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					Taking a ‘Pulse’ on the
Quality of Indigenous Community Life


               Considerations and Challenges in Measuring
                  ‘Successful’ First Nations’ Community




        Cree cousins in water - Maggie Steber, Quebec’s Quandry, National Geographic, vol. 192,
        No. 5, November, 1997, page 65.



written by Kishk Anaquot Health Research
June 2008

The opinions, views and concerns expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not necessarily
represent the views of the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch of Health Canada. This includes any
inaccuracies and omissions.
                                              Table of Contents

Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
Definitions and Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv

1.0     Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
         1.1   Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2.0     The long and winding road of measuring ‘success’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

3.0      Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

4.0      Taking the ‘Pulse’ of Indigenous Community Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
         4.1   Measuring Relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
         4.2   Measuring Institutional Strength and Completeness . . . . . . . . . . . 12
         4.3   Measuring Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

5.0      Observations and Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

6.0      Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Appendix A - Indigenous Peoples and Indicators of Well-being:
                         Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues . . . . . . . . . . .                                       25
Appendix B - Assembly of First Nations Wholistic Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                 29
Appendix C - Broad Dimensions and Specific Indices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                32
Appendix D - Indices of Good Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       35
Appendix E - Key Characteristics of Various Composite Indicators . . . . . . . . . .                                      39
Appendix F - Genuine Progress Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      40

                                                   List of Figures

Figure 1 - Youth Suicide by Number of Protective Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Figure 2 - Ladder of Citizen Participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12


                                                    List of Tables

Table 1) Assessing Individual Strengths and Mutual Caring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Table 2) Assessing Institutional Strength and Completeness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Table 3) Assessing the Economic Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Table 4) Assessing Cultural Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Table 5) Assessing Good Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Table 6) Dimensions of Tools and Conceptual Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
                              Executive Summary

       This work is the second in series of efforts to profile and strengthen the
characteristics of successful First Nations communities. A ‘successful community’ may
not necessarily be one with the highest incomes or health status but one that is
conscious of health and wealth, that is continually striving to be healthier and wealthier
and takes health and wealth into account when making decisions or policy at the local
level. This phase focuses on measurement strategies that assess the quality of First
Nations community life and is intended to answer the following broad questions.

       What are some of the ways to measure relationship?

       What are some of the ways to measure institutional strength and
       completeness?

       How can sound leadership and governance be measured?

      The document is intended to catalyze discussion about how progress can be
monitored in a way that works better, feels right and supports a strengths based
approach to desired outcomes where the community or collective is the unit of analysis.
Arguments are presented for considering the individual in context where contemporary
and colonial influences can become apparent.

       In this phase of the effort, information was gathered through literature and
document review to determine possible strategies for measuring successful community.
With respect to measuring relationship, it can be argued that much of the historical
investment in measuring health and social conditions in First Nation’s community would
provide relevant information. In fact, several sources are readily available including
select items from the APS, RHS, and CWBI. Taken together with measures of social
capital, citizen participation as well as poverty and hunger indices from the HDI, these
tools would serve to identify a context of strong relationship.

       Measures of institutional strength and completeness would include the degree to
which goods and services intended to meet human needs for survival and expression
were available locally. Again, select items from the APS, RHS, CWBI as well as
standards established by the First Nations Financial Management Board, community
engagement tools and departmental data from both INAC and HC (e.g., housing and
water quality) would contribute to a more comprehensive, composite index of
community ‘success’. Other tools of more general application also appear to have
relevance here, namely the Canadian Council on Social Development’s conditions for
economic development, the Business Vitality Index and Genuine Progress Indicators.
In addition, a virtual gold mine of data exist in APS and RHS databases that could serve
as proxies for the degree of cultural integrity.

      At last, assessing sound leadership can be achieved through a variety of
approaches extensively explored that includes the degree to which they act as an
internal moral authority reflected by transparency, accountability and collective interest
to improve the status quo with a focused plan and vision that sets direction for decision
making and action. Sound leadership exercises self determination and creates an
environment where citizens enjoy participation and equity. People want to invest
because their contributions of time, ideas skill, good will or financial means create a
desired change for the future. Again, the APS and the CWBI have utility here as well as
the standards of the First Nations Financial Management Board. But, other indices not
regularly monitored are of value such as the degree of diverse representation and
gender balance in decision making, the number of community controlled institutions and
the stability of local leadership. The relevance of WHO’s Healthy Cities/Communities
campaign becomes obvious when considering the role of local leadership in population
health.

       The multiplicity of perspectives and priorities in measuring quality of life as well
as the scatter of conceptual levels and the unexpectedly weak relationship between
objective and subjective measures of success are just a few of the salient challenges of
this work. In any case, the need for a new trans-theoretical lens upon the individual in
the context of community is unmistakable. To reinforce such an approach a
combination of tools and perspectives is necessary so that the inherent weaknesses of
either a clinical (i.e., individually focused) or structural (i.e., social) measurement
strategy are cancelled. While vast differences in circumstance and health outcomes
between First Nations’ communities prevail, the influence of those circumstances
remain unclear particularly as they relate to the quantity and quality of local ‘institutions’,
internal moral authority and sound leadership. Both quantitative and qualitative
measures are needed to understand the quality of community life. The policy
implications of this work include:

       <    There are conveniently available databases to form a more
            comprehensive, composite index of the quality of Indigenous
            community life.
       <    A fundamental shift towards optimizing potential rather than
            averting crisis is possible through an outcome orientation that
            takes relationship, institutional completeness and leadership into
            account.
       <    Performance measurement using this conceptual framework would
            be culturally cogent and such measurement, especially from
            internal authorities, would draw more attention to what is desired in
            Indigenous communities, create systems of internal accountability at
            a supra community level and ultimately have enormous
            decolonizing potential.
                             Definitions and Acronyms

APS - Aboriginal Peoples Survey

appreciative inquiry - positively focused questions generated to maximize and focus
upon strengths and innovation

BVI - Business Vitality Index developed by the Centre for Innovation and
Entrepreneurial Leadership see www.theCEIL.com

CBCQLS - Conference Board of Canada’s Quality of Life Scoreboard

CCSD - Canadian Council on Social Development

collective - a grouping based upon Indigenous nationhood that extends beyond the
geographic and politico-legal boundaries imposed by the Indian Act

community a collection of people in social relationship with one another or with some
basis of commonality

community development - movement or action within a community that seeks to
improve current conditions in any or all sectors or aspects of community life

CWB - Community Well Being Index developed by the Strategic Policy and Planning
Division of the Department of Indian Affairs.

culture - the sum total of ways of living built up by a group of human beings and
transmitted from one generation to another that may include such things as language,
dress, foods and other manners of day to day life

FIILS - Fraser Institute Index of Social Health

FISH - Fortham Index of Social Health


FNIHB - First Nations and Inuit Health Branch

good governance - leadership that uses resources with collective interest in mind and
supports the initiative of community members and groups to address issues of collective
interest: those who govern well draw their power from their intentions and expertise to
serve the family, community and nation

GPI - Genuine Progress Indicator

HDI - Human Development Index

holistic - complete or all-inclusive
holistically healthy - consideration of health as determined by multiple factors:
physically, mentally, spiritually

Indigenous - of the land

institutions - formal or informal systems, organizations and processes designed to
meet human needs

IRISED - Index of Relative Indigenous Socio-Economic Disadvantage

internal moral authority - those institutions or groups within an Indigenous community
that operate under the traditional code that the collective is primary, contemporary
examples include Indigenous women’s organizations or health agencies, traditional
examples would include Elder’s councils or clan mothers.

interconnectedness - bonding and relating to others

MDG - Millenium development goals

pluralism - when variations (i.e. social, religious, cultural and other ideological
perspectives) coexist in a climate of respect and recognition within a group

PAIWBN - Prescott-Allen’s Indices of the Well-Being of Nations

PSOC - psychological sense of community

OSDQLI - Ontario Social Development Quality of Life Index

QLI - Quality of Life Index

quality of life - although used mostly with populations this can have clinical applications
as well and for the purposes of this document it takes into consideration the quality of all
dimensions of human experience

self-actualized potential - realizing one’s full capabilities

self-determination - being in control of one’s thoughts, actions; state of being
independent

social capital - refers to a network of relationships that allow for advantageous
outcomes for those involved

social justice - entitlement to equal rights and services

success - the accomplishment of what is desired or the achievement of a goal
successful - a person or thing that succeeds

successful community - a collection of people in social relationship with one another
or with some basis of commonality that attain their desired outcomes whatever those
outcomes might be.

