to your question. Assessment may be based on a student
summary of the guest’s talk or answers provided to one of their questions.
(213-7, 215-2, 313-3, 313-4)                                                 pages 490-492




                                                                             pages 492-493




                                                                             pages 496-499




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                          67
REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

Reproductive Systems: Regulation (continued)

Outcomes                              Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• distinguish between the             Students should investigate the importance of utilizing fertility techniques
  scientific causes of infertility    for the human population and consider the following: What are the ethical
  and technological solutions         and practical issues involved when fertility techniques result in multiple
  (115-1)                             births? Is there an argument within society for fetal selection when a
                                      multiple birth pregnancy places the fetuses and/or mother at risk?
• evaluate the use of
  reproductive technologies for
  humans (313-6)
     – identify the causes of
        human infertility.
        Include:
       (i) blocked oviducts
       (ii) failure to ovulate
       (iii) endometriosis
       (iv) damaged egg
       (v) obstruction in the vas
             deferens or epididymis
       (vi) low sperm count
       (vii) abnormal sperm

     – identify the technological
        solutions to human
        infertility. Include:
       (i) artificial insemination
             (AI)
       (ii) in vitro fertilization
             (IVF)
       (iii) in vitro maturation
             (IVM)
       (iv) surrogate motherhood
       (v) superovulation using
             fertility drugs
       (vi) embryo storage
             (cryopreservation)




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Reproductive Technologies

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                Resources/Notes


Presentation                                                              MHR Biology
€      Expose students to individuals knowledgeable in a variety of       pages 500-501
aspects of reproductive technologies and issues by using community
resources such as physicians, reproductive technologists, public health
workers or representatives of available related organizations. Research
and prepare questions related to the topic being presented by the guest
speaker. Working in groups, these questions should be reviewed and
revised, and questions selected to be asked during the presentation.
Following this presentation, you may be asked to prepare a brief          pages 500-501
summary of it, or of the answer to your question. Assessment may be
based on a student summary of the guest’s talk or answers provided to
one of their questions. (115-1, 118-4, 215-2, 313-5, 313-6)

Paper and Pencil
€     Research and evaluate the use of currently available reproductive
technologies. The following are potential options:
–      Artificial Insemination
–      Superovulation using gonadotrophins
–      In vitro fertilization                                             page 501
–      In vitro maturation (IVM)
–      Surrogate motherhood
–      Hormonal treatment allowing pregnancy after menopause
       You will be expected to present a brief summary of your topic to
the class. (115-1, 117-4, 118-6, 213-7, 313-5, 313-6)




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                       69
REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

Reproductive Technologies

Outcomes                                Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• evaluate the design of                Students may evaluate from published data the relative effectiveness of
  conception control                    various methods of contraception and perform a risk/benefit analysis on the
  technologies and the way they         implementation of these for various segments of the population.
  function (118-4) Include:
       (i) abstinence
       (ii) birth control pills and
              Norplant
       (iii) Depo-Provera
       (iv) IUD (interuterine
              device)
       (v) tubal ligation
       (vi) morning after pill
       (vii) diaphragm
       (viii) spermacidal jellies and
              foams
       (ix) condom
       (x) vasectomy
• construct arguments to
  support a decision, using
  examples and evidence and
  recognizing various
  perspectives (118-6)
     – assess the effects of            Consider other STSE topics that students may research:
       conception control               -      sperm banks for (agriculture)
       technology on the
       population demographics          -      human cell banks
       of developed and                 -      folklore concerning reproductive success/control
       underdeveloped countries
                                        -      choice of sex of child
• identify and apply criteria,          Students may debate the merits of funding solutions to human fertility
  including the presence of             problems versus the funding of human population control. Students
  bias, for evaluating the              may investigate the methods of population/birth control (e.g. China’s one
  evidence and sources of               child rule per family; selection of one gender—usually male—and abortion
  information used in your              of females in some developing countries) of various countries around the
  research (214-9)                      globe and assess the effects of these conception control population
                                        technologies on the demographics of these countries.
• debate the merits of funding
  solutions to human fertility
  problems versus the funding
  of human population control
  (117-4)



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Reproductive Technologies

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                    Resources/Notes


Paper and Pencil                                                              MHR Biology
€       Research and evaluate types of contraception that are being           pages 501-503
promoted for the use of population control within developing countries.
You will be expected to present a brief summary of your topic to the
class. Assessment to be on accuracy and relevancy of information
gathered and completeness of research based upon class presentation.
(115-1, 117-4, 118-6, 213-7, 313-5, 313-6)
€     Use a case study to analyze moral and ethical implications of new
reproductive technologies. (115-1, 117-4, 118-6, 213-7, 313-5,
313-6)
€     As a class, create a list of world wide web sites useful for
information concerning reproductive technologies. (115-1, 117-4,
118-6, 213-7, 313-5, 313-6)

Presentation
€      Groups will investigate a variety of chemical and physical
methods of contraception. They will explain how these contraceptives
                                                                              pages 503-505
work, their effectiveness in prevention of pregnancy and STIs, and societal
implications of their use from various perspectives. (118-4, 118-6)




                                                                              pages 503-504




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                           71
REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

Embryonic Differentiation and Development

Outcomes                              Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• explain the processes of
  fertilization and development
  in human reproduction
  (313-4)
     – trace the journey of sperm
       and egg from their origin
       until fertilization.
     – explain how fraternal and      Students should recognize the distinction in the fertilization and initial
       identical offspring are        embryonic development that produce identical and fraternal twins and
       produced.                      discuss the mechanism in which multiple births (triplet, quadruplets)
                                      may result naturally. Have students consider the question, “Why are
                                      fraternal twins no more alike than any set of brothers or sisters?”
     – describe the following basic   Students should have the opportunity to observe the stages of embryo
        stages of embryonic           development through the use of preserved materials, prepared slides (cleavage
        development.                  of sea stars), audiovisual presentations or computer simulations, and
       (i) cleavage                   extrapolate these events to the development of the human fetus. In
       (ii) morula                    addition, there are good Web sites available on the Internet that illustrate
       (iii) blastocyst               the process of development.
       (iv) gastrula
       (v) germ layers
       (vi) neural development
• describe the functions of
  primary membranes during
  the embryonic development
  of animals include:(313-4)
       (i)     yolk
       (ii)    allantois
       (iii)   amnion
       (iv)    chorion




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Embryonic Differentiation and Development

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                  Resources/Notes


Laboratory Activities
€       Perform the laboratory activities available on the process of
development. These might include microscopic examination of prepared
slides of stages of cleavage of sea stars or sea urchin development,
observation of embryo development in the frog utilizing a culture of frog   MHR Biology
eggs, or observation of microslides of frog or chick embryo development.
                                                                            pages 506-508
€       Assessment would depend on the nature and depth of the
activities selected, ranging from the development of microscope
diagrams, answering of questions, to a more detailed discussion.
Enrichment may be provided by allowing students the opportunity to
design their own investigations from questions that these activities may
generate. (313-4)
                                                                            pages 506-509




                                                                            pages 508-509




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                         73
REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

Embryonic Differentiation and Development (continued)

Outcomes                            Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• explain the processes of
  development and birth in
  human reproduction (313-4)
     – describe the roles of the
       placenta and umbilical
       cord during pregnancy
     – examine the effects of       The societal impact of chemical and drug abuse on fetal development
        teratogens on the           (alcohol, cocaine, cigarettes) may be investigated and discussed.
        development of the          Prescription drugs have positive effects on adults and children for the
        embryo. Include:            treatment of certain medical conditions. These drugs taken during
       (i) cigarette smoke          pregnancy, however, may have serious negative effects on fetal
       (ii) alcohol                 development. Thalidamide, used in the 1950’s as a treatment for
       (iii) perscription drugs     morning sickness, is one poignant example of this.
             (thalidamide)

     – describe the process of      Students should be aware of the physiological events that occur during and
        childbirth. Include:        after the process of childbirth (cervical dilation, loosening of pelvic
       (i) dilating stage           ligaments, rupture of the amniotic membrane, uterine contractions,
       (ii) expulsion stage         delivery of fetus and expulsion of the placenta) and the role of hormonal
       (iii) placental stage        control.

     – identify chemical control    Students may investigate the use of hormonal data to determine pregnancy
        hormones associated with    (e.g., Human Chorionic Gonadotropin).
        implantation, birth and     Students should be familiar with the feedback loops that are involved during
        lactation include:          child birth. Oxytocin could be used to illustrate a positive feedback loop in
       (i) progesterone             a human system. When the “water breaks” pressure is exerted on the cervix.
       (ii) oxytocin                This causes an increase in the uterine contractions. In turn more oxytocin is
       (iii) prolactin              released which in turn increases the contractions. This cycle would continue
• analyze examples where            until the Expulsion Stage is finished.
  scientific understanding was
  enhanced or revised as the
  result of the invention of a
  technology (116-2)
     – describe techniques used     Students should be able to describe the science behind the function of an
        to monitor various stages   ultrasound. How has this benefited the success rate of pregnancies and how
        of embryonic or fetal       this process has led to new technologies. They may investigate the
        development include:        development of fetal surgery techniques to correct biological problems.
       (i) ultrasound               Students may be able to compare the purposes of these fetal monitoring
       (ii) amniocentesis           techniques to those techniques used for genetic testing. Students may
       (iii) fetoscopy              investigate the types of diseases/conditions that can be identified by these
       (vi) CVS (chorionic villi    monitoring techniques (e.g. structural abnormalities, spina bifida).
             sampling)
74                                                                            BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                              REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

Embryonic Differentiation and Development (continued)

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                   Resources/Notes


Paper and Pencil
€       Collect information on techniques used for monitoring the health
and well-being of a fetus. Techniques to consider may include blood
tests, non-stress fetal monitoring, ultrasound, and fetoscopy. You will be   MHR Biology
expected to present a brief summary of your topic to the class.
                                                                             pages 510-511
Assessment to be based on accuracy and relevancy of information
gathered and class presentation. (116-2, 313-4)
                                                                             page 511




                                                                             pages 512-513




                                                                             pages 510
                                                                             pa,ges 607-608




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                           75
REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT




76                             BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
      Unit 3
GENETIC CONTINUITY
GENETIC CONTINUITY



Unit Overview

Introduction         Much of the structure and function of every living organism is
                     determined by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). It is important for a
                     scientifically literate person to understand principles and fundamentals
                     about DNA: what it is; how it works; how and for what purposes
                     humans are manipulating it; and why this major area of scientific and
                     technological endeavour has dramatic implications for humans and
                     planet Earth. This unit will provide the Biology 3201 student with the
                     basic information required for the comprehension of genetics.



