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VEHICULAR POLLUTION CONTROL IN INDIA

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					  VEHICULAR POLLUTION CONTROL IN INDIA
       TECHNICAL & NON-TECHNICAL
            MEASURE POLICY




                  Dr. B. Sengupta
                Member Secretary
         Central Pollution Control Board
        Ministry of Environment & Forests
         Government of India, New Delhi
Paper Presented at Regional Workshop on Transport Sector
  Inspection & Maintenance Policy in Asia Organized by
   ESCAP/UN(DESA) in Bangkok during 10-12 Dec’2001
VEHICULAR POLLUTION PROBLEMS IN INDIA
•     High vehicle density in Indian urban centers

•     Older vehicles predominant in vehicle vintage

•     Inadequate inspection & maintenance facilities

•     Predominance of two stroke two wheelers

•     Adulteration of fuel & fuel products

•     Improper traffic management system & road conditions

•     High levels of pollution at traffic intersections

•       Absence of effective mass rapid transport system &
intra-city railway networks

•    High population exodus to the urban centers.
CONTRIBUTION OF VARIOUS SECTORS TO AMBIENT
        AIR QUALITY IN MAJOR CITIES

    Domestic     Industrial   Vehicular



                       8%
                                 20%

           72%
                                 GROWTH OF MOTOR VEHICLES IN INDIA


                      60000
Numbers in Thousand



                                                                                                             53100
                      50000                                                                              48240
                                                                                                 43159
                      40000
                                                                                         37231
                                                                                 33850
                      30000                                      27660
                                                                         30287
                                                         25505
                                                 23507
                                         21374
                      20000      19152


                      10000

                          0
                              1990   1991   1992    1993    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000
    FUEL SHARE IN INDIA

GASOLINE   DIESEL   CNG   LPG/ELEC
                   FUEL CONSUMPTION IN METRO CITIES(1999-2000)




                                                          MS   HSD    CNG
                1400000
                                        1268103
                1200000

                1000000
METRIC TONNES




                 800000      706998

                 600000               541098

                 400000                             336671           300841
                          280065
                 200000                                         126782
                                                  70915
                      0
                             MUMBAI      DELHI      KOLKATA          CHENNAI
  SHARE OF ON-ROAD VEHICLES IN DELHI

2S2W           4S2W         3W
GASOLINE CAR   DIESEL CAR   TAXIS
MUVG           MUVD         TRUCK
BUS            LCV          CNG
                        EXPONENTIAL GROWTH OF TWO WHEELERS IN DELHI


                     2500000


                     2000000
Number of Vehicles




                     1500000


                     1000000


                      500000


                           0
                          80

                                82


                                      84


                                            86


                                                  88

                                                        90


                                                              92


                                                                    94

                                                                          96


                                                                                98


                                                                                      00
                         19

                               19


                                     19


                                           19


                                                 19

                                                       19


                                                             19


                                                                   19

                                                                         19


                                                                               19


                                                                                     20
                                                            Year
            % EMISSION LOAD CONTRIBUTION FROM DIFFERENT
                    VEHICLES IN YEAR 2000 IN DELHI

Types        CO        HC        NOX    PM       BENZENE   BUTADINE   O3
                                                           (0.36)     POTENCIAL
Load Th.t    (292.6)   (112.6)   (63)   (14.4)   (3.0)
                                                                      (402)
BUS          1         1         23     15       <1        <1         1

LCV          7         1         10     14       1         3          1

MUVG         1         1         1      <1       1         2          <1

MUVD         3         <1        6      13       1         3          <1

PCG          36        17        35     6        41        49         16

PCD          <1        <1        <1     1        <1        <1         <1

TAXIS        <1        <1        1      1        <1        <1         <1

TRUCKS       4         2         22     21       <1        1          2

3W           8         13        <1     4        18        7          13

4S/2W        2         2         1      1        2         3          2

2S/2W        38        63        1      24       36        32         65
TECHNICAL MEASURES

VEHICLE   TECHNOLOGY

FUEL QUALITY

AFTER COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY

ALTERNATIVE FUEL

ZERO EMISSION VEHICLES (ZEVS)