UN - United Nations

US - United States (of America)

well being - a perception that conditions are optimal for human growth and expression

WHO - World Health Organization

WISP - Weighted Index of Social Progress
1) Introduction

        This work is the second in series of efforts to profile and strengthen the
characteristics of successful First Nations communities. In keeping with the spirit of an
appreciative inquiry, this work will focus upon possibility, promise and achievement.
The first document entitled Successful Indigenous Community in Canada was a
compilation of Indigenous expert opinion and literature review on the characteristics of
high functioning, strong, healthy or ‘successful’ community and is available from the
Strategic Policy and Planning Division of the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch,
Health Canada.

        It is recognized that many others have struggled to define the terms community
and that the word successful is value laden, subjective and tied to playing and wining at
a capitalist game. However, without debating the merits of an single conceptualization
of these terms, for the practical purposes of this work as well as the desired Indigenous
agenda to focus on strength and aptitude, ‘successful community’ is defined as a
collection of people in social relationship with one another or with some basis of
commonality that attain their desired outcomes whatever those outcomes might be.
Adapted from the international healthy cities/healthy communities movement a
‘successful community’ might also be envisioned as:

        “ . . . one that is continually creating and improving those physical and
        social environments and strengthening those community resources which
        enable people to mutually support each other in performing all the
        functions of life and achieving their maximum potential.” 1

Thus, implicit in this definition is the emphasis on process. In other words, a ‘successful
community’ may not necessarily be one with the highest incomes or health status but
one that is conscious of health and wealth, that is continually striving to be healthier and
wealthier and takes health and wealth into account when making decisions or policy at
the local level.

        1.1) Purpose

        This phase of the effort is a rudimentary attempt to examine how ‘successful
community’ can be assessed as a matter of public health policy in a way that guards
and is relevant to Indigenous world views. It is not an exhaustive analytical discussion
of how ‘well being’ can be measured. It is also not a comprehensive discussion of the
social determinants of health, nor is it an examination of the psychological construct of
subjective well being at the molecular or individual level and its relationship to the
broader social determinants of health. Rather this work focuses on measurement
strategies that assess the quality of First Nations community life.

       1
      Hancock, T. (1993) The Evolution, Impact and Significance of the Health Cities/Healthy
Communities Movement Journal of Public Health Policy, Vol. 14, No. 1 (Spring) pp. 5-18, page 7.

                                                                                                  1
         Several others, most notably Cooke (2005), Cooke, Beavon and McCardy
(2004) and McHardy and O’Sullivan (2004) of the Strategic Research and Analysis
Directorate of Indian and Northern Affairs have examined in great depth the reliability
and validity of a variety of measurement tools, their relevance to First Nation’s
circumstance and their collected works could well serve as primer, adjunct or with
phase one of this effort, an introduction to this discussion. Rather, this work explores
outcomes and indicators related to broader dimensions of the quality of human life,
leadership and social cohesion that were identified by the Indigenous experts
interviewed in the first phase. This document takes a question driven approach to
outline the dimensions and indices that reflect ‘successful community’ based upon their
sensitivity, accessibility and relevance to the emerging themes of relationship,
institutional strength and completeness as well as sound leadership that surfaced in the
first phase. This phase is intended to answer the following questions and sub-
questions:

What are some of the ways to measure relationship?

       <            What indices would suggest that communities are mobilizing
                    and maximizing individual strengths and capacity to care for
                    others (elders, youth, children)?
       <            What indices would suggest a collaborative, cohesive
                    environment?
       <            How can strong community identity, pride and engagement
                    be assessed?

What are some of the ways to measure institutional strength and
completeness?

       <            How can movement towards the development of a stable
                    and strong economic base be assessed?
       <            To what degree is cultural strength guarded and obvious?
       <            At last, how can an integrated approach to community
                    issues be measured?

How can sound leadership and governance be measured?

       <            How can we determine the degree to which leaders are able
                    to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute
                    toward the efficiency and success of the group to which they
                    are members?

       The document is intended to catalyze discussion about how communities can
monitor their own progress in a way that works better, feels right and supports a
strengths based approach to desired outcomes. It is also intended to offer insights


                                                                                       2
about where external partners can invest strategically. Beyond the usual quantitative
or statistical approach to performance measurement, this work will explore the utility of
qualitative measures where the previously invisible indices of success (e.g., women’s
unpaid work and the soundness of local leadership) could become more apparent. All
indices will be framed, not from the deficit and dependence paradigm that characterizes
abstract and aggregate data that currently ‘takes the pulse’ of Indigenous community
life, but from an appreciative perspective.

        In short, the approach is a question driven one where the intent is to catalyze
discussion, seek constructive criticism and support the development of successful
communities by focusing on what’s possible and how such traits become obvious and
measurable where the community or collective is the unit of analysis (i.e., where the
emphasis is on general community level indicators). At last, the merits of
‘measurement’ are also not a part of this discussion. Rather, it is assumed that any
attention that supports the discourse on community strength and desired outcomes in a
way that is more consistent with First Nation’s world views justifies the effort. Even the
Auditor General has argued that the duplicative and undue reporting requirements for
First Nations would be best replaced with a greater outcome orientation.


2) The long and winding road of measuring ‘success’

        Over the span of decades, many global efforts have attempted to assess the
quality of human life. The United Nations Millenium Development Goals (MDG)2 and the
Human Development Index both outline goals and indices deemed important for all of
humanity. Similarly, the World Health Organization’s healthy cities and communities
movement has enormous relevance for this work. The UN Permanent Forum on
Indigenous Issues has identified two main core themes for indicators of well being:

       <                Identity, land and ways of living;
       <                Indigenous rights to and perspectives on development.

Within each core theme is a variety of sub-themes and suggested indicators highlighted
in Appendix A (Indigenous Peoples and Indicators of Well Being - Permanent Forum on
Indigenous Issues). The Assembly of First Nations has developed a holistic policy and

       2
               1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (relevant to the emerging
               analytical structure under food security, institutions and relationship)
       2) Achieve universal primary education (institutions)
       3) Promote gender equality and empower women (relationships)
       4) Reduce child mortality (relationships, institutions)
       5) Improve maternal health (relationships, institutions)
       6) Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other disease (institutions)
       7) Ensure environmental sustainability (institutions - cultural integrity)
       8) Develop a global partnership for development (reference needed).