Focus and Context    Within this unit on genetic continuity the primary focus is on problem
                     solving and technology. However, to appreciate the complexity and
                     uniqueness of DNA and how its structure determines protein
                     construction, scientific inquiry and observation are required. With the
                     inclusion of information on biotechnology and associated bioethics,
                     there is also ample opportunity for decision-making and STSE
                     components.


Science              Very early in their study of the life sciences students begin to consider
                     the individuality of organisms. Students at the primary level are asked to
Curriculum Links     identify variations that make each person and animal unique from each
                     other and their parents. They also identify traits that remain constant
                     and those that change as organisms grow and develop. The unit
                     Diversity of Living Things at the intermediate level continues this
                     theme.




78                                                           BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                                             GENETIC CONTINUITY


Curriculum Outcomes
              STSE                                   Skills                             Knowledge
Students will be expected to           Students will be expected to          Students will be expected to
                                                                             314-3 identify and describe the
Nature of Science and Technology       Initiating and Planning
                                                                             structure and function of important
114-2 explain the role of evidence,    212-4 state a prediction and a        biochemical compounds, including
theories, and paradigms in the         hypothesis based on available         carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and
development of scientific              evidence and background               nucleic acids
                                       information
knowledge                                                                    315-1 summarize the main
                                       212-8 evaluate and select             scientific discoveries that lead to
115-3 explain how a major
                                       appropriate instruments for           the modern concept of the gene
scientific milestone revolutionized    collecting evidence and appropriate
thinking in the scientific             processes for problem solving,        315-2 describe and illustrate the
communities                            inquiring, and decision making        role of chromosomes in the
                                                                             transmission of hereditary
Relationships between Science          Performing and Recording              information from one cell to
and Technology                                                               another
                                       213-7 select and integrate
116-4 analyse and describe             information from various print and    315-3 demonstrate an
examples where technologies were       electronic sources or from several    understanding of Mendelian
developed based on scientific          parts of the same source              genetics, including the concepts of
understanding                                                                dominance, co-dominance,
                                       Analysing and Interpreting            recessiveness, and independent
116-6 describe and evaluate the
design of technological solutions      214-5 interpret patterns and trends   assortment, and predict the
                                       in data, and infer or calculate       outcome of various genetic crosses
and the way they function, using
scientific principles                  linear and nonlinear relationships    315-4 compare and contrast the
                                       among variables                       structure of DNA and RNA and
Social and Environmental                                                     explain their role in protein
                                       214-12 explain how data support
Contexts of Science and                                                      synthesis
                                       or refute the hypothesis or
Technology
                                       prediction                            315-5 explain the current model of
117-2 analyse society’s influence on                                         DNA replication
scientific and technological           Communication and Teamwork
endeavours                                                                   315-6 describe factors that may
                                       215-2 select and use appropriate      lead to mutations in a cell’s genetic
117-7 identify and describe            numeric, symbolic, graphical, and     information
science- and technology-based          linguistic modes of representation
careers related to the science they    to communicate ideas, plans, and      315-7 predict the effects of
are studying                           results                               mutations on protein synthesis,
                                                                             phenotypes, and heredity
118-2 analyse from a variety of        215-5 develop, present, and defend
perspectives the risks and benefits    a position or course of action,       315-8 explain circumstances that
to society and the environment of      based on findings                     lead to genetic disease
applying scientific knowledge or                                             315-9 demonstrate an
introducing a particular technology                                          understanding of genetic
118-6 construct arguments to                                                 engineering, using their knowledge
support a decision or judgement,                                             of DNA
using examples and evidence and                                              315-10 explain the importance of
recognizing various perspectives                                             the Human Genome Project and
                                                                             summarize its major findings
                                                                             317-4 identify in general terms the
                                                                             impact of viral, bacterial, genetic
                                                                             and environmental diseases on the
                                                                             homeostasis of an organism
BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                                      79
GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Mendelian

Outcomes                                 Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• demonstrate an understanding           The Genetics unit begins with a number of new terms and it is expected
   of Mendelian genetics (315-3)         that students beome proficient in them.
     – define the terms heredity         Some possible strategies to cover the terminology effectively are:
       and genetics                      -      general brainstorming session to assess prior knowledge. Students
     – explain Mendel’s concept          can discuss the physical traits inherited in their family.
       of unit characters and            -     terminlogy can be introduced through the explaining of Mendel’s
       describe the unit theory of       experiments.
       inheritance
                                         -      cooperative learning can be used in the introduction of this unit to
     – explain the meaning of the
                                         get small groups to define the terms and then come back to the larger group
        following terms:                 to present and explain their terms and make connections.
       (i) trait
       (ii) purebred                     It should be noted that in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador we
       (iii) P generation (parent        have an example of a purebred animal, a certified Newfoundland Dog.
              generation)
       (iv) F1 and F2 generation
              (first and second filial
              generation)
       (v) hybrid                        Teachers should take the opportunity to conncet the terms hybrid and
       (vi) monohybrid                   heterozygous and how they are related.
       (vii) dominant
       (viii) recessive
       (ix) gene
       (x) allele
       (xi) homozygous
       (xii) heterozygous
       (xiii) product rule
       (xiv) punnett square
       (xv) genotype
       (xvi) phenotype

     – explain how Mendel’s              Mendel’s detailed experimentation could be emphasized as an example of
        experiments support:             exemplary scientific processes.
       (i) principle of
             dominance
       (ii) law of segregation
       (iii) law of independent
             assortment




80                                                                                  BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                                           GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Mendelian

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                 Resources/Notes


Laboratory Activities
€      Perform the activities provided that deal with the concept of
heredity. Possibilities include examination of ears of genetic corn or     MHR Biology
performance of crosses of the fruit fly Drosophila to investigate the      page 526
inheritance of particular characteristics. Assessment would depend on
the nature and depth of the activities selected ranging from the
                                                                           pages 529-530
answering of questions to a more detailed discussion of procedures and
results. (315-3)
€       Enrichment may be provided by allowing students the
opportunity to design their own investigations from questions that these   pages 526-532
activities may generate. (212-4, 214-5, 214-8, 315-2, 315-3)

Paper and Pencil
€     Develop a glossary of new terms that you discover and will use
during your discussions in this genetics unit. (315-2, 315-4, 315-5,
315-3)




                                                                           page 529

                                                                           page 530
                                                                           page 537




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                            81
GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Mendelian (continued)

Outcomes                             Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• interpret patterns and trends in   Students may investigate their own individual dominance/recessiveness as
  genetic data (214-5)               related to visual/sensory traits (widow’s peak, dimples, tongue rolling,
                                     attached/free ear lobe, the ability/lack of ability to taste PTC). Data on
                                     dominant and recessive characteristics from a class activity of this nature can
                                     be collected and discussed in relation to the prevalence within this restricted
                                     population sample and the population in general.
                                     Activities can be performed that simulate the chance formation and pairing
                                     of gametes (e.g. simulate Mendel’s experiments substituting the tossing of
                                     coins and heads/tails for plant characteristics).
• state a prediction and a           Students can investigate visually the phenotypic ratios evident during a
  hypothesis based on available      laboratory activity using artificially pollinated ears of genetic corn.
  genetic evidence using genetic     Genotypes of the parent ears can be determined and the expected
  problems (212-4)                   phenotypic ratios predicted.
     – predict the outcome of        Students may perform, as an independent study or group project, crosses
       monohybrid, and dihybrid      using fast growing plants or the fruit fly Drosophila to investigate the
       crosses using Punnett         inheritance of various characteristics.
       Square or Product Rule
     – predict the genotypic and     Students should solve genetics problems that involve a variety of
       phenotypic ratios in one-     monohybrid and dihybrid genetic crosses, predict the genotypes,
       factor (monohybrid)           phenotypes and ratios among offspring and/or those of the parental cross,
       and two-factor (dihybrid)     using Punnett squares or the math product rule.
       crosses                       Both 212-4 and 214-5 are accomplished by completing genetic problems
                                     using Punnett square and product rules
• demonstrate an
  understanding of Mendelian
  genetics (315-3)
     – explain the meaning of the
     following terms:
       (i)   incomplete
             dominance
       (ii) co-dominance
       (iii) multiple alleles        Multiple alleles should be explained with reference to blood types.




82                                                                              BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                                      GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Mendelian (continued)

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                            Resources/Notes


Laboratory Activities
€     Human ABO blood type is an example of the expression of
multiple alleles. Determine the blood type of the simulated blood
sample with which you are provided and list the potential genotypes
that would correspond to this type. (315-3, 212-4)




                                                                      MHR Biology
                                                                      pages 529-532
                                                                      pages 536-539




                                                                      pages 541-543




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                       83
GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Mendelian (continued)

Outcomes                                Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• state a prediction and a
  hypothesis based on available
  genetic evidence using genetic
  problems (212-4)
• interpret patterns and trends
  in genetic data (214-5)
     – predict the outcome of           The concepts of ‘incomplete dominance’ and ‘co-dominance’ are very simalar
       monohybrid crosses for           with respect to phenotypic expression:
       incomplete and co-                      1. Co-dominance: the condition in which both alleles of a gene are
       dominance                        expressed. Examples: Roan horses (red and white hair), chickens (black
                                        and white feathers).
                                               2. Incomplete dominance: inheritance in which an active allele does
                                        not entirely compensate for an inactive allele. Examples: snapdragon flowers
                                        (heterozygous is pink), Japanese four-o’clock flowers (heterozygous is pink).
     – demonstrate the inheritance      Consider using blood types of your student population / local office of
       of traits governed by            Canadian Blood Services / local hospital to graph with population size.
       multiple alleles by predicting   Generate questions these patterns suggest.
       the genotypic and
       phenotypic ratios in crosses
       involving human blood
       types (ABO groups)
     – explain the significance of a
       test cross
     – use a test cross to              It is impossible to determine the genotype of an organism that is expressing
       determine the unknown            the dominant trait, simply by looking at their appearance. Teachers should
       genotype of a dominant           pose the question “how would you determine the unknown genotype?”
       organism