MASS TRANSIT SYSTEM

URBAN ROAD & FLYOVER PROJECTS

I&M / PUC PROGRAMME
                                   Euro-III (Country)
                                   Euro-IV (metros)
                        Euro-II (Country)
                                                     2010
                        Euro-III (7 megacities)
        Euro-I equivalent (Country)
        Euro-II eqv. For cars (4 metros)          2005


                 2nd set norms          2000/01
                 notified
   Emission norms for            1996
   catalytic vehicles


1st set norms         1995
 notified


         1990

          VEHICLE EMISSION NORM SCHEDULE IN INDIA
     GASOLINE SPECIFICATIONS & SCHEDULE
PARAMETER                              SPECIFICATIONS

   YEARS              1996             2000            2005       2010

RVP at                35-70               -           35-60        60
38deg.c,kpa
BENZENE                5.0              5.0           3.0 (all)    1.0
%by Vol.,Max                         3.0 (metros)   1.0 (metro)
Lead             0.15%(low pb)        0.013           0.013       0.005
G/m3, Max        0.013% (unleaded)
Sulphur      0.10(unleaded)            0.10            0.05       0.015
%by Mass,max
             0.20 (leaded)
Aromatics                -                -             45         42
% v/v., Max
Oxygen                   -                -             2.0        2.7
%by Vol.,max
     DIESEL SPECIFICATIONS & SCHEDULE


PARAMETER                SPECIFICATIONS


   YEAR         1996    2000       2005   2010


 Cetane No,      45      48         48     51
    Min

 Sulphur %      0.50     0.25      0.05   0.035
 W/w, Max                0.05
                       (METRO)
 Distillation    -       370       370    360
    T95
Polyaromatic     -        -         -      11
    GASOLINE BENZENE REDUCTION PRORAMME IN INDIA

                                 No Specifications

      June      Before 1996
       1994
                                                5%
0.15 g/l         April
 (4 metro)       1995
                                April 1996
                                                         3% in Metro cities
     Unleaded                 Jan
     4 metros                 1997                                1 % in NCT &
                                            April 2000
                                                                  Mumbai
             Low leaded              Jan
             Entire Country          1999
                                                    Nov. 2000
                         Unleaded            Feb
                         NCR                 2000
                                Unleded
                                Country
                   GASOLINE LEAD PHASE-OUT PROGRAMME IN INDIA
DIESEL SULPHUR REDUCTION PROGRAMME IN INDIA

        Sulphur 0.50 %
         4 metros & Taj

April             Sulphur 0.25%
1996              Delhi & Taj


   August 1997               Sulphur 0.25%
                             Metro cities

              April 1998
                                      Sulphur 0.25%
                                      Entire Country

                           Jan 2000           Sulphur 0.05%
                                              Mumbai
                                                 Sulphur 0.05%
                                  Jan 2001       NCR
                                                              Sulphur 0.05%
                                      June 2001               Chennai & Kolkata
                                                  July 2001
         INSPECTION & CERTIFICATION SYSTEM

•Fitness certification is a statutory requirement for commercial vehicles
and public transport vehicles. Periodicity for certification is once in a
Year.

•For non-commercial passenger cars, fitness certification is required for renewal
of registration, only after 15 years from the date of first registration. In case of two
wheelers no such requirement exists.

•Pollution Under Control (PUC) certificates are required to be obtained every
three months for all categories of vehicles. In case of petrol vehicles idling CO
measurements are taken and in case of diesel vehicles, free acceleration smoke is
measured.

•RTOs, filling stations & service stations are authorized to issue PUC certificates.
There are more than 400 PUC centers in Delhi.

•The agency for issue of Fitness Certificate is the Transport Department.

•A fee of Rs.150 per vehicle for heavy commercial vehicles and Rs.50 for medium
& light commercial vehicles is levied for obtaining PUC certificates.
  Current & Proposed Emission Standards for in-use Vehicles