                                                                                          3
planning model upon which they have explored a variety of indices related to health that
are outlined (see Appendix B - First Nations’ Wholistic Approach to Indicators).

        Many scholars, organizations and policy decision makers have contributed to the
discourse about what constitutes a ‘successful’ community and how might such a
community be recognized or assessed. Still, while previous efforts are important, valid
and rely very practically on accessible data (particularly the Community Well-being
Index), they may not address all of the components of the emerging analytical or
conceptual framework for assessing successful First Nation community. Namely, many
of these indices and tools neglect to take institutional completeness and leadership into
consideration.

        Over decades, the quality of life in First Nations communities has been
extensively tracked. Data priorities and information systems seem to rise and fall in
favor but few of these efforts had strong regard to data comparability either provincially,
nationally or internationally and almost all had and still have a pathogenic focus. The
United Nation’s Human Development Index [HDI] 3 has been recently adapted and used
as a Community Well-Being Index (CWB) for First Nations4 and represents the first and
most rigorous effort to use comparable data. In fact, there is a widespread call from the
Indigenous health research community for such dis-aggregated, standardized data
(e.g., an indigenous HDI, for example) as a way of revealing alarming inequities
worldwide. Therefore, the CWB is an enormously valuable effort for its comparability
value alone.

         Still, the CWB hones in on individual educational attainment, life expectancy and
income and while it is true that communities are collections of individuals, they are also
much more. Communities or societies form systems or institutions and their collective
actions create opportunities that individuals alone could not. While individually focused
indicators are useful, they cannot capture the extent of communal values or civic
participation and most typically collected statistics (e.g., labor force participation) often
over look Indigenous means of social inclusion such as participation and sharing within
subsistence and mixed economies.5 Similarly, there is a vast body of population health
literature with volumes of compelling evidence to suggest that risk for a variety of

        3
          The Human Development Index (HDI) is a comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy,
education, and standard of living for countries worldwide. It is a standard means of measuring well-being,
especially child welfare. It is used to determine and indicate whether a country is a developed, developing,
or underdeveloped country and also to measure the impact of economic policies on quality of life.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Development_Index.
        4
         Cooke, M., Beavon, D., & McHardy, M. (2004). Measuring the Well-Being of Aboriginal People:
An Application of the United Nations’ Human Development Index to Registered Indians in Canada,
1981–2001. Strategic Research and Analysis Directorate, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada: 1-31.
        5
         DuHaime, G., Searles, E., Usher, P. J., Myers, H., & Frechette, P. (2004). Social Cohesion and
Living Conditions in the Canadian Arctic: From Theory to Measurement. Social Indicators Research, 66,
295-317.

                                                                                                          4
‘quality of life’ indices is related to socially structured environments. Therefore, in
combination with the CWB and its individually focused indices, there is merit to
considering the individual in context where important contemporary colonial and
contextual influences (e.g., the role of economics, environment and gender relations)
could become visible. In fact, examination of the individual in context is more
consistent and fitting with First Nations world views.

        To examine the context, much work has been done to measure social cohesion,
social capital or social capacity within First Nations communities that also has enormous
relevance to this effort. For the purposes of this work, social capital refers to the extent
to which there are social bonds within the community, social bridges with other
communities and linkages with broader based institutions. Social capital is the degree
to which:

           <            “the community’s resources are socially invested;
           <            there is the existence of a culture of trust, norms of
                        reciprocity, collective action and participation; and,
           <            the community possesses inclusive flexible and diverse
                        networks”6

       Features of the Indigenous context have gained prominent attention as an
important and influencing factor in individual risk. For example, when examining
Aboriginal communities in British Columbia, it was discovered that

      "on average, people living in areas with high suicide rates had lower levels of
      education; lived in households with larger numbers of occupants; had more
      children living at home; included more single parents and fewer elders, and;
      had lower incomes, generated by a smaller proportion of the population"7

Others went on to discover that there are substantial institutional differences between
communities where suicide is non-existent and those where suicide occurs at 800 times
the national rate.8 The structural differences described included:

           <    participation in land claims negotiations,
           <    self government (established right in law to economic and political
                independence)
           <    administrative control of education, police, fire and health services

        6
         Mignone, J. and O’Neil. J (2005) Social Capital as Health Determinant in First Nations: An
Exploratory Study in Three Communities. Journal of Aboriginal Health, 2(1), page 27.
        7
        Cooper, M., Corrado, R., Karlberg, A. M., Pelletier Adams,I. (1992) Aboriginal Suicide in British
Columbia: An Overview. Canada’s Mental Health, 19, page 21.
       8
          Chandler, M. J. & Lalonde, C. (1998). Cultural continuity as a hedge against suicide in Canada’s
First Nations. Transcultural Psychiatry, 35, 191-219.

                                                                                                         5
                together with
        <       the existence of cultural facilities (i.e. a building designated for cultural or
                archival purposes).

The relationship between community based and controlled institutions or protective
factors and individual risk (in this case, youth suicide) is strong and best illustrated by
the following figure.

            Figure 1) Youth Suicide by Number of Protective Factors9


                     140
                     120
                     100
                      80
                                                                             rate per
                      60                                                     100,000
                      40
                      20
                        0
                             0     1     2     3     4     5     6


      At last, beyond the quantitative measures of ‘well-being’ there are qualitative and
perceptual indices that suggest a strong or healthy collective. Although this work relies
heavily upon the quantitative measures of well being, some thought is given to the more
perceptual or qualitative measures of well being including a climate of peace and
personal dignity. Of course, relationship, institutional completeness and leadership are
not neatly or mutually exclusive, nor are they static; rather, they are suggested as an
evolving analytic structure to catalyze the new discourse on Indigenous community
strength. The results of this effort suggest that a more comprehensive measurement of
‘success’ may be needed that is positively focused and takes into consideration the key
elements of the analytical structure that has emerged, namely, relationship, institutional
completeness and leadership. Through the use of Community Well-being Index, the
measurement of social capital, consideration of the degree of institutional quality and
completeness as well as leadership characteristics, a more comprehensive and
arguably a more compelling vision of the future can be called into being.

        9
          Reproduced from Chandler, M. J. & Lalonde, C. (1998). Cultural continuity as a hedge against
suicide in Canada’s First Nations. Transcultural Psychiatry, 35, page 199.

                                                                                                         6
3)    Methods

        In this phase of the effort, information was gathered through literature and
document review to determine possible strategies for measuring successful community.
It is clear that much has been written about the social determinants of health as well as
community and human development. The intent of this work is not to duplicate or
summarize these efforts but to cull through material deemed most relevant to the
categories of success identified in phase I (i.e., relationship, institutional completeness
and governance) and to prepare a text that stimulates discussion about the
measurement of these constructs.

      An initial literature review was conducted by using the following terms:
Aboriginal communit* or native communit* or first nation* communit* or indigenous
communit* in conjunction with measur* or quanti* or social indicator* Further searches
were also conducted with the following terms: measuring healthy cities, measuring
healthy community, measuring institutional completeness, measuring access to local
goods, measuring access to services, measuring good governance, measuring
leadership, measuring generativity, measuring well-being, measuring social capital,
measuring social indicators, measuring successful community. These terms were also
varied (i.e., with synonyms or truncation, and with different labels [e.g., abstract,
keyword, descriptor]) within searches to obtain relevant results.