84                                                                                BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                                             GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Mendelian (continued)

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                   Resources/Notes


Paper and Pencil                                                             MHR Biology
€      Solve the genetics questions prepared for you. In each case analyze   page 531
the data as requested. Analyze the pedigree charts provided and
determine the mechanism of inheritance. Determine the unknown
genotypes and phenotypes for the indicated individuals. Assessment to
be on the accurate solution of the problems using appropriate logic and
procedures. (212-4, 214-12, 315-3)
                                                                             pages 541-543
Paper and Pencil
 €     Solve the monohybrid and dihybrid genetics questions prepared
for you. In each case analyze the data as requested. Assessment to be on
the accurate solution of the problems using appropriate logic and
procedures.
€     Analyze the genetic clues presented to you in the ‘murder
mystery’ provided and determine the name of the murderer. Write
down in point form the logic that you used to come to your conclusion.
(212-4, 214-12, 315-3)

Presentation
€     After you have conducted your experiment, you will be asked to
present your data and conclusions to the class. Compile and organize
your data using appropriate formats (e.g. numeric tables, graphs). Be
prepared to explain decisions you may have made during the course of
planning and conducting your experiment. (214-12, 215-5)

                                                                             pages 533-534




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                              85
GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Modern Ideas

Outcomes                                Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• summarize the main scientific
  discoveries that lead to the
  modern concept of the gene
  (315-1)
     – explain how the work of          This section could be introduced by re-emphasizing Mendel’s conclusions
       Gregor Mendel and Walter         and how the behaviour of Mendel’s traits parallel chromsome behaviour.
       Sutton led to the
       Chromosome Theory of
       Inheritance
     – state and explain the            Explain how the behavior of the chromosomes observed by Sutton during
       Chromosome Theory of             meiosis accounts for Mendel’s observations and conclusions concerning
       Inheritance                      segregation and independent assortment.
     – describe Morgan’s                Morgan’s experiments restated Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment by
       experiments with Drosophila      including crossing over.
       and explain how his
       observations supported the
       Chromosome Theory of
       Inheritance
     – explain the concepts of gene     Crossing over was introduced in Unit 2 on Reproduction and
       linkage (linked genes)           Development, the emphasis in this unit is on how crossing over breaks gene
       and crossing-over.               linkages and creates variation. Diagrams and simulations may be useful in
                                        illustrating these concepts.
     – outline, in general terms, the   Genes exist on specific sites on chromosomes. When pairs of homologous
       Gene-chromosome Theory           chromosomes separate during gamete formation, they form two gametes.
       of Inheritance                   Each gamete will contain a separate allele for each trait. During fertilization,
                                        chromosomes from one gamete will combine with another gamete.
     – explain how the discovery of     The Law of Independent Assortment in modern terms includes gene linkage
       gene linkage affected man’s      and crossing over.
       understanding of Mendel’s
       Law of Independent
       Assortment
     – state the Law of
       Independent Assortment in
       modern terms




86                                                                                 BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                                         GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Modern Ideas

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                               Resources/Notes


Paper and Pencil
 €    Predict the general location or arrangement of genes within a
chromosome from the analysis of crossing over data with which you have
been provided. (214-5, 315-2)
                                                                         MHR Biology
Journal
                                                                         page 545
€     Is there a relationship between the number of chromosomes and
the mass of a species? Explain. (214-5)
€     Is there a relationship between the number of chromosomes and
the complexity of the species? Explain. (214-5)


                                                                         pages 545-547




                                                                         page 546




                                                                         page 546




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                          87
GENETIC CONTINUITY

 Genetics: Modern (continued)

Outcomes                             Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• summarize the main scientific
  discoveries that lead to the
  modern concept of the gene
  (315-1) (Cont’d)
     – define sex-linkage            Students should be introduced to the concept of the inheritance of certain
                                     characteristics (red-green colour blindness, hemophilia, muscular dystrophy)
                                     through the sex chromosomes. Colour blindness analysis charts are useful to
                                     illustrate this sex-linked characteristic.
     – explain why sex-linked        Students should be aware that autosomal inheritance typically involves pairs
       defects are more common in    of genes, with gender being irrelevant to gene expression. Sex-linked
       males than females            inheritance involves pairs of genes on the X chromosome in the female, and
     – distinguish between           a single gene on the X in the male. In this case, gender is important in gene
       genotypes and phenotypes      expression, and gender must be considered a part of the phenotype.
       evident in autosomal and
       sex-linked inheritance
     – explain the influence of      This is also known as multiple gene inheritance. Skin colour and eye colour
       polygenic traits on           are examples of polygenic inheritance where traits are determined by a
       inheritance patterns.         number of different contributing genes present at different locations and
                                     expression depends on the sum of the influences of all of these. Other
                                     examples include animal and plant traits selected by breeders for improving
                                     livestock and crops, as well as human characteristics such as susceptibility to
                                     cardiovascular disease and athletic ability.

• interpret patterns and trends in
  genetic data (214-5)
     – predict the outcome of        Students should solve genetic problems that involve sex-linked traits, predict
       monohybrid crosses for sex-   the genotypes, phenotypes and ratios among offspring, and compare
       linked traits                 specifically genotypes and phenotypes for males and females.
     – analyze and interpret         The Laboratory outcomes 212-4, 214-12 and, in part, 214-5 are addressed
       models of human               by completing Karyotype Lab CORE LAB #6. Teacher’s should note that
       karyotypes                    the lab includes three chromosome sets for karyotyping. Students are only
• state a prediction based on        required to complete two karyotypes. Teachers can choose any two of these
  available evidence and             chromosome sets so that the lab can be varied from year to year. Teachers
  background information             can also create their own abnormal karyotypes if they wish to have further
  (212-4)                            variations.
• explain how data support or
  refute the prediction (214-12)




88                                                                              BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                                          GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Modern (continued)

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                 Resources/Notes


Journal
€      In journal form, reflect and respond to the following statement.
True or False: Males are biologically stronger than females. Defend your
position. (315-3)
                                                                           MHR Biology
Laboratory Activities
                                                                           page 546-547
 €    Provide students with a selection of versions of human
karyotypes. Pair and arrange the chromosomes in the manner of a
karyotype. Analyze the resulting karyotype for any inherent                page 559
abnormalities and provide a brief written summary as to causes of the
abnormality and what its possession means to the individual involved.
Assessment to be based on accuracy and completeness of exercise.           pages 546-548, 555-559
(214-18, 215-2, 313-2)

Paper and Pencil
€      Solve the sex-linked genetics questions prepared for you. In each   page 549
case analyze the data as requested. Analyze the pedigree charts provided
and determine the mechanism of inheritance. Determine the unknown
genotypes and phenotypes for the indicated individuals. Assessment to
be on the accurate solution of the problems using appropriate logic and
procedures. (212-4, 214-12, 315-3)




                                                                           page 547



                                                                           pages 553, 559-560
                                                                           Core Lab #6: “Karyotype Lab”,
                                                                           Appendix B




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                              89
GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Molecular

Outcomes                            Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• summarize the main scientific     Students may research and produce a historical timeline to illustrate the
  discoveries that led to the       most significant scientific discoveries leading to the concept of the gene.
  modern concept of the gene
  (315-1)
• explain the role of evidence,     Among others, these may include the following (listed chronologically):
  theories, and paradigms in the    –      Mendel (1865) – study of heredity
  development of the gene
  concept (114-2)                   –      Sutton & Boveri (1902) – implication of chromosomes
                                    –      Levene (early 1900s) - properties of nucleic acids
     – describe the contributions
        of the following:           –      Griffith (1928) - vaccine for bacterial pnemonia
       (i) Mendel                   –      MacLeod, McCarty & Avery (1940’s) – DNA is transforming
       (ii) Sutton & Boveri                substance
       (iii) Levene
       (iv) Griffith                –      Chargaff (1951) - discovered the nitrogen base ratio
       (v) MacLeod, McCarty &       –      Framklin & Wilkins (1950-51) - pattern of repeating nucleotides
              Avery                 –      Hershey & Chase (1952) - DNA transfer
       (vi) Chargaff
       (vii) Franklin & Wilkins     –      Watson & Crick (1953-64) – structure of DNA
       (viii) Hershey and Chase     –      1960’s – use of synthetic mRNA’s to break genetic code
       (ix) Watson and Crick
                                    –      Barbara McClintock (1983) – “transposition” of genes
       (x) McClintock
                                    –      1990’s – Human Genome Project


                                    Another approach to making historical timelines more meaningful is to
                                    relate the time frame to an event that has some relevance to the student.
                                    Example:
                                    –      1953 – Watson & Crick discover the structure of DNA
                                    –      1953 – the year of the birth of the students’ mother/father
 • explain how a major scientific   Students can brainstorm ideas about DNA and discuss their preconceptions,
   milestone revolutionized         organize their ideas and, based on their current level of understanding, show
   thinking in the scientific       the interrelationships between them on a concept web. Students should be
   communities (115-3)              aware of and be able to explain how knowledge of the structure, function
                                    and replication of DNA revolutionized the understanding of heredity.
      – describe the Watson and
                                    Students may design and/or construct models of DNA to illustrate the
        Crick double helix model
                                    general structure and base arrangement of the molecule.
        of DNA




90                                                                             BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                                         GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Molecular

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                               Resources/Notes


Laboratory Activities
€     Design and construct a three-dimensional model of a DNA
molecule following these structural guidelines:
–      include a minimum number of six base pairs
–      show all possible base pair combinations
–      make model self-supporting
–      include a key for part identification
You will be assessed on accuracy and completeness of your model.         MHR Biology
(315-4)
                                                                         page 545
Paper and Pencil
 €     You will be provided with the name of a scientific investigator   pages 563-569
and/or an achievement that has contributed historically to the concept   page 569
of the gene. Prepare a brief summary of the date, names of appropriate
individuals and the contributions made on a large index card and
present this information to the class. Following this, add your          pages 570-571
information card to the chronological timeline at the front of the       page 573
classroom. Assessment can be based on the accuracy and completeness of   pages 571-572
the information collected. (115-3, 315-1)                                pages 574-575
                                                                         page 597
Journal
€     Give an example of how the discovery of one technology
broadened the circle of knowledge for other areas of science. (115-3,
315-1)