Vehicles                Category               Current         Proposed
                                               Standard        Standard
                                               CO (%) HC       CO      HC (ppm)
                                                      (ppm)    (%)
Gasoline 2/3 Wheelers 2-stroke                 4.5        -    3.5     9000
                        4-stroke               4.5        -    3.5     9000
Gasoline 4-wheelers     Without close loop     3.0        -    3.0     To be
                        Cat. Con.                                      proposed
                        With close loop Cat.   -          -    0.5     200
                        Con.
Diesel Vehicles other   Full load                              Not Proposed
than agricultural                              75 HSU (Smoke
tractors                                       Density)
                        Free acceleration      65 HSU          Not Proposed
Diesel Agri Tractors    80% load               75 HSU          Not Proposed
LPG/CNG                 2/3 Wheeler            -               4.5 -
                        4-Wheeler              -               3.0 -
VEHICLE CHECK SHEET FOR FITNESS CERTIFICATE
     S          Item                                             Check
 1       Tyres           Cut, deformation, threadease were
 2       Steering        Gear backlash, kingpin, stub axle, steering freeplay
 3       Engine          Noise level 85 dB
 4       Suspension      Leafspring position, clamping, shock absorber, bushes,shackle, centre bolt
 5       Horn            Electrical, bulb, pressure horn
 6       Brake           Total brake effort > 45%, stopping distance at 30 kmph < 13 mtrs, parking brake,
                         brake oil leakage
 7       Lamps/signals   Headlamps, parking, turn signal, top lights, reflectors
 8       Embossing of    Chassis & engine no. identification plate, month & year of mfg.
         chassis
 9       Speedometer     Functioning, speed governors.
 10      Painting        As per Act and rules
 11      Wiper           Wiper fitment & functioning
 12      Dimension       As per CMVR, DMV rules
 13      Body            Seating, mudguard, emergency gate, window size, glasses, floor, etc.
 14      Electrical      Insulations, switches, doom light, spark arrester
 15      Finishing       Riveting, welding, bonnet, crankcase cover, etc.
 16      Road Test       Clutch, transmission, axels & performance
 17      Others          As per specifications.
    TECHNICAL MEASURE EVALUATION BY EMISSION


Up gradation of fuel quality & tightening of vehicle emission
norms resulted in decreasing trends of pollution in major cities of
India.

Inspection & Maintenance has definite utility on emission
performance.

Concentration of lead in traffic intersection shows good
downward trends.

SO2 shows decreasing trends over the years.

Nox & PM still remain a problem though trends are decreasing.

Marginal decrease in RSPM observed at traffic intersections.
 AMBIENT AIR QUALITY (TRAFFIC INTERSECTION) IN DELHI
SO2/NO2-ug/m3 RSPM-10 x ug/m3
LEAD-10 x ng/m3 CO-100 x ug/m3
                                                                             1995                    1998            1999        2000
                                 70                       66
                                                               63
                                                                    60 59
                                 60                                                                   55.87
                                                                                                          54.5


                                 50                                                                              46.86

                                      42                                                                     42.41

                                 40                                         33.5


                                 30        25
                                                                                                                                 21.6
                                                20                                                                          20      19.1
                                 20                  18

                                                                                   13.6       10.1
                                                                                          7
                                 10
                                  0
                                           SO2                 NO2           LEAD                          CO            RSPM
                                                        AMBIENT POLLUTANT LEVELS IN TRAFFIC
                                                               INTERSECTION IN DELHI

                                                                                                        CO              VEHICLES                                                                                   NO2
                                                                    55.87                                                                                   80                              75
                                          60                                                         55.4
                                                                                                                                                            70              66
( CO IN ug/m3X 100 / VEHICLES IN LAKHS)




                                                                                                                     46.86                                                                                   63
                                          50                                                                                                                                                                        59
                                                                                                                                                            60




                                                                                                                                                 NO2 IN ug/m3
                                          40   33.43                                                                                                        50
                                                                                                                             34   30.69
                                          30                                                                31.67                                           40
                                                                                        27.96
                                                       23.72                                                                                                30
                                          20
                                                                                                                                                            20
                                          10
                                                                                                                                                            10
                                           0                                                                                                                 0
                                               1994                 1996                             1998            2000         2001
                                                                                                                                                                           1994             1996            1998   2000
                                                                                                                                               SO2                        DIESEL S
                                                               SO2 IN ug/m3 /DIESEL S IN 100




                                                                                               120
                                                                                               100                   100

                                                                                                80
                                                                           X ppm




                                                                                                60
                                                                                                                42                        50
                                                                                                                                    35
                                                                                                40                                                              25
                                                                                                                                                                     25            18              16
                                                                                                20
                                                                                                                                                                                        5               5
                                                                                                 0
                                                                                                              1994                1996                     1998                   2000           2001
                                                    AMBIENT POLLUTANT LEVELS IN TRAFFIC
                                                           INTERSECTION IN DELHI
LEAD IN 10 X ug/m3 / PTRL Pb IN mg/l