      The following databases were searched: The Carleton University Library
Catalogue; Arts & Humanities Citation Index; Bibliography of Native North American;
EconLit; Family Studies Abstract; Geobase; Humanities Abstracts; Health Sciences;
PAIS Archive; PAIS International; Political Science; Public Administration Abstracts;
Social Sciences Abstracts; Social Sciences Citation Index (1956 to present);
Sociological Abstracts; Sociology; Urban Studies & Planning; Urban Studies Abstracts;
Worldwide Political Science Abstracts; PsychInfo; Journal of Social Issues and Google
Scholar. All sources were reviewed with the intent of identifying conceptual frameworks,
approaches and tools for the measurement of community ‘success’ as well as selecting
appropriate outcomes and indices that might answer the questions posed by the
endeavour.


4) Taking the ‘pulse’ of Indigenous community life

       The first and most important note on the tools and indices suggested in this report
is that they are reframed from their historical pathological orientation to desired
outcomes. In keeping with a question driven approach, each question from phase I is
profiled and answered.




                                                                                          7
       4.1) Measuring relationship

        In phase I, solid relationship was envisioned as the extent to which individuals
and groups engage in social action that recognizes their roles and responsibilities to
each other, the family, group or society. In other words, a sense of collective
responsibility to one another or an interdependence. Successful community living
meant that individual obligations to provide, nurture, teach, guard, create or guide were
being fulfilled by those charged with such roles.     Successful communities mobilize
and maximize individual strengths and capacity, enjoy collaborative and cohesive
environments where human needs are acknowledged openly and addressed
appropriately and have strong community identity, pride, agency and family functioning.
Consistent with cultural notions of relationship, environment fell into this category. For a
fuller discussion of the elements classified under relationship, the reader is referred to
phase one.


          What indices would suggest that communities are
          mobilizing and maximizing individual strengths and
         capacity to care for others (elders, youth, children)?


       It can be argued that much of the historical investment in measuring health and
social conditions in First Nation’s community would provide information and tools to
answer this question. In fact, several data sources are readily available and being
collected either by the Department of Indian Affairs, Statistics Canada or the Assembly
of First Nations10 or the National Aboriginal Health Organization through their Regional
Health Surveys. Suggested indices are outlined in Table 1) Assessing Individual
Strengths and Mutual Caring.

        Table 1) Assessing Individual Strengths and Mutual Caring

 Outcome               Indicators/Tools
 food security         Human Development Index - measures of poverty and hunger
 individual            self report items or perception of health status in the Aboriginal
 health                Peoples Survey (section E - health); Regional Health Survey (i.e.,
                       sections on general health, health conditions, physical injuries,
                       disability and activity limitation)


        10
           The reader is advised that the Regional Health Survey analyzed and identified here is the adult
version only from Phase I dated 2002/2003 accessed on May 26, 2008 from
http://rhs-ers.ca/english/pdf/rhs2002-03_files/questionnaires/rhs2002-03_adult_questionnaire.pdf

                                                                                                             8
 Outcome               Indicators/Tools
 income                Community Well Being Index
 labour force          Community Well Being Index
 participation
 access to             Regional Health Survey (i.e., sections on home health care, health
 care/support          care access, dental care)
 individual            Section A Education - items A1-37 in the Aboriginal Peoples Survey
 achievement           and items L55-70 in the Metis supplement of the APS would
                       suggest the extent to which individuals were supported to reach
                       their potential

       Other more qualitative measures of relationship that could complement these
quantitative measures and bring more cultural cogence to the ‘pulse’ would also be the
degree that the Elder’s role is used or maximized. In communities where
interdependence is strong (i.e., individuals see themselves as part of a larger social
context and define themselves according to their role in contributing to the collective),
the inclination toward generativity is high.

        In other words, if communities create climates where Elders can achieve psycho-
social maturity, then they are engaged in action that creates something of social value,
keen to keep traditions alive, involved in nurturing children and sharing or giving away
traditional knowledge.11


              What indices would suggest a collaborative,
                        cohesive environment?


       Here is where the glaring omissions in historical measures of quality of life
become clear. While there is merit to the use of classical epidemiology and gross
domestic product to track social conditions, neither takes into consideration the qualities
of the collective or the essence of community life. Perhaps the most valuable work,
albeit not systematically collected or readily available either nationally or regionally,
would be the work of Javier Mignone in measuring social capital in First Nation’s
community. The measurement of social capital (or capacity) is an obvious index of the
extent to which there is a collaborative and cohesive environment. Social capital or
cohesion and inclusion can also be used as a proxy of the emotional climate of a

        11
          Hofer, J., Busch, H., Chasiotis, A., Kartner, J, & Campos, D. (2008). Concern for Generativity
and its Relation to Implicit Pro-Social Power Motivation, Generative Goals, and Satisfaction with Life: A
Cross-Cultural Investigation. Journal of Personality, 76, 1-30.

                                                                                                            9
community as well as its culture of peace and communities can take it upon themselves
to assess the degree of social capital in a community without waiting for external
agents. Assessing social capital or cohesion more systematically would mean that a
whole realm of life’s qualities not captured in typical population health statistics or
measures of social condition would become apparent and accessible.

       “. . ., it is necessary to look beyond the usual spectrum of indicators found
       in standard development studies to find indicators that treat living conditions
       as a combination of material and symbolic factors, e.g., the means of
       making a living and the means of making a meaningful life. As a
       heuristic concept, social cohesion encompasses these two factors, access
       to making a living and access to a meaningful life.” (Emphasis added)12

Some of the indices that might suggest social cohesion or a collective and collaborative
environment would include the number of interdisciplinary committees, representation
on local boards, extent of diverse representation on decision making bodies as well as
an account of the contributions of women. In addition measures of gender equity and
the proportion of women in decision making roles (e.g., as chiefs, councillors, board
members, directors of community institutions) would be important indices of a cohesive
and collaborative environment. Open societies where conflict is discussed rather than
suppressed13 would also suggest collaboration. At last, employment is recognized as a
measure of social inclusion and participation in society and is almost always measured
when examining ‘quality of life’.14 (Cooke, 2005).


                      How can community identity, pride and
                           engagement be assessed?



       Of course this question is really three questions: how can community identity be
measured; how can community pride be measured; and how can community
engagement be measured? The first two questions related to pride and identity could
arguably be represented by the same indices. Without too much strain, the strength of
identity and pride would be reflected in maintenance of physical and natural
environment, celebration of common history and investment in common future and the
        12
         DuHaime, G., Searles, E., Usher, P. J., Myers, H., & Frechette, P. (2004). Social Cohesion and
Living Conditions in the Canadian Arctic: From Theory to Measurement. Social Indicators Research, 66,
295-317., page 301.
        13
          Chataway, C. (2002) Successful Development in Aboriginal Communities: Does It Depend Upon
a Particular Process? The Journal of Aboriginal Economic Development. Volume 3, Number 1, pp. 76-88.
        14
         Cooke, M. (2005) The First Nation’s Community Well Being Index: A Conceptual Review,
published by the Strategic Research and Analysis Directorate, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada

                                                                                                     10
degree to which there is a pervasive sense of community. Formal measures of the
psychological sense of community (i.e., the PSOC scale) includes social ties and
friendships, perceptions about the quality of local government and administration,
support, belonging and identification with community.15

       Community engagement, on the other hand, has received much attention in both
public health and international development policy circles as the ‘linchpin’ in the
attainment of both health and development goals. In fact, so popular is the notion that
all change rests on the degree of community engagement, that a variety of tools and
strategies exist for measuring engagement. Without outlining all the details here,
essentially community engagement is determined by the extent to which communities
and their partners enjoy a shared vision, reciprocal accountability, clear
communications, strategic alignment, stakeholder receptivity and complementary
capacity. To measure community engagement, see
https://www3.secure.griffith.edu.au/03/toolbox/evaluating_engagement.php.