                                                                         pages 574-575




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                          91
GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Molecular (continued)

Outcomes                          Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• identify and describe the       Students should describe, in general, how genetic information is contained
  structure and function of       in a DNA molecule (chromosome); how each DNA molecule replicates itself
  important biochemical           during cell division; how information is transcribed into the base sequences
  compounds such as nucleic       of RNA molecules and is finally translated into the sequence of amino acids
  acids (DNA and RNA)             in cell proteins. Students may perform simulations to demonstrate the
   (314-3)                        replication of DNA and the transcription and translation of its information.
  – identify and describe the     Students could investigate the rarity of mistakes made during replication of
     structure and function of    DNA by discussing the role of DNA polymerase and its ‘proofreading’
     nucleic acids                mechanism and the influence of DNA repair enzymes.
• explain the current model of    Students may experimentally extract DNA from bacteria or other suitable
  DNA replication (315-5)         organisms. Alternately or in addition to this, they may be asked to design/
       (i)     initiation         implement an improvement on the experimental procedure used to extract
       (ii)    elongation         this DNA.
       (iii)   termination
       (iv)    proofreading and
               correction
• evaluate and select             The Laboratory outcomes 212-8, 215-2 and, in part, 315-5 are addressed
  appropriate models for          by completing DNA Structure and Replication CORE LAB #7A.
  collecting evidence and
  appropriate processes for
  inquiring and decision
  making (212-8)
• select and use appropriate      The Laboratory outcomes 213-5, 213-7, 214-18, 215-2 and, in part, 315-4
  symbolic modes of               are addressed by completing Simulating Protein Synthesis CORE LAB #7B.
  representation to communicate
  ideas and results (215-2)
• compare and contrast the        Analogies may be useful in illustrating how the amino acids in foreign
  structure of DNA and RNA        proteins can be reorganized into a variety of human proteins (for example,
  (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA)              the rearrangement of the letters of the alphabet into different words, or
  and explain their role in       LegoTM blocks into different structures.)
  protein synthesis (315-4)       Students should be aware that environmental factors might cause a change
  Include:                        in the expression of some of the genetic information of an organism. (e.g.,
       (i) transcription          the two colour pattern of the Siamese cat involves one hair colour gene
       (ii) translation           producing a temperature sensitive enzyme. The enzyme is active and
     – discuss the influence of   manufactures dark pigment only on cooler areas of the body - feet, snout,
                                  tip of tail, ears; temperature also affects Drosophila wing development). Sex
       hormonal and
                                  may also play a role (e.g. gene for baldness being dominant in males but
       environmental factors on
       gene expression            recessive in females). Some other examples of the effects of the environment
                                  on gene expression are: differences in identical twins and the color of fur in
                                  Arctic foxes or hares.


92                                                                          BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                                             GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Molecular (continued)

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                   Resources/Notes


Paper and Pencil                                                             MHR Biology
•   Using the processes of transcription and translation, convert the        pages 573-576
DNA strand given into its resulting protein. (314-3, 315-4)

Performance
•     Using model kits, construct various organic compounds
including proteins and nucleic acids. (314-3)
€      As an independent project, you may research, design and perform
an experiment to demonstrate the effect of environmental factors on
                                                                             pages 582-588
inheritance. Your experiment must be approved before it is attempted.
(214-5)

Laboratory Activities
 €     Extract DNA experimentally from the source provided following
the guidelines given in the laboratory. Assessment to be based upon
observation of the group activity and the answering of appropriate
questions. (315-4)                                                           Core Lab #7A: “DNA Structure
                                                                             and Replication”, pages 586-587
Journal
•     Discuss the role of carbon as a versatile building block for all
organic compounds. (314-3)
€      If two sets of identical twins marry and have children, what is the
genetic relationship among the cousins? (214-5)                              pages 589-594
€     Vast quantities of human DNA appear to be non-functional. One          Core Lab #7B: “Simulating
theory suggests these are ancient archival genes, dormant DNA. What          Protein Synthesis”, pages 594-
implications does this suggest about our ancestry? (214-5, 214-12)           595




                                                                             pages 594-596




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                                 93
GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Molecular (continued)

Outcomes                               Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• predict the effects of mutations
  on protein synthesis,
  phenotypes, and heredity
  (315-7)
     – explain the meaning of the      In particular students could discuss the dangers of UV radiation as a
       term mutation and what          carcinogenic agent. Students can hypothesize how an alteration may
       causes it                       ultimately affect the individual involved. Students may investigate and
                                       discuss sources of embryo deforming (teratogenic) chemicals found in the
                                       environment (thalidomide, alcohol) and the responsibility of society, science
                                       and technology to ensure all children have a good quality of life.
     – explain what is meant by a      Students should draw the connection between mutations in genetic
       gene mutation and               information and how they may be expressed through human conditions
       predict, in general, their      (e.g. cancer, sickle cell anemia, human thallesemia). The critical role of
       effect on protein synthesis     proteins as the link between gene and the human condition should be
                                       emphasized.
     – distinguish between somatic     Somatic mutations occur in somatic cells (body cells) and thus cannot be
       and germ mutation and           passed on to offspring. Germ mutations occur during meiosis (gamete
       compare the inheritability of   production) and thus such mutations can be passed on to the offspring.
       each.
     – distinguish among the           A point mutation is considered a gene mutation because it involves a change
        different types of point       in a nucleotide and usually only affects a single gene. Two types of point
        mutations (gene                mutations are substitutions and frame shift mutations.
        mutations) Include:
       (i) substitution
               -silent
               -mis-sense
               -nonsense
       (ii) frame shift
               -insertion
               -deletion




94                                                                               BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                                           GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Molecular (continued)

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                 Resources/Notes


Paper and Pencil
€     Investigate the effects on the developing human embryo of
exposure to a specific environmental influence. The following are
suggestions:
–      thalidomide                                                         MHR Biology

–      alcohol (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)                                    pages 596, 598-600

–      tobacco/tobacco smoke
–      DES (diethylstilbesterol)
–      radiation
                                                                           pages 596-597
–      drugs such as cocaine, LSD, marijuana
–      viruses (Rubella/German measles, HIV)
–      caffeine
–      antibiotics (Streptomycin, acne drugs)
–      streptococcus bacteria
Assessment to be on accuracy and relevance of information gathered and
completeness of research shown during class presentation. (315-6,
315-7)                                                                     pages 596-597
€     Using the processes of transcription and translation, convert the
DNA strand given into its resulting protein. Investigate what effect a
change in one base in the DNA sequence might have on the resulting
protein. (314-3, 315-4, 315-7)

Performance
 €     Design an experiment to investigate the effect of influences such
as chemicals or radiation (e.g. microwave, ultraviolet) on the
germination of seeds. Once the experiments have been designed and
the design approved, there is opportunity for assessing how students
actually perform the activities. Do they follow the design, use correct
and safe techniques, troubleshoot as required? (315-7)




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                            95
GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Molecular (continued)

Outcomes                              Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• describe factors that may lead
  to mutations in a cell’s
  genetic information (315-6)
     – discuss how McClintock’s       Students may also investigate the discovery by Barbara McClintock of
       jumping genes                  “jumping genes” and how they are another potential source of variation
       (transposons)                  within organisms.
       contribute to genetic
       variation
     – distinguish among the
        different types of
        chromosome mutation.
        Include:
       (i) deletion
       (ii) duplication
       (iii) inversion
       (iv) translocation
       (v) nondisjunction             Students could apply their knowledge of nondisjunction by completing
             (monosomy, trisomy)      thinking lab (page 552). This would help reinforce the concepts involved in
                                      nondisjunction
     – identify several examples of   Students may explore the severity of chromosomal mutations compared to
        human genetic diseases        that of gene mutations. Chromosomal mutations are more serious because
        caused by chromosomal         they involved a larger portion of genetic material.
        mutations:                    Students may also explore why there are relatively few syndromes in the
       (i) Down syndrome              human population involving nondisjunction. Most cases of nondisjunction
       (ii) Turner syndrome           prove to be fatal.
       (iii) Klinefelter syndrome
       (iv) Jacobs syndrome




96                                                                             BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                                           GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Molecular (continued)

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                 Resources/Notes


Journal
•      Is it possible for a person born with a chromosomal abnormality,
such as, Down Syndrome, to have a “normal” child?
•      Using your answer from above, discuss the statement, “Given the     MHR Biology
high cost of health care, forced sterilization should be mandatory for     pages 597-598
individuals with genetic diseases. (315-6)

Paper and Pencil
€      Using various soucres, conduct research on the many hypotheses      pages 597, 550-553
regarding the role of transposons in the human genome. (315-6,
213-7)

Presentation
 €      After students have completed their research on transposons they
may present their findings to the class. This could be done as a
multiumedia project to incorporate technology and improve computer
skills. (315-6, 215-2, 213-7)



                                                                           pages 550-553




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                            97
GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Implications