                                                                                                                                                     RSPM            DIESEL S




                                                                                                RSPM IN 10 X ug/m3 / DIESEL S IN
                                                       LEAD            PETRL Pb
                                       60                                                                                          30
                                               56
                                       50                                                                                          25                25
                                            40.8                                                                                                20          19.1
                                       40                                                                                          20




                                                                                                           100 X ppm
                                                       31.2                                                                                                              16.3
                                       30                                                                                          15
                                       20                              13.6                                                        10
                                                            15                    10.1
                                       10                                                                                           5                          5            5

                                                                          1.3        1.3
                                        0                                                                                           0
                                            1994      1996            1998        2000                                                          1998        2000         2001
                                                                     CORRELATION OF AMBIENT NO2 LEVEL WITH CALM
                                                                                CONDITIONS OF WIND IN DELHI
                                                                                                NO2                                            CALM

                                                      120


                                                      100


                                                       80


                                                       60


                                                       40


                                                       20


                                                        0
                                                                    P




                                                                                             P




                                                                                                                                       P




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                                                                    L




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                                                                                                                                                             AY
                                                       N




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                                                                    V




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                                                                                                                                                               V
                                                      AR




                                                                   AR




                                                                                            AR




                                                                                                                                      AR
                                                              1997                       1998                                           1999                  2000
                                                                  JU




                                                                                           JU




                                                                                                                                     JU




                                                                                                                                                            JU
                                                                 SE




                                                                                          SE




                                                                                                                                    SE




                                                                                                                                                            SE
                                                                 NO




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                                                                                                                                    NO




                                                                                                                                                            NO
                                                     JA




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                                                                 M




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                                                                                                                                    M
PART-II

NON-TECHNICAL MEASURE POLICY
        NON-TECHNICAL MEASURES



EMISSION WARRANTY

SCRAPING OLD POLLUTING VEHICLES

TOLL TAX FOR COMMERCIAL VEHICLES

SUBSIDIES FOR CLEAN VEHICLES

PARKING CHARGES & FINE

ENCOURAGING CAR POOL

AWARENESS CAMPAIGNS
  PERCENTAGE TRIPS FOR DIFFERENT PURPOSES IN
                 MEGA CITIES


            WORK    EDUCATION   SOCIAL
100%
 90%
 80%
 70%
 60%
 50%
 40%
 30%
 20%
 10%
  0%
       MUMBAI CALCUTTA     DELHI    CHENNAI
       ECONOMIC GROWTH & VEHICLE GROWTH

                           Number of Vehicles in Delhi X 1000
                           Per capita State Domestic Product (Delhi)
                           Per Capita Net National Product
Per capita Income (Rs)

40000
35000
30000
25000
20000
15000
10000
 5000
    0
            1993/94 1994/95 1995/96 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 1999/00

            Source-NEERI
POPULATION- ROAD LENGTH-VEHICLE DENSITY IN DELHI


                  ROAD LENGTH X 100 Km
                  VEHICLE DENSITY (NO. PER KM)
                  POPULATION IN DELHI (X/10) Lakhs
 1400
 1200
 1000
  800
  600
  400
  200
    0
        1971           1981    1991     1996    1998
        Source-NIPFP
PUBLIC PERCEPTION FOR TRAFFIC CONGESTION IN DELHI



                                    Enchroachment

                                    Increased Vehicles

                                    Bad Road Condition

                                    Traffic Indiscipline

                                    Mixed Traffic

                                    Police Barrier

                                    Insufficiant pedestrian
                                    facility
                                    Insufficiant road width

                                    Others


  Source-NEERI
INDICATIVE FUEL PRICING STRUCTURE IN INDIA

                  GASOLINE              DIESEL
                  CNG                   VEHICLE GROWTH IN LAKHS
                  PARKING CHARGES

                 40
                 35
                 30                                   GASOLINE
  PRICE IN RS.