      Similarly, the degree of participation is the key to assessing the quality of
Indigenous community life in colonial nations.

       “When others decide everything for us - when they set the task, formulate
       the rules, and manage the outcome- and we have no say in the matter, we
       are reduced to being objects. A world thus experienced as being indifferent
       to what we do comes to be seen as a world devoid of meaning.”16

Meaning is derived from a high degree of participation in socially valued decision
making. It catalyzes action that is both testimony to and congruent with the human spirit
because it essentially connects individuals and groups to their purpose or vision.
Adapted from international development organizations, community participation can
easily be determined by the use of the following schema.




        15
           Obst, P.; Smith, S. G.; Zinkiewicz, Lucy (2002) An Exploration of the Sense of Community Part
3: Dimensions and Predictors of Psychological Sense of Community in Geographical Communities.
Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 30, Number 1, pp. 119-133.
        16
        Antonovsky, A. Unraveling the Mystery of Health: How People Manage Stress and Stay Well.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1987: page 92.

                                                                                                      11
                       Figure 2) Ladder of Citizen Participation17


                       8               Citizen Control
                       7             Delegated Power                            Degrees of Citizen Power
                       6                 Partnership
                       5                  Placation
                       4                Consultation                            Degrees of Tokenism
                       3                  Informing
                       2                   Therapy
                       1                Manipulation                            Non-Participation




       4.2) Measuring Institutional Completeness
       The reader is reminded that institutions refers to those formal and informal
systems that exist to serve human needs and allow for expression whether or not they
are attached to any physical structure. Institutional completeness emerged from phase I
as systems, processes or structures created for human survival and group expression.
Institutional completeness was obvious by localized access to goods and services as
well as the ownership, quality or functioning of such systems or structures (including but
not limited to resources, services, opportunity and infrastructure). Successful
communities had institutions (i.e., systems and processes designed to meet human
needs either formal or informal) based in, controlled and supported by local leadership.
They have a stable and strong economic base or they’re moving towards developing
one and cultural strength was guarded and obvious through a variety of means including
but not limited to an integrated approach to community issues.18

       Ironically, the empiricist system, which is invested in observation as
       knowledge - in the value of quantifying, verifying, standardizing and

        17
          Shelly Arnstein (1993), in Dorcey, Tony and Tim McDaniels, Great Expectations, Mixed Results:
Trends in Citizen Involvement in Canada, prepared for the Social Sciences and Humanities Research
Council Trends Project, Environment Theme, April.


        18
         Again, the reader is referred to phase one of this effort for a fuller description of how ‘institutions’
were envisioned by Indigenous leadership.

                                                                                                              12
      predicting - renders so much invisible.19

                 “How can we measure measure institutional
                       strength and completeness?”



       In this domain, as well as in the measurement of leadership, the work of Micheal
Chandler and Christopher Lalonde has enormous relevance. The community elements
or protective factors identified by Chandler and Lalonde were summed to create an
index of ‘cultural continuity’ that is arguably more a measure of institutional
completeness and internal moral authority than it is of ‘cultural’ continuity. The factors
identified by Chandler and Lalonde were modifications of western based systems and
hence characterize cultural dynamics, the blending of western and traditional systems
but not continuity of what might be considered Sto:lo or Nu Chah Nulth systems of law,
governance, education, social order or health.

       Even if such protective factors really represent community based administrative
control of essentially western institutions (and not truly culturally or morally independent
and contiguous institutions), they are still equally important to the examination of
institutional completeness. After all, community based and controlled institutions,
western, blended or otherwise, offer greater opportunity for the development or
reinforcement of internal moral authority which is particularly important in creating
culturally cogent environments where human needs are acknowledged and met. They
suggest internal accountability or local checks and balances that support and enforce
healthy collective codes of conduct. Such institutions also suggest wealth in monetary
terms that facilitates community and family ability to provide for its members. In
essence, these protective factors reflect the extent to which human needs can be met
close to home and the extent to which there are local Indigenous ‘law’ making bodies
that function with collective interests at heart. Table 2 outlines several suggested
indices for assessing institutional strength and completeness.




       19
        Findlay, I. M., & Wuttunee, W. (2007). Aboriginal Women’s Community Economic Development:
Measuring and Promoting Success. IRPP Choices, 13, 1-26, page 11.

                                                                                               13
        Table 2) Assessing Institutional Strength and Completeness

  Outcome                      Indicator/Tool
  labour activity              Section C on could be used as a proxy of the ability to live a ‘work-
                               a-day’ life while participating in a cash economy (See specifically
                               items C1-9 and item D1) - APS
  participation in             Items C10-13 - APS
  traditional economy
  solid local                  the degree to which the community meets the standards and
  administration               capacity requirements of the First Nations Financial Management
                               Board (see http://www.fnfmb.com/); # of community based and
                               controlled agencies/organizations or services
  community provides           items E50-54 - APS
  for member needs
  access to medical            Regional Health Survey (i.e., sections on home health care, health
  care                         care access, dental care) APS items too - Items L6 (availability of
                               physician services), L31 (availability of emergency medical
                               services), L35 (availability of hospital services) in the Métis
                               supplement of the APS
  food security                Items J14-15 (food security issues) Metis supplement of the APS ,
                               Human Development Index
  access to information        Section F on communication technology could serve as a proxy for
  technology                   the extent of opportunity available in the community - APS
  clean water                  Items H9-10 - APS; FNIHB environmental health reports
  quality housing              Items H11-12 - APS; INAC housing statistics
  institutional                participation in land claims negotiations, self government
  completeness                 (established right in law to economic and political independence)
                               administrative control of education, police, fire and health services
                               together with the existence of cultural facilities (i.e. a building
                               designated for cultural or archival purposes)20
  community                    proportion of systems or institutions that are community based and
  engagement                   controlled; Community Engagement Tool (See website -
                               https://www3.secure.griffith.edu.au/03/toolbox/evaluating_engagem
                               ent.php)
  Access to child care         items J12-13 - Metis supplement of the APS



        19
           Chandler, M. J. & Lalonde, C. (1998). Cultural continuity as a hedge against suicide in Canada’s
First Nations. Transcultural Psychiatry, 35.

                                                                                                        14
           How can movement towards the development of a stable
                 and strong economic base be assessed?


      Developmental processes in First Nations communities are most effective when
they are:

       <     grounded in mutually acceptable cultural values;
       <     working relationships between subgroups exists before major
             decisions are made; and,
       <     the participation of a variety of interest groups is clear.21

Therefore, it is clear that social inclusivity and cohesion optimize economic growth
however, it is rare that economic indices take such social factors into consideration.
Perhaps more than any other dimension of community life, the economic features
prominently in assessment tools and strategies. In fact, economy is the one universal
dimension in the measurement of quality of life (See Table 6 on page 22) however no
two tools or conceptual frameworks appear to examine economic conditions or
hospitable environments for development in exactly the same way (see Appendix C).
While a treatise could be prepared on this subject alone, it is beyond the scope of this
work. Rather, the following indices are suggested tools from the range of options
explored in this phase that seem best suited to the community or represent easily
available information.