Outcomes                                 Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• explain the circumstances that         There are many current and relevant issues within the realm of
  lead to genetic diseases               biotechnology. Students can evaluate the database on genetic research
  (315-8) Include:                       obtained from Internet web sites. Students can evaluate, from a variety of
      (i)     autosomal recessive        perspectives (e.g. counselor, prospective parents, potential patient) the role
              inheritance (e.g. Tay      of genetic counselling and gene testing for the identification and treatment
              Sachs, PKU)                of potentially debilitating genetic conditions. (e.g., Tay Sachs, PKU,
      (ii)    co-dominant                Huntington disease, Alzheimer’s). Discuss the personal and ethical
              inheritance (e.g. Sickle   considerations faced by individuals as the identification of genes, possibility
              Cell Anemia)               of prenatal diagnoses and predictive ability for particular disorders increases.
      (iii)   autosomal dominant         Consider questions like the following:
              inheritance (e.g.          – Would you, as an individual, want to know if you will suffer from a
              Progeria,                  disabling disease later in life? Do you have a right to know?
              Huntington’s)
                                         – Do insurance companies have a right to accept/reject you for insurance
      (iv)    incomplete dominant
                                         coverage based on the results of voluntary and confidential genetic testing
              inheritance (e.g. FH)
                                         predicting your future health?
      (v)     x-linked recessive
              inheritance (e.g. color    – Do employers have a right to know your genetic status determined from
              blindness, Muscular        voluntary genetic testing? (e.g., Suppose you are a heterozygous carrier for
              Dystrophy,                 sickle cell anemia; you know there is a belief within the airline industry that
              Hemophilia)                carriers are more sensitive to a decrease in cabin air pressure. Do you
                                         inform the airline of your genetic status before accepting a job?) As genetic
• describe and evaluate the              testing becomes more common, and increases in availability, will potential
  design of technological                employers have a right to know of your genetic status as a preliminary to
  solutions and the way they             hiring?
  function, using genetic
  principles (116-6)
• construct arguments to                 The CORE STSE component of this unit incorporates a broad range of
  support a decision concerning          Biology 3201 outcomes. More specifically it targets (in whole or in part)
  the use of genetic                     116-4, 116-6, 117-7, 118-2, 118-6, 315-6, 315-7, 315-8 and 315-9. The
  engineering, using examples            STSE component, Genetics, can be found in Appendix C.
  and evidence and recognizing
  various perspectives (118-6)
• analyze and describe examples
  where genetics based
  technologies were developed
  and based on scientific
  understanding (116-4)
• analyze from a variety of
  perspectives the risks and
  benefits of applying the
  scientific knowledge gained
  through the genetic research
  (118-2)
98                                                                                  BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                                             GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Implications

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                   Resources/Notes


Paper and Pencil                                                             MHR Biology
€      Use a case study to investigate an inherited disease. Examples        pages 555-559
might include hemophilia, cystic fibrosis, Tay Sachs, Alzheimer’s. (315-8)

Journal
€     A couple has discovered that they are unable to conceive due to
the male partner’s sterility. Donor sperm could be used to artificially
inseminate the female partner. What ethical and moral issues would arise?
(118-6)




                                                                             Core STSE #3: “Genetics”,
                                                                             Appendix C




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                              99
GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Implications (continued)

Outcomes                             Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• interpret patterns and trends in   Students should draw and interpret pedigree charts from data on human
  genetic data (214-5)               single and multiple allele inheritance patterns. They should be able to
                                     analyze inheritance data and infer the method of inheritance (dominant,
   – draw and interpret the
                                     recessive, sex-linked). Students may compare pedigree charts for the
     patterns of inheritance
                                     inheritance of non sex-linked and sex-linked conditions. The pedigree of the
     shown on pedigree charts
                                     hemophilia within Queen Victoria’s bloodline is readily available and serves
                                     to provide a biological/historical cross-curricular link. Student groups may
                                     design procedures, collect data and prepare family pedigrees to demonstrate
                                     the inheritance of autosomal traits determined by single and multiple alleles,
                                     and sex-linked traits.
• demonstrate an understanding       Simulations of forensic investigations or murder mysteries involving clues
  of genetic engineering, using      based on genetic traits (blood type, freckles, etc.) and pedigree information
  knowledge of DNA (315-9)           that require students to “solve” a crime based on the information provided
   – define genetic engineering      are an interesting way to enhance student knowledge and interest in genetic
                                     analysis.

• describe and evaluate the design   Genetic counsellors study the medical histories of couples and their families
  of technological solutions and     and help parents-to-be by advising them of the frequencies of genetic
  the way they function, using       disorders within affected families and by helping them to determine the
  genetic principles (116-6)         probable risk factors associated with their particular case. It is suggested
                                     that Department of Health & Community Services sources be explored and
   – discuss the importance of
                                     the appropriate literature be researched for additonal information on this
     genetic counselling
                                     concept.
   – describe the various            Teachers should make a connection from Core Lab #6 (Karyotyping) which
      methods of detecting           discusses methods of detecting genetic disorders.
      genetic disorders such as:
     (i) amniocentesis
     (ii) CVS (chorionic villus
           sampling)
     (iii) fetoscopy
     (iv) genetic markers

   – describe the various            Students should research and discuss the potential and ethics of
      methods of treating            biotechnology and somatic cell gene replacement therapy in the treatment of
      genetic disorders such as:     human genetic disorders. What might be the implications of gene therapy
     (i) screening and               on germ or sex cells? Discuss the role of gene banks for the preservation of
           prevention                endangered species and genotypes and whether society has the right or
     (ii) surgery                    responsibility to preserve these species in this way for future generations.
     (iii) environmental control
     (iv) gene therapy




100                                                                            BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                                                  GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Implications (continued)

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                        Resources/Notes


Presentation                                                                      MHR Biology
€     Invite a genetics counsellor/geneticist to discuss the merits of genetics   pages 544, 558, 560-562
counselling. (116-6, 315-8)

Journal
€      You are a genetics counsellor. What advice would you give a couple
who just found out that their unborn child has a 49% chance of having a
serious kidney disease? (116-6, 315-8, 215-5)

Paper and Pencil
                                                                                  page 604
€      Students may design pedigree charts to show the inheritance of
certain characteristics such as; freckles, handidness, etc., in their family.
Sample pedigree charts may be found on the Internet and provided to
students as examples. (214-5, 215-2)
€      Research the use of gene therapy in the treatment of certain
genetics diseases, such as cystic fibroses. (116-6, 213-7)




                                                                                  pages 606-608




                                                                                  pages 609-611




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                                   101
GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Implications (continued)

Outcomes                             Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• describe and evaluate the design
  of technological solutions and
  the way they function, using
  genetic principles (116-6)
  (Cont’d)
   – describe the techniques used    The use of restriction enzymes or biological scissors in DNA fingerprinting
      in genetic engineering:        can be effectively demonstrated using paper activities. Students could
     (i) restriction enzymes         perform simulations to demonstrate the use of restriction enzymes in the
     (ii) recombinant DNA            creation of new DNA sequences (e.g. electrophoresis).
     (iii) DNA amplification
             - bacterial vectors
             - viral vectors
             - Polymerase Chain
            Reaction
     (iv) gel electrophoresis
     (v) DNA sequencing
• explain the importance of the      Students may conduct a major research report on the Human Genome
  Human Genome Project and           Project. Using a variety of print and electronic sources, they could consider
  why it was initiated (315-10,      the following areas:
  117-2)
                                     –      How and why is the Human Genome Project being conducted?
   – what is the Human               –    What are the implications of decoding the entire human
     Genome Project?                 genome?
   – why was the project             Individual students or student groups may be assigned an individual human
     conducted?                      chromosome for which they investigate its mapping. They can prepare a
   – summarize the major             large cardboard model of this structure labelled with its identified genes and
      findings of the project        the characteristics for which they code. Students can make a presentation
     (i) 99.9% of all human          on their chromosome as the class builds a human genome to be displayed
           DNA is identical          within the classroom or school.
     (ii) There are
           approximately 35000
           genes




102                                                                             BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                                              GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Implications (continued)

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                    Resources/Notes


Paper and Pencil
€       You will be assigned one chromosome from the human genome
to research and map. Prepare, to the assigned scale, a cardboard model
of this chromosome, with its most significant genes clearly labeled. You
will present to the class information about your chromosome, and it will
be mounted as part of a common genome either within the classroom or          MHR Biology
as a bulletin board display for the school. (212-4, 315-2, 315-8,
                                                                              pages 613-618
315-10)
€     Analyze the simulation of DNA fingerprinting presented to you
and determine which suspect was in the vicinity of the crime scene.
Write down in point form the logic that you used to come to your
conclusion . (212-4, 315-2, 315-8, 315-10)
                                                                              page 125
                                                                              pages 613-618
Journal
€     The Human Genome Project raises a number of important issues
that might be considered. Reflect on these questions and develop,
present and defend your position based on scientific thinking.
                                                                              pages 618-620
–      Recently a Canadian futurist, Frank Ogden, applied to the U.S.
Patent and Trademark office to have his DNA trademarked, in an effort
to protect himself and his identity. He feels that his application is
important because it paves the way for others to do the same, especially
if they have a talent that may interest researchers wishing to study their
DNA, the building blocks of life. Should Frank Ogden be successful?
Why or why not?
–      The Human Genome Project began as an agreement between
publicly funded research teams to share gene sequence discoveries for
the benefit of mankind. A number of corporate interests have recently
announced their intention to apply for patents for any genes they
discover thereby removing them from the public realm and the use of
medical researchers. It is likely that beneficial medical developments will
proceed more quickly if pursued within the private sector. (114-2, 117-
2, 118-2, 118-6, 215-5, 315-9, 315-10)
 €     Is it ethical for private biotechnology companies to use research
information gained through public funding for private profit? Should
the individuals whose DNA was used for public research in the Human
Genome Project be compensated for their contribution? (114-2, 117-
2, 118-2, 118-6, 215-5, 315-9, 315-10)




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                               103
GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Implications (continued)

Outcomes                              Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• analyze, from a variety of      The completion of the Human Genome Project presents potential risks and
  perspectives the risks and      benefits to society. Students may brainstorm relevant issues and
  benefits to society of applying subsequently research, analyze and discuss a selection of these.
  the scientific knowledge gained
  through the Human Genome
  Project (118-2)
   – Risks:
      (i) privacy
      (ii) financial
      (iii) ethical
   – Benefits:
      (i) knowledge of
            predisposition to
            disease
      (ii) analysis,prevention and
            treatment of disease
• select and integrate                Students could investigate and perform a risk/benefit analysis and defend
  information from various            their position on situations such as:
  sources on GMOs (genetically        –     The use of genetically modified microorganisms (GMO) for drug
  modified organisms) and GMFs        production, pollution clean-up, environmental monitoring and mining.
  (genetically modified
  foods)(213-7)                       –      The use of genetically modified food (GMF) in the marketplace.
                                      Students should investigate the extent to which genetic manipulation
• analyze from a biological,
                                      currently pervades the food industry (e.g. processed foods) and how aware
  social, ethical and
                                      or unaware the general public is of this.
  environmental perspective the
  risks and benefits of the           –     How does our new found ability to move genes around potentially
  development of GMFs and             impact allergenicity levels?
  GMOs (118-2)                        –      What is the importance of labeling genetically modified foods? What
   – define GMOs and GMFs             practical issues are involved?
   – give an example of a GMO
      or GMF and its major
      significance. Include:
     (i) corn
     (ii) canola
     (iii) milk
     (iv) rice
     (v) transgenic salmon
     (vi) insulin producing bateria
     (vii) PCB eating bacteria
     (viii) oil eating bacteria