                 25
                 20                                      DIESEL
                 15
                                                         CNG
                 10
                  5
                  0

                        PRE 90s     1995              2000
         * Administered Pricing Mechanism (APM) will be off by 2002.
INDICATIVE PUBLIC TRANSPORT FARE IN METROS


                          BUS FARE IN RS.
   2


  1.5


   1


  0.5


   0
         MUMBAI       KOLKATA   CHENNAI     DELHI

   Source-T&CPO/GOI
               Proposed Investment in road infrastructure
               (Million Rs)
60000

50000

40000

30000

20000

10000

    0
           MUMBAI KOLKATA CHENNAI                  DELHI
    Source-T&CPO/GOI
VEHICULAR POLLUTION CONTROL MEASURES TAKEN AND THEIR IMPACT ON AIR QUALITY IN DELHI

                           1994                      1996                         1998                         2000                 2001 (Jan-Jun)

 Emission Norms     .Relaxed norms        .Emission norms made           .Emission norms for       .Euro-I equivalent norms for     CNG/LPG
 of Vehicles                              stringent as compared to       cat.converter fitted      all types of vehicles except     Norms finalized.
                                          1991.                          vehicles made             passenger vehicles which are
                                                                         stringent.                Euro-II equivalent.
                                                                         .Hot-start replaced by
                                                                         cold –start tests which
                                                                         gives less emissions.
 Fuel Quality       .Diesel S 1%          .Fuel quality specifications   .Diesel sulphur           .Diesel sulphur reduced to       .Diesel with 0.05%
 Improvement        .Gasoline lead 0.56   notified under EPA for the     reduced to 0.25%          0.05% in selected outlets.       sulphur
                    g/l                   first time.                    .Gasoline Benzene         .Gasoline Benzene reduced to     throughout
                    .Benzene no limit     Pb (g/lit)=0.15                reduced to 3%             1%                               retail outlets in
                                          Diesel S=0.5%                  .Gasoline Lead phased     .Gasoline sulphur with 0.05%     NCT.
                                          Gasoline Benzene=5%            out                       max.sulphur in all outlets.
                                                                                                   .Low smoke 2-T oil introduced

 Other Measures     -                     .Govt. vehicles to run on      .15 years                 . Buses more than 8 years old    .All autos/taxis
                                          CNG/Catalytic Converter.       oldcommercial             phased out                       and buses to run
                                                                         vehicles banned           . Replacement of pre-1990        on CNG.
                                                                         .Pre-mix 2-T oil in       autos/taxis with vehicles on     . At present 1600
                                                                         retail outlets            clean fuels                      buses, 11000
                                                                                                   .Conversion of post-1990 autos   taxis and cars,
                                                                                                   to CNG initiated                 25000 autos on
                                                                                                   . Fuel testing lab established   CNG.


 CO (ug/m3)                3343                      5587                         5450                         4686                       3069
 SO2 (ug/m3)                42                        35                           25                           18                         16
 NO2 (ug/m3)                66                        75                           63                           59                          -
 Pb (ng/m3)                408                        312                         136                           101                         -
 RSPM (ug/m3)                -                         -                          200                           191                       163
 Vehicle No.(Lac)          23.72                     27.96                       31.67                          34.0                        -

 % Calm Wind                 -                         -                         41.69                          43.0                        -
          POLICY IMPLEMENTATION & EMISSION EVALUATION
             PRESENT & FUTURE PROJECTION FOR DELHI




                                                                                                                                               CO       NOX        PM
          400
                 370
                                                                                                                                                     F / VT
                                                                                                                                                 A- 2000/2000
          350                         336
                                                                                                                                                 B- 2000/2005
                                                                                                                                                 C- 2005/2000
                                                          289                                                                                    D- 2005/2005
          300
                                                                                                                                                 E- EUROIII/EUROIII
                                                                              268                                                                F- EUROIV/EUROIV
          250
                                                                                                                                                                                   CO -STANDARD
                                                                                                   212
u gm/m3




                                                                                                                        199
                         188                                                                                                                 188
   ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
     200
                                                                                                                                                                 176

          150                                                                                                                                                                        CO=ugmX 10
                                                128
                                                                    101
          100                                                                            94
                                                                                                             85
                                                               68                                                                   74
                       63                  66                                       67                     60                                            65                 64.7         NOX AND PM
                                                                                                                                58                 54.2
                                                                                                                                                                        44.8
                ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          50

                                                                                                                                                                                      STANDARD
            0

                        2000                  2005               2010 A           2010 B               2010 C                2010 D              2010 E              2010 F
THANKYOU

				
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