                      Table 3) Assessing the Economic Base

 Outcome                          Indicator/Tool
 employment opportunity           Community Well Being Index; employment rates; proportion of
                                  social assistance recipients;
 resource management              sustainable development practices from the Genuine
                                  Progress Indicator
 hospitable climate for           micro credit for small and medium enterprise; Canadian
 enterprise                       Council on Social Development conditions for economic
                                  development see http://www.ccsd.ca/pubs/2001/si/sra-542.pdf




       21
          Chataway, C. (2002) Successful Development in Aboriginal Communities: Does It Depend Upon
a Particular Process? The Journal of Aboriginal Economic Development. Volume 3, Number 1, pp. 76-88.

                                                                                                 15
 Outcome                           Indicator/Tool
 effective nation building         # and degree of sovereignty initiatives (e.g., land claims
                                   negotiations, self government agreements and administrative
                                   control of human service agencies; jurisdiction; restorative
                                   justice;
 sound development                 Business Vitality Index (BVI - see www.theCIEL.com)22
 processes
 organizational                    First Nations Financial Management Board standards (see
 management                        http://www.fnfmb.com/)



        To what degree is cultural strength guarded and obvious?


        Once again, a virtual gold mine of data is readily accessible that could serve as a
proxy for the degree of cultural strength. Although imperfect, the value of these indices
is in their conveniently available nature. In addition, one First Nation and their research
partners suggest several indices for measuring cultural preservation strength.23

                        Table 4) Assessing Cultural Strength

 Outcome                     Indicator/Tool
 cultural strength and       Section B of the APS could serve as a proxy of cultural integrity
 language retention          and language use by individuals; Section K of the Metis supplement
                             of the APS; Regional Health Survey Section C items 9-11 in the
                             adult survey (corresponding items in the youth and children survey)
                             as well as Section N items 61-62 and Section T item 117.
 access to traditional       Regional Health Survey Section N items 61 and 62 and select
 medicines and foods         items from question 117 in Section T.
 cultural education          extent of traditional activities, success and participation in cultural
                             education programs, strong relationship between youth and elders
 land use                    extent of traditional land use/harvest activities; demonstration of
                             traditional values; opportunities for traditional land use


        22
          Centre for Innovative & Entrepreneurial Leadership (CIEL), 201-514 Vernon Street, Nelson,
British Columbia, Canada, V1L 4E7 www.theCIEL.com
        23
           Reproduced from Parlee, B.; O’Neil, J. Lutsel K’e Dene First Nation (2007). “The Dene Way of
Life”: Perspectives on Health from Canada’s North. Journal of Canadian Studies, Volume 41, No. 3, page
126.

                                                                                                       16
 traditional knowledge        RHS SectionT item 117 as well as overall level of traditional
 and skills                   knowledge and skill; demonstration of traditional values; sharing of
                              traditional knowledge



                          How can an integrated approach to
                           community issues be measured?


       To a large degree, the measurement of social capital could be used as a proxy for
an integrated approach to community issues. Other indices of integration could include
diverse representation on decision making bodies; interdisciplinary approaches to
community issues; consensual decision making and the degree of community
mobilization.


       4.3) Measuring Leadership

       “Many would be surprised to learn that the greatest contribution to the
       health of a nation over the past 150 years was made, not by doctors or
       hospitals, but by local governments.”24

      Because the Indigenous experts identified leadership as a core theme in the first
phase of this work, key features of strong governance and leadership structures are
also shared not as a means of duplicating the works of Cornell, Kalt, Chataway,
Newhouse or McCaskill on development and leadership but to synthesize the core
dimensions of the nature and process of development and leadership. The select
Indigenous experts interviewed characterized leadership and good governance as
reputable community members who were proactive visionaries motivated by collective
gain and able to mobilize and meaningfully engage their membership in setting a course
for success. Good leaders acknowledge and own their challenges without transferring
responsibility: they recognize and warmly welcome allies in the quest to meet their
challenges and they are first internally accountable.




        24
           Parfitt, Jessie. The Health of a City: Oxford, 1770-1974. Oxford: Amate Press, 1987 (no page
cited) as cited in Hancock, T. (1993) The Evolution, Impact and Significance of the Health Cities/Healthy
Communities Movement Journal of Public Health Policy, Vol. 14, No. 1 (Spring) pp. 5-18.

                                                                                                        17
       How can we determine the degree to which leaders are able to
      influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the
     efficiency and success of the group to which they are members?


      From a global perspective, the United Nations defines good governance as
leadership characterized by the following parameters25:

      Participation - all men and women should have a voice in
      decision-making, either directly or through legitimate intermediate
      institutions that represent their intention. Such broad participation is built on
      freedom of association and speech, as well as capacities to participate
      constructively.

      Rule of Law - legal frameworks should be fair and enforced impartially,
      particularly the laws on human rights.

      Transparency - transparency is built on the free flow of information.
      Processes, institutions and information are directly accessible to those
      concerned with them, and enough information is provided to understand
      and monitor them.

      Responsiveness - institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders.

      Consensus orientation - good governance mediates differing interests to
      reach a broad consensus on what is in the best interest of the group and,
      where possible, on policies and procedures.

      Equity - all men and women have opportunities to improve or maintain their
      well being.

      Effectiveness and efficiency - processes and institutions produce results
      that meet needs while making the best use of resources

      Accountability - decision-makers in government, the private sector and
      civil society organizations are accountable to the public, as well as to
      institutional stakeholders. This accountability differs depending on the
      organizations and whether the decision is internal or external.

      Strategic vision - leaders and the public have a broad and long-term

       25
        Source: “Governance and Sustainable Human Development”, United Nations Development
Programme, 1997

                                                                                             18
       perspective on good governance and human development, along with a
       sense of what is needed for such development. There is also an
       understanding of the historical, cultural and social complexities in which that
       perspective is grounded.

       It is recognized that democratic ideals are not always fitting to evaluate traditional
governance structures. For example, leaders were sometimes selected by consensus
or kinship (e.g., clan mothers) or were nominated based on a skill set needed by the
collective at the time. If traditional governance structures are in place, the degree to
which they act as an internal moral authority would reflect their efficacy and this would
include but not be limited to the degree of transparency, accountability and collective
interest. However, if communities choose democracy as a premise for good
governance, then a wide range of indices are readily available and too numerous for
discussion here. In summary, a community that operates by democratic principles
would seek to establish a strengthened rule of law and respect for human rights, a
competitive political process, a politically engaged society as well as transparent and
accountable government. The pillars of good democratic governance and their
associated indices are provided in Appendix D.

       Sound leadership is obvious when an internal authority acts to change the status
quo and development is treated as a political issue that requires effective institutions.
Change proceeds with focus provided through a visioning or strategic planning exercise
that sets direction for decision making and action. Success is measured by social,
cultural, political and economic impacts and a long term approach to development
strives to create an environment in which people want to invest because their
contributions of time, ideas skill, good will or financial means create a desired change
for the future. A long term approach leads to social prosperity, complete sovereignty,
stable institutions26 and effective development.27 Some of the suggested measures of
sound leadership are highlighted below.