104                                                                             BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                                              GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Implications (continued)

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                    Resources/Notes


Paper and Pencil                                                              MHR Biology
€       Within assigned groups, you will be asked to research and report      pages 622-627
to the class on one of the tools or techniques currently available to study
genetics. Areas that may be considered include the polymerase chain
reaction (PCR) process, DNA ‘fingerprinting’ and gel electrophoresis,
gene probes, recombinant DNA, cloning, genetic markers and gene
mapping. Research and analyze how the cloning of the sheep Dolly in
1997 influenced our understanding of the potential of biotechnology
and how knowledge of the cloning of mammals continues to evolve.
(118-6, 118-2)
€       Select an area within the topic of biotechnology of interest to you
upon which to prepare a class presentation and written report which
illustrates two differing points of view. Internet web sources provide an
extensive database for this exercise. Assessment to be based upon quality
of both presentation and written report. Teachers should ensure that at
least one individual or group chooses to deal with the Human Genome
Project and its implications for human life and health. (116-6, 117-2,
118-2, 118-6, 215-5)
€       As a class, create a list of world wide web sites useful for
information concerning genetics and genetic screening. (213-7)
€       Create your own webquest that relates to moral and ethical
concerns associated with genetics. Generate 10 questions. List a variety
of web sites that your peers could use to seek answers to the questions.
(213-7)

Presentation
€      Debate the pros and cons of producing genetically modified
foods. (118-2, 215-5, 213-7)


                                                                              pages 622-625, 630




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                               105
GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Implications (continued)

Outcomes                            Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• analyze from a biological,
  social, ethical and
  environmental perspective the
  risks and benefits of the
  development of GMFs and
  GMOs (118-2) (Cont’d)
   – identify and explain the
      major risks associated with
      GMO and GMF. Include:
     (i) environmental threats
     (ii) health effects
     (iii) social and economic
           issues
• construct arguments to            This would be an ideal time to do a role play concerning these arguments.
  support or oppose the use of      Have students do research on the topic and set up a debate.
  GMOs and GMFs in society
  (118-6)
• present, and defend a course
  of action on the use of GMO
  and GMF, based on findings
  (215-5)
• analyze from a biological,
  social, ethical and
  environmental perspective the
  risks and benefits of cloning
  organisms (118-2)
      – define cloning              Cloning was covered in Unit 2 on Reproduction and Development. It will
      – use sheep as an example     be expanded on in this section. Use Dolly the sheep as an example of the
      to describe the cloning       cloning process.
      process                       The benefits and risks associated with cloning include:
      – identify and explain the
                                       (i) speed of reproduction
      major benefits and risks
      associated with cloning.         (ii) elimination of disease
                                       (iii) manipulation of traits
• identify and describe science-
  based careers related to the         (iv) reducing genetic variability
  field of biotechnology               (v) embyro use and distruction
  Include: (117-7)                     (vi) loss of individuality
      (i) cytogeneticist
      (ii) medical geneticist
      (iii) genetic engineer

106                                                                           BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                                              GENETIC CONTINUITY

Genetics: Implications (continued)

Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies                                    Resources/Notes


Presentation
€       We will be conducting a debate in which you will be required to
display the results of your research and “argue” against other
stakeholders concerning the merits of the use of the technology for the
production of genetically modified foods or any other aspect of relevant
biotechnology. You will represent various sectors of society depending
on the issues selected. They may include individuals such as farmer,
                                                                              MHR Biology
politician, Greenpeace activist, consumer, or representative of
development agency involved in underdeveloped countries.                      pages 626-627
€       Assess the participation of students, preparation of the argument
and thoroughness of the research done. (116-6, 117-2, 118-2, 118-6,
215-5)

Portfolio
€       Investigate (through research or interview) a career of your choice
related to this unit on genetics and heredity. Examples may include
biochemist, genetic counselor, laboratory technologist, geneticist,
oncologist, etc. Prepare a small poster on the knowledge and skills
required in this career. Assessment will be based on the quality of the
display prepared. (315-10, 117-2)



                                                                              pages 627-630




                                                                              pages 608-609 and STSE




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                               107
MAINTAINING DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM II




108                                  BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
             Unit 4
EVOLUTION, CHANGE AND DIVERSITY
EVOLUTION, CHANGE, AND DIVERSITY



Unit Overview

Introduction                       Evolution is a concept in biology that links yesterday with today.
                                   This unit focuses on the history, importance and mechanisms of the
                                   process of evolution and how a change in the DNA blueprint creates
                                   new traits that propel evolution. It builds upon what the students
                                   have learned about mutations and genetic variability and shows how
                                   these can lead to changes in species based upon natural selection.
                                   This unit also outlines evidence and arguments pertaining to the
                                   origin, development, and diversity of living organisms on Earth.




Focus and Context                  By the consideration of questions generated by students and teachers
                                   and the discussion of issues raised, various learning and assessment
                                   activities will meet specific curriculum outcomes within this section.
                                   The main focus of this unit falls within the realm of scientific inquiry
                                   and observation as it transposes from a historical to modern
                                   perspective on the scientific thought and techniques involving
                                   evolution, change and diversity.




Science                            The curricular connections for this unit in Biology 3201 exists at
                                   both the elementary and intermediate levels within units dealing
Curriculum Links                   with diversity of life. Students at these points within their life science
                                   education are asked to compare adaptations of closely related animals
                                   that live in different parts of the world and discuss possible reasons
                                   for any differences noted. They are then asked to expand their view of
                                   this concept by identifying changes that have occurred in animals
                                   over the course of time using the fossil record. These considerations
                                   provide a framework upon which further discussions can be built.




110                                                                        BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                       EVOLUTION, CHANGE, AND DIVERSITY


Curriculum Outcomes
              STSE                               Skills                          Knowledge
Students will be expected to       Students will be expected to        Students will be expected to

Nature of Science and Technology   Initiating and Planning             316-1 describe historical and
                                                                       cultural contexts that have
114-2 explain the roles of         212-1 identify questions to
                                                                       changed evolutionary concepts
evidence, theories and paradigms   investigate that arise from
in the development of scientific   practical problems and issues       316-2 evaluate current evidence
knowledge                                                              that supports the theory of
                                   212-4 state a prediction and a      evolution and that feeds the
114-5 describe the importance      hypothesis based on available       debate on gradualism and
of peer review in the              evidence and background             punctuated equilibrium
development of scientific          information
knowledge                                                              316-3 analyse evolutionary
                                   Performing and Recording            mechanisms such as natural
115-7 explain how scientific
                                                                       selection, genetic variation,
knowledge evolves as new           213-5 compile and organize          genetic drift, artificial selection,
evidence comes to light and as     data, using appropriate formats
                                                                       and biotechnology, and their
laws and theories are tested and   and data treatments to facilitate
                                                                       effects on biodiversity and
subsequently restricted, revised   interpretation of the data
                                                                       extinction
or replaced                        213-6 use library and electronic
                                   research tools to collect           316-4 outline evidence and
Relationships between Science                                          arguments pertaining to the
and Technology
                                   information on a given topic
                                                                       origin, development, and
116-2 analyse and describe         Analysing and Interpreting          diversity of living organisms on
examples where scientific                                              Earth
understanding was enhanced or      214-3 compile and display
revised as the result of the       evidence and information, by
                                   hand or computer, in a variety of
invention of a technology
                                   formats, including diagrams,
Social and Environmental           flow charts, tables, graphs, and
Contexts of Science and            scatter plots
Technology                         214-17 identify new questions
118-6 construct arguments to       or problems that arise from what
support a decision or judgment,    was learned
using examples and evidence and
recognizing various perspectives   Communication and Teamwork

                                   215-4 identify multiple
                                   perspectives that influence a
                                   science-related decision or issue




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                            111
EVOLUTION, CHANGE, AND DIVERSITY

Evolutionary Change: Historical Perspectives

Outcomes                              Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• draw a timeline illustrating how    A suggestion for introducing the topic of evolution is to develop a time line
  early life forms evolved into the   to help students visualize historical and/or geologic time frames. One could
  diverse array of organisms          be developed to illustrate the historical progression towards the theory of
  present on Earth today              evolution. Another option is to create a timeline that illustrates the
  (316-4)                             geologically recent event of human appearance on Earth. Tape a string along
                                      the wall to represent the history of Earth as one single year. Date one end
                                      of the string as January 1 (the formation of Earth) and the other end as
                                      December 31. Make a set of index cards with each one marking a crucial
                                      event. These events might include: appearance of single cells, marine worms
                                      and clams, fish, dinosaurs and small mammals, today’s mammals and
                                      humans. Have students place these on the string where they feel the events
                                      first occurred. Then, with a second set of cards, place the events where they
                                      actually belong on the string and discuss with the students the discrepancies
                                      between their placement and the appropriate location.

• explain how knowledge of
  evolution evolves as new
  evidence comes to light and as
  laws and theories are tested and
  subsequently restricted, revised
  or replaced (115-7)
   – define the terms evolution,
     adaptation and variation
   – use the Peppered Moth            The story of the Peppered Moth was previously covered at the intermediate
     story as an example of           science level. It is an example of the process of Industrial Melanism.
     evolution and adaptation
• analyze evolutionary
  mechanisms such as natural
  selection, and artificial
  selection (316-3)
   – explain the process of           This topic was previously covered at the intermediate science level.
     natural selection and            Students may examine an organism that has undergone artificial selection.
     artificial selection             They could explore the value of the trait that has been selected and compare
                                      any negative effects of its selection. Examples of organisms that have been
                                      artificially selected could include dogs, wheat, apples, roses, cattle, sheep,
                                      and so on.




112                                                                              BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                                  EVOLUTION, CHANGE, AND DIVERSITY

Evolutionary Change: Historical Perspectives

Suggested Assessment Strategies                                                   Resources/Notes


Paper and Pencil                                                                  MHR Biology
€      Select a career to investigate that relates to this evolutionary unit      pages 660-661
and prepare a poster on the knowledge and skills required for each
profession. Posters will be displayed. Examples may include
anthropologist, palaeontologist, botanist, physiologist, entomologist, etc.
Assessment to be on the quality of the display prepared. (213-6)
€      Select a modern animal and investigate the evolutionary evidence
that exists for its ancestry. Your report on this work may be visual (e.g.
videotape, poster, models) or written. Assessment to be on accuracy and
completeness of research and quality of presentation. (115-7, 316-2,
316-4)
€       Select an organism that has undergone artificial selection. Examine
and prepare a report on the value of the traits that were artificially selected
and compare to any negative effects that may have resulted from this form of
selection. (316-3)




                                                                                  pages 644-647




                                                                                  pages 647-649




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                                 113
EVOLUTION, CHANGE, AND DIVERSITY

Evolutionary Change: Modern Perspectives

Outcomes                              Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• describe historical and cultural    Students could begin by discussing some of the cultural aspects that
  contexts that have changed          influenced the progression of evolutionary ideas such as the influence of
  evolutionary concepts (316-1)       religious beliefs.
• describe the importance of peer     Students should be aware of the contributions of Charles Lyell, Thomas
  review in the development of        Malthus, Alfred Wallace and in particular Charles Darwin to the historical
  evolutionary knowledge              development of the theory of evolution. Students should recognize that
  (114-5)                             there are many explanations for changes in life forms over time (scientific,
      (i)     Charles Lyell           religious, philosophical). When students are discussing peer review they
      (ii)    Thomas Malthus          might contrast the methodology of Jean Baptiste Lamarck and Charles
      (iii)   Alfred Wallace          Darwin.
      (iv)    Charles Darwin
      (v)     Jean Baptiste Lamarck
      (vi)    Georges Cuvier
• explain the roles of evidence,      The concept of paradigm shift was first dealt with in Science 1206.
  theories and paradigms in the       Students should recognize that a paradigm shift had occured when the
  development of evolutionary         evolution ideas of Lamarck were generally dropped in favour of the ideas of
  knowledge (114-2)                   Darwin. Students could examine how Weismann was able to disprove
                                      Lamarck’s theory by cutting off the tails of mice and allowing them to
   – describe the theories put
                                      reproduce. Weismann showed that after many generations the tails still
     forth by Larmarck and
                                      remained on the offspring and, therefore, disproved that acquired traits
     Darwin
                                      could be inherited.
   – compare and contrast
     Lamarckian and Darwinian
     evolutionary theories
   – explain why Darwin was
     unable to account for the
     mechanism of inheritance
     of traits in his theory
   – illustrate how knowledge         Students could be asked to explain how the work of Mendel provided
     of Mendelian genetics and        support for Darwin’s theory.
     mutations supported
     Darwin’s theory
   – explain the modern theory
     of evolution and its
     importance to biological
     sciences




114                                                                              BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                                EVOLUTION, CHANGE, AND DIVERSITY

Evolutionary Change: Modern Perspectives

Suggested Assessment Strategies                                                 Resources/Notes


Presentation                                                                    MHR Biology
€       Use library and electronic research tools to collect information on     page 650
a topic related to this discussion on evolutionary theory and prepare a class
presentation and written report. Sample topics may include:                     pages 655-658
–      contributions of individuals to the theory of evolution
–      types of evolutionary mechanisms
–      types of evidence supporting the theory of evolution
–      theories on the origin of life on earth
–      gradualism vs. punctuated equilibrium
–      role of viruses in the evolutionary process
–      exobiology
€ Assessment will be based on the quality of the student                        pages 651-658
  presentation and the information researched. (213-6, 214-17)

Journal
€      Compare the theories of Lamarck and Darwin. (114-5, 316-2)




                                                                                pages 674-677




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                               115
EVOLUTION, CHANGE, AND DIVERSITY

Evolutionary Change: Modern Perspectives (continued)

Outcomes                           Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• explain the roles of evidence,   Students could use multi-media resources to investigate how scientists have
  theories and paradigms in the    used various pieces of evidence to support the theory of evolution. An
  development of evolutionary      example of one site is: www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/04/index.html
  knowledge (114-2) (Cont’d)
   – evaluate current evidence     Groups of students could videotape and share a story of a chosen organism
      that supports the modern     with the class or do this as part of a written research project. (See provincial
      theory of evolution.         listing of videos that could also be used here)
      Include:                     Provide students with fossils or pictures of fossils so that they can compare
     (i) fossil record             them with each other and living relatives. By observing similarities,
     (ii) biogeography             students can understand why organisms may be classified together. By
     (iii) comparative anatomy     observing differences, students can understand how organisms have changed
       -homologous structures      over time, becoming more complex. Comparative anatomy can be
       - vestigial structures      demonstrated in a similar way. Students can also research other organisms
      (iv) comparative             that have similar anatomy to themselves. They can then use this
            embryology             information to devise a “family tree” showing their findings.
      (v) heredity
      (vi) molecular biology       Teachers could refer to the Biology 2201 STSE unit “Classification by
                                   Application of Modern Technologies” to remind students how DNA
   – discuss the relationship      analysis has been used to determine relatedness among organisms.
     between the relative age of
     rock sediments and the
     relative age of fossils
     contained within the rock
     layers.
   – compare the processes and     One analogy that could be used to differentiate between relative dating and
      accuracy of the methods of   absolute dating would be to use “I am older than you, you are older than
      dating fossils. Include:     your sister, etc.” for relative dating and “you can tell the age of a tree by
     (i) relative dating           counting its rings” for absolute dating.
     (ii) absolute dating
• identify questions to            A good method to introduce this topic is by using a series of visual
  investigate that arise from      diagrams such as
  practical problems (212-1)
   – perform calculations
                                       C 14     5730 years
                                                one ½ life   C 13 C14   5730 years
                                                                        one ½ life    C 13   C 13 C 14 5730 years
                                                                                                       one ½ life   C13   C 13 C13 C14


     involving half-life           The diagram indicates that the amount of carbon-14 decreases and the
                                   amount of carbon-13 increases over time, however, the carbon-14 never
                                   completely disappears. The formula should be derived as:
                                                                                       t


                                                              N f = No  
                                                                        1 h
                                                                        
                                                                       2
                                   Where:         N f = finalamount      N o = initialamount
                                                  t = time (years)                   h = half life
116                                                                                  BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                            EVOLUTION, CHANGE, AND DIVERSITY

Evolutionary Change: Modern Perspectives (continued)

Suggested Assessment Strategies                                             Resources/Notes


Paper and Pencil
€      Skull activity (114-2)
€      Compare the amino acid and protein sequences of different
organisms to compare their similarities (e.g., frog, human, chimpanzee,
rabbit, cow) (114-2)

Laboratory Activity
                                                                            MHR Biology
€     Products are available from biological supply companies that
contain simulated blood samples that allow comparison of simulated          pages 659 662
blood proteins from sources such as human, chimp, frog, chicken.            pages 663 664
                                                                            pages 664 665
(114-2)
€       A fossil is found to contain 1.2% of the original carbon-14. How
old is the fossil if the half-life of carbon-14 is 5730 years? (212-1)
                                                                            page 665
Journal
                                                                            page 666
€      Reflect on this statement and develop, present and defend your
                                                                            pages 666 667
position based on scientific thinking.
–      It has been hypothesized that we are in the midst of a ‘sixth mass
extinction’. Fossil records indicate that global mass extinctions have
occurred only five times since complex life emerged, and that each time
it was due to a single catastrophic event. It has been said that this
apparent ‘sixth mass extinction’ is not however, occurring due to a
catastrophic event, but due to the activities of a single species, Homo
sapiens, called the exterminator species! (118-6, 316-3)                    page 662

Presentation
€     Conduct research to examine the evolutionary relationship
between snakes and lizards. Present your findings to the class. (114-2)
€      The Shroud of Turin is a very important artifact for the Christian
Religion. The Shroud has been aged through dating technologies.
esearch how it was dated and the controversy it caused. Present your
findings to the class. (212-1)
                                                                            page 662 (Thinking Lab “Rocks of
                                                                            Ages”)




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                             117
EVOLUTION, CHANGE, AND DIVERSITY

Evolution: Implications

Outcomes                             Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• explain how knowledge of
  evolution evolves as new
  evidence comes to light and as
  laws and theories are tested and
  subsequently restricted, revised
  or replaced (115-7)
   – explain how nucleic acid        Paper activities could be performed that compare amino acid sequences
     sequences in the nucleus,       among different organisms to provide evidence to the student of
     mitochondria, and               evolutionary relationships. Students may conduct investigations into
     chloroplast are being used      human development based on mitochondrial DNA evidence.
     to provide evidence for
     evolutionary relationships
     among species

• analyze and describe examples      The Laboratory outcomes 212-4, 213-5, 214-3 and, in part, 116-2 are
  where scientific understanding     addressed by completing Population Genetics and the Hardy-Weinberg
  was enhanced or revised as the     Principle CORE LAB #8.
  result of the invention of a
  technology (116-2)
   – state the Hardy-Weinberg
     law and explain its             Students should be able to complete word problems using the mathematical
     significance in terms of the    application of the Hardy-Weinberg Principle. Examples are found in the
     development of                  textbook. In addition, students should understand the conditions necessary
     evolutionary theories           to maintain Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (also found in the textbook).
• state a prediction based on
  available evidence and
  background information
  (212-4)
• compile and organize data,
  using appropriate formats and
  data treatments to facilitate
  interpretation of the data
  (213-5)
• compile and display evidence
  and information in a variety of
  formats, including diagrams,
  flow charts, tables, and graphs
  (214-3)




118                                                                          BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                            EVOLUTION, CHANGE, AND DIVERSITY

Evolution: Implications

Suggested Assessment Strategies                                             Resources/Notes


Journal
€      In Quebec there is a cult known as the Raelians. They believe
that humankind developed from aliens. Discuss how examination of
nucleic acid sequences could be used to refute or support the Raelians.
(115-7, 116-2)