                         Table 5) Assessing Good Governance

 Outcome                       Indicator/Tool
 self determination            self government agreements, participation in lands claims, # of
                               community based and ‘controlled’ or administered institutions
                               (restorative justice, policing, health, social, etc)



        26
            Institutions that deal with laws, policies and codes specific to Indian nations and the remove
politics from business decisions as well as maintain cultural traditions.
        27
          Cornell, S., & Kalt, J.P. (nd). Sovereignty and Nation Building: The development challenge in
Indian county today. The Harvard project on American Indian Economic Development: page 26.
http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/hpaied/key.htm

                                                                                                             19
 Outcome                       Indicator/Tool
 stable leadership             # of different chiefs over the past two decades, # of different
                               councillors over the past decade
 local access to               Community Well-Being Index; Section F on communication
 opportunity                   technology could serve as a proxy for the extent of opportunity
                               available in the community - APS;
 participation and             diverse representation in decision making processes; gender
 equity                        balance in decision making roles
 operates with defacto         degree of pro-activity and response to an internal agenda evident in
 sovereignty                   the scope of an articulated long term vision and sector specific
                               strategic plans; degree of community involvement in the
                               development of a vision and strategic plan; degree of institutional
                               completeness or the extent to which there is local access to goods
                               and services.
 emphasizes sustain-           Business Vitality Index (BVI) prepared by the Centre for Innovation
 ability of business           and Entrepreneurial Leadership.28 (See www.theCIEL.com)
 transparency and              regular audits distributed to community members; evidence of
 accountability                monitoring and evaluation systems; publication of evaluation
                               efforts;
 effectiveness and             Measures of financial management standards and administrative
 efficiency                    capacity as determined by the First Nations Financial Management
                               Board (see http://www.fnfmb.com/) and professional retention
                               capacity

          Where Healthy Cities/Communities campaigns have been successful there has
been “strong political support, effective leadership, broad community control, high
visibility, strategic orientation, adequate and appropriate resources, sound project
administration, effective committees, strong community participation, cooperation
between sectors and political and managerial accountability.”29 The emphasis on local
leadership is what sets the Health Cities/Communities movement apart from other
health promotion efforts and given the importance of leadership to human health, it may
be time to consider an extension or adaptation of the Health Communities campaign to
the Indigenous environment.

       In fact, although the WHO’s Healthy Cities/Communities campaign was
launched for large urban centres, it works better in smaller communities with more


       28
            http://www.theciel.com/
       29
       Hancock, T. (1993) The Evolution, Impact and Significance of the Health Cities/Healthy
Communities Movement Journal of Public Health Policy, Vol. 14, No. 1 (Spring) pp. 5-18, page 10.

                                                                                                   20
intimate and potentially integrated bureaucracies30 and for communities interested in
adapting the campaign, WHO offers a 20 step handbook.31 First Nations communities
could also use an adaptation of the Healthy Cities campaign to engage in multi-
community action plans on specific issues (e.g., housing, AIDS, service access, etc)
that would reinforce internal moral authority.


5) Observations and Challenges
        The multiplicity of perspectives and priorities in measuring quality of life as well
as the scatter of conceptual levels and the unexpectedly weak relationship between
objective and subjective measures of success are just a few of the salient challenges of
this work.    For example, the Human Development Index takes the most general
approach because it is used for worldwide comparisons whereas other tools (e.g., the
Ontario Social Development Quality of Life Index) include more specific dimensions
intended for a smaller geographical scope. In many circumstances, measurement
domains tend to overlap between tools or are measured with entirely different indices.
(See Appendix C, Table C.1 for an illustration of the variation in economic indices as
well as Appendix E - Key Characteristics of Various Composite Indicators)

         For example, the Quality of Life Index takes a very limited approach in
measuring community life by looking only at church attendance and trade-union
membership. Prescott-Allen’s Indices of the Well-being on Nations, on the other hand,
conceptualizes community life from a much broader perspective, including the rights
and freedoms of citizens, governance, institutions, laws, peace, crime and civil order.
The Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) attempts to capture a very important but often
invisible aspect of community life including the contributions of unpaid labour in the
home and through volunteer work to quantify the contributions of women.

         The sheer plethora of classification systems, sub-indexes, sub-domains and
indicators (e.g., The Conference Board of Canada’s Quality of Life Scoreboard has over
110 indicators) requires that very broad dimensions of measurement be established for
comparative analysis of conceptual models and tools (Again, the reader is referred to
Appendices C and E for a fuller illustration of this wide variation). Table 6 attempts to
identify broad dimensions that will allow the reader to compare a variety of tools and
conceptual models that claim to measure quality of life. Those shaded in grey are tools
of general application and those not shaded are designed specifically with the
Indigenous population in mind. It is clear that all tools and models take economy into
consideration, albeit in very different ways (See Table C.1) and that those conceptual
models or tools related to Indigenous community uniformly take culture and language

       30
       Hancock, T. (1993) The Evolution, Impact and Significance of the Health Cities/Healthy
Communities Movement Journal of Public Health Policy, Vol. 14, No. 1 (Spring) pp. 5-18.
       31
         WHO Europe. Twenty Steps for Developing a Healthy Cities Project. Copenhagen: WHO
Europe, 1992.

                                                                                                21
into consideration.

          “Mainstream statistical and accounting measures of success have
          proven powerful drivers of public policy. . . . However, they have also
          been insufficiently respectful of Aboriginal values, the aspirations and
          needs of communities . . . and the particular contributions of Aboriginal
          women. Indicators of cultural sustainability, for example, find no place in
          mainstream indicators.” 32

                    Table 6) Dimensions of Tools and Conceptual Models

                       1   2    3    4    5    6    7    8   9    10   11   12   13      14   15 16

Health                 T    T    T    T    T         T   T    T         T    T       T   T    T   T

Education              T    T         T    T    T        T         T    T    T       T   T    T   T

Economy                T    T    T    T    T    T    T   T    T    T    T    T       T   T    T   T

Environment                 T    T    T    T    T             T              T       T   T        T

Social Climate              T         T    T         T        T         T            T   T    T   T

Political Climate           T    T    T         T    T                       T       T

Demographics                T                                           T    T       T   T    T   T

Indigenous Rights                                                                    T

Gender                      T    T    T                                 T            T        T   T

Culture/Language            T         T                                 T    T       T   T    T   T

1: Human Development Index
2. Weighted Index of Social Progress
3. Quality of Life Index
4. Prescott-Allen’s Indices of the Well-being of Nations
5. Conference Board of Canada’s Quality of life Scorecard
6. Genuine Progress Indicator
7. Fordham Index of Social Health
8. Fraser Institute Index of Living Standards
9. Ontario Social Development Quality of Life Index
10. Index of Relative Indigenous Socio-economic Disadvantage
11. Regional Health Survey
12. Duhaime's Conceptual Framework
13. United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues - Indicators of Well-being
14. Elizabeth Mark's Conceptual Framework of Indigenous Well-being
15. Aboriginal People’s Survey
16. Assembly of First Nations Holistic Indicators


         32
        Findlay, I. M., & Wuttunee, W. (2007). Aboriginal Women’s Community Economic Development:
Measuring and Promoting Success. IRPP Choices, 13, 1-26, page 5.