Presentation                                                                MHR Biology
€      Conduct research on the nucleic acid sequences of different animal   pages 666 667
species. Use your findings to describe evolutionary relationships.
Present your findings to the class. (115-7, 212-4)

Paper and Pencil
€     Construct a phylogenetic tree to represent the primates. Include
ancient man (neanderthasl, cro-magnon, australiopithicus, etc.).
                                                                            Core Lab #8: “Population Genetics
(214-3, 115-7)                                                              and the Hardy Weinberg Principle”,
                                                                            pages 684-685




                                                                            pages 681 686




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                              119
EVOLUTION, CHANGE, AND DIVERSITY

Evolution: Implications (continued)

Outcomes                            Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• analyze evolutionary              Students could investigate examples of each of the evolutionary mechanisms
  mechanisms and their effects on   listed and present their findings to the class (e.g. breeds of dogs are
  biodiversity. Include: (316-3)    produced by artificial selection, yet all dogs, including the St. Bernard and
      (i) mutations                 Chihuahua, remain members of the same species; natural selection resulting
      (ii) genetic drift            in morphological, behavioural or reproductive adaptations such as the
                                    camouflage of the peppered moth; dwindling of the cheetah population due
      - bottle neck effect
                                    to inbreeding). Familiarity with the concept of artificial selection can come
       - founder effect             from studies of pedigrees or student experiments. Artificial selection allows
      (iii) gene flow               the creation of ‘breeds’ of domestic animals whereas in natural selection,
      (iv) non-random mating        selection is due solely to natural conditions.
      (v) natural selection
                                    Students can use the Internet to access Web sites and collect relevant
      - stabilizing selection       information on evolution and biodiversity. Students can brainstorm a list of
      - directional selection       extinctions that have occurred and research and evaluate the causes of each as
       - disruption selection       naturally occurring or as a result of human activity. This discussion can be
      (vi) sexual selection         expanded into one that extrapolates itself to current and future extinctions,
      (vii) speciation              their causes and hypothesizes the implications of this reduced genetic
                                    biodiversity.
   – explain the conditions
                                    The rapid appearance of new antibiotic resistant microbes and the
     under which speciation         development of pesticide resistant insects can be considered studies in
     may occur                      microevolution - rapid evolution due to intense selection. Students could
   – demonstrate how geographic     investigate the causes of the appearance of these new strains and the
     isolation may contribute to    environmental and societal implications they present. Students may discuss
     speciation                     the following questions:
                                    –      If mutations play an important role in evolution, why are many
                                    scientists concerned about the mutagenic effects of X-rays, radiation
                                    from nuclear power plants, chemicals, etc?
                                    –      What would be the effect on the offspring if DNA polymerase were
                                    absolutely infallible in its proofreading capacity? What would be the long-
                                    term effect on biological evolution?
                                     –     What are the implications of the cloning process, if any, on
                                    evolution?




120                                                                           BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                           EVOLUTION, CHANGE, AND DIVERSITY

Evolution: Implications (continued)

Suggested Assessment Strategies                                            Resources/Notes


Journal                                                                    MHR Biology
€      Describe which mechanisms would be at work for a small tribe of     pages 687-696, 708-711
humans in a remote part of the world that has not had contact with the
outside world. How might these people be different from other humans.
At what point might they no longer remain Homo Sapiens? (316-3)            page 688
                                                                           pages 689-692
€      Research into the debate on the extinction of the Neanderthals
Homo Neanderthalis. Evaluate the two main competing theories; extinction
due to competition with Homo Sapiens or extinction due to interbreeding
with Homo Sapiens. (316-3)                                                 page 692
                                                                           pages 692-693
                                                                           pages 693-695




                                                                           pages 695-696
                                                                           page 709

                                                                           pages 708-709


                                                                           page 709




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                          121
EVOLUTION, CHANGE, AND DIVERSITY

Evolution: Implications (continued)

Outcomes                             Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• analyze evolutionary               Students can investigate the evolutionary evidence that exists for the
  mechanisms and their effects on    ancestry of a modern animal, such as the horse, cat, dog (and/or other
  biodiversity (316-3) (Cont’d)      household pet or domesticated animal used in agriculture). This may
                                     involve (in the example of the horse) looking at things like the following:
   – demonstrate how biological
      barriers to reproduction       –     tracing the ancestry of the modern horse from Eohippus to Equus to
      may contribute to              determine the historical changes required in its evolution from a small
      speciation. Include:           woodsland browser to a large, plains-dwelling grazer.
     (i) pre-zygotic barriers        –       students may be provided with illustrations (drawings, photos, art)
           - behavioural isolation   that compare possible changes in anatomy such as size, leg and tooth
           - habitat isolation       anatomy that would allow them to evaluate evidence for the theory of
           - temporal isolation      evolution. Examination of the diagrams could lead to the question, “How
           - mechanical isolation    are dietary changes linked to changes in tooth anatomy?”
           - gametic isolation
                                     –      further student inquiry could be encouraged by asking and
      (ii) post-zygotic barriers     discussing questions such as, “What advantages would a tall horse have as a
           - hybrid inviability      plains-dweller?”, “Why would running be necessary for a plains-dweller?”,
           - hybrid sterility        “How did changes in the environment result in an evolutionary
           - hybrid breakdown        adaptation?”
   – evaluate adaptive radiation
     as a mechanism for
     speciation
   – explain convergent and
     divergent evolution and
     justify its occurrence in
     certain groups of
     organisms
   – explain the process of
     coevolution
• compare the views on               Students could research the published work of Stephen J. Gould and Niles
  gradualism and punctuated          Eldridge with regard to punctuate equilibrium.
  equilibrium and discuss how
                                     Charts can illustrate the differences between these two views. Students can
  evidence for evolution fuels
                                     investigate and answer the questions, “How would a scientist who supports
  the debate between them
                                     gradualism or punctuated equilibrium explain gaps in the fossil record?” and
  (316-2)
                                     “What sort of evidence would you need to be convinced to accept
      (i) Gould                      gradualism rather than punctuated equilibrium, or vice versa?”
      (ii) Eldridge




122                                                                             BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                            EVOLUTION, CHANGE, AND DIVERSITY

Evolution: Implications (continued)

Suggested Assessment Strategies                                            Resources/Notes


Laboratory Activities
€      Thinking lab, “Leopard Frogs - One Species or Seven?”, deals with
pre-zygotic barriers. Additional web research beyond the given link in
the lab exercise will be advantageous.

Presentation
€      Plan a debate between the two opposing viewpoints - gradualism
versus punctuated equilibrium. Students will need to research both         MHR Biology
points of view to argue points and counter points. (316-2)                 pages 709-710
Journal
€      Explain using modern evolutionary theory the recent appearance
of antibiotic resistant bacteria populations.
€      Explain using modern evolutionary theory the recent appearance      pages 710-711
of pesticide resistant insect populations. (118-6, 316-3)



                                                                           pages 720-721



                                                                           page 721




                                                                           pages 722-723


                                                                           pages 723-725




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                           123
EVOLUTION, CHANGE, AND DIVERSITY

Evolution: Implications (continued)

Outcomes                               Suggested Learning and Teaching Strategies
Students will be expected to
• outline evidence and arguments       Students should research, interpret and evaluate data concerning theories on
  pertaining to the origin,            the origin and development of life (e.g. gaia, symbiosis theory of eukaryotic
  development, and diversity of        cell origins, heterotroph hypothesis, mass extinction theories, organic
  living organisms on Earth            spontaneous origin or chemical evolution (Oparin-Haldane/MillerUrey)
  (316-4)                              under early conditions.
      (i)     chemical evolution       Students could research the conditions on a planet in our solar system and,
              - Oparin-Haldane         using the Haldane-Oparine Theory, determine whether or not life may or
              theory                   may not exist (today or in the future).
              - Miller-Urey theory
                                       Teaching evolution to students is a very controversial one. By including
      (ii)    panspermia theory
                                       “Intelligent Design” as a theory for the origin of life, teachers can show
      (iii)   GAIA theory
                                       students that there are many different beliefs about the beginning of life on
      (iv)    intelligent design
                                       Earth. This may help students who, because of religious beliefs, do not
              theory
                                       believe in the scientific view of evolution. It can be emphasized that the
      (v)     heterotroph hypothesis
                                       purpose of learning about all views is so that the student can intellectually
      (vi)    symbiogenesis
                                       question each and make educated decisions about what s/he believes.
                                       Students could conduct a laboratory activity that allows them to prepare
                                       coacervates and observe them under various environmental conditions.


• use library and electronic           The CORE STSE component of this unit incorporates a broad range of
  research tools to collect            Biology 3201 outcomes. More specifically it targets (in whole or in part)
  information on a given topic         213-6, 114-2, 115-7, 118-6, 214-14 and 316-4. The STSE component,
  (213-6)                              Extraterrestrial Life: Myth or Realitys, can be found in Appendix C.
• explain the role of evidence,
  theories and paradigms in the
  development of evolutionary
  knowledge (114-2)
• explain how knowledge of
  evolution evolves as new
  evidence comes to light and as
  laws and theories are tested
  and subsequently restricted
  ,revised or replaced (115-7)
• construct arguments to
  support a decision or
  judgment, using examples
  and evidence and recognizing
  various perspectives (118-6)
• identify new questions that
  arise from what was learned
  (214-17)

124                                                                               BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE
                                                                            EVOLUTION, CHANGE, AND DIVERSITY

Evolution: Implications (continued)

Suggested Assessment Strategies                                             Resources/Notes


Presentation                                                                MHR Biology
€      Teachers could divide the class into five groups and assign each     pages 727-730
group one theory of evolution to research. Students could then debate
the pros and cons of each theory as they are presented. (316-2)
€      Use library and electronic research to collect information on each
theory or a selected theory. Students should prepare individual written     pages 727-728
reports and give a class presentation on theory or theories. (316-2,
316-4)
€      Based on the information you found from your research, prepare a
chart that outlines the major ideas of each theory of evolution.(316-2,     page 728
316-4)                                                                      page 728
                                                                            page 729

                                                                            page 729

                                                                            page 729




                                                                            Core STSE #4: “Extraterrestrial
                                                                            Life: Myth or Realitys”, Appendix
                                                                            C




BIOLOGY 3201 CURRICULUM GUIDE                                                                             125

				
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