                                                                                                      22
         After economy, education and health are the most common domains of
measurement across tools and only a few of the tools of general application take into
consideration gender while the majority of conceptual models for indigenous groups
accounts for gender. In short, there is wide variability in style and substance when it
comes to measuring the quality of community life and the relationship between objective
and subjective measures is not always clear. For example, those communities
identified as successful by the Indigenous leaders polled in phase I did not always
correspond to those considered successful by the CWB probably because many
variables not captured by aggregate data contribute substantially to perceived quality of
life. In the end, the desirable features of sustainability/quality of life indices are:

   <     balanced indices (beyond GDP) that integrate social, environmental and
         economic issues;
   <     usable for strategic planning and monitoring;
   <     sufficiently sensitive enough to detect change;
   <     sufficiently relevant to catalyze change;
   <     easily understood, relevant and acceptable to community;
   <     readily available and easily reported.33


6) Concluding Remarks

        The need for a new trans-theoretical lens upon the individual in the context of
community is unmistakable. While this work has attempted to keep the unit of analysis
at the community level, it is clear that the inter-relatedness of individuals to their
environment and vice versa makes it difficult to keep measures exclusively clinical or
social. To reinforce such an approach a combination of tools and perspectives is
necessary so that the inherent weaknesses of either a clinical (i.e., individually focused)
or structural (i.e., social) measurement strategy are cancelled. While vast differences
in circumstance and health outcomes between First Nations’ communities prevail, the
influence of those circumstances remain unclear particularly as they relate to the
quantity and quality of local ‘institutions’, internal moral authority and sound leadership.
Similarly, none of the indices selected take into account the proximity to natural
resources, the extent to which there is a resistance to natural resource extraction or
geographic remoteness and the duration of periods of economic depression all very
powerful variables in influencing local Indigenous economies.




        33
          Porter, J. (2002). Sustainability and Good Governance: Monitoring Participation and Process as
well as Outcomes. UTS Centre for Local Government
http://www.goodgovernance-bappenas.go.id/publikasi_CD/cd_penerapan/ref_cd_penerapan/download/unf
older/Sustainability%20&%20Good%20Governance...pdf

                                                                                                     23
        This work is merely a snapshot of the outcomes and indices that are readily
available or suggested by the foundational works of others (e.g., INAC, UN, WHO,
AFN). These offerings (phases I and II) are neither final or proscriptive: they are a
check list of ideas to catalyse an appreciative discussion with respect to the quality of
First Nation’s community life. Phase I and II offer less proscriptive, multiple ‘bottom
line’ approaches to assessment that takes into consideration the often over looked
areas of social cohesion, cultural vibrancy, ecological integrity and governance that can
have a profound impact on the quality of community life. It explores the value of both
quantitative and qualitative measures in the development of a composite quality of life
assessment strategy not only as a way to evaluate progress but as a way of challenging
historical approaches that reinforce ill fitting world views and render invisible the
contributions of sustainable practices, women and local leadership. It is clear that both
objective and subjective indices are needed to understand the quality of community life.
Beyond employment and income, communities must also find meaning, purpose and
fulfilment34 all constructs less easily quantified. While the business and exploration of
measuring ‘success’ in First Nations communities will continue to be challenged by
varying priorities and little consensus, the inclusion of institutional completeness and
quality as well as leadership capacity can no longer be ignored. Similarly, if decisions
about what to measure are value based, it is time to consider Indigenous values of
collective responsibility and group cohesion.

        In conclusion, the policy implications of this work include:

        <    There are conveniently available databases to form a more
             comprehensive, composite index of the quality of Indigenous
             community life.
        <    A fundamental shift towards optimizing potential rather than
             averting crisis is possible through an outcome orientation that
             takes relationship, institutional completeness and leadership into
             account.
        <    Performance measurement using this conceptual framework would
             be culturally cogent and such measurement, especially from
             internal authorities, would draw more attention to what is desired in
             Indigenous communities, create systems of internal accountability at
             a supra community level and ultimately have enormous
             decolonizing potential.




        34
          Kahn, R. L., & Juster, F. T. (2002). Well-being: Concepts and Measures. Journal of Social
Issues, 58, 627-644.

                                                                                                      24
                                                           Appendix A
                 United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues -
                                               Indicators of Well-being

Core Theme       Sub-Theme(s)             Examples of Indicators
Identity, Land   Maintenance and
and Ways of      development of
Living           Traditional Knowledge,
                 Traditional Cultural
                 expressions and
                 practices

                 Use and inter-           <   percent of indigenous peoples’ who recognize their
                 generational                 indigenous language as their mother tongue
                 transmission of          <   percent of fluent indigenous language speakers ini
                 indigenous languages         indigenous communities
                                          <   percent of children learning indigenous languages
                 Support of, and access   <   number of programs to transmit/learn indigenous
                 to, bilingual, mother        languages/culture
                 tongue, and culturally   <   use of indigenous languages in state documents
                 appropriate education    <   use of indigenous languages in the media

                 Ownership, access,       <   percent of indigenous peoples’ owned lands
                 use, permanent           <   percent of indigenous community members that
                 sovereignty of lands,        participate and are employed in traditional and
                 territories, natural         subsistence activities
                 resources, waters        <   percent of indigenous peoples that participate in
                                              modern/non-traditional economic activities
                                          <   percent of indigenous community economy generated
                                              though traditional subsistence activities
                                          <   other indicators for food security and sovereignty (see
                                              list provided by the International Indian Treaty Council)




                                                                                                    25
Core Theme   Sub-Theme(s)            Examples of Indicators
             Health of communities   <   Community safety
                                         < numbers of preventive programs to reduce
                                              violence against indigenous women and families
                                              in indigenous communities and percentage of
                                              these l ed by indigenous peoples
                                         < state of violence against indigenous women and in
                                              indigenous families (reports filed)
                                         < number of crimes and level of criminality in the
                                              areas where indigenous peoples live vs. in areas
                                              where there a re mixed populations
                                         < rate of incarceration o f indigenous peoples vs.
                                              general population
                                     <   Community vitality
                                         < physical health
                                              < life expectancy (compared to general
                                                   population as well as increases/decreases)
                                              < infant mortality rates
                                              < diabetes rates
                                              < alcoholism and substance abuse rates
                                              < non-intentional injuries (reports)
                                         < number of programs for maintaining health
                                         < access to health care
                                              < number of hospitals, smaller health
                                                   centres/clinics, availability of doctors, health
                                                   care providers, and medication
                                     <   Support for safe and culturally appropriate
                                         infrastructure
                                         < quality and occupancy rate of shelter
                                         < proportion of safe drinking water relative to supply
                                              and wastewater and sanitation systems and level
                                              of water borne diseases in indigenous
                                              communities




                                                                                                26
Core Theme        Sub-Theme(s)            Examples of Indicators
                  Health of ecosystems    <   Biodiversity
                                              < number of endangered flora and fauna linked to
                                                   indigenous peoples’ current and future
                                                   subsistence needs, and dependence based upon
                                                   ceremonial and cultural practices
                                              < number of fish, animals and other life-forms that
                                                   can be sustainable, hunted, fished a nd gathered
                                                   on lands and territories
                                              < documentation of climate change, contaminate
                                                   levels, habitat destructions affecting viability of
                                                   subsistence resources and protection of traditional
                                                   habitat
                                          <   Indigenous peoples’ inclusion, participation and
                                              employment in ecosystem management
                                          <   Number of preventive programs, regulations,
                                              ordinances and measures (tribal and non-tribal)
                                              protecting ecosystems in indigenous lands from
                                              mineral extraction and non-sustainable activities
                                          <   Number of environmental protection violations and
                                              reports of conservation damage within and near
                                              indigenous lands and territories
                                          <   Rates of and number of reports of toxic contamination
                                              and industrial damage too the aquatic ecosystem that
                                              affects indigenous peoples consumption of fish,
                                              shellfish, aquatic plants
                                          <   Rates of suppression effects whereby an ecosystem
                                              and the fish, wildlife or plant life it supports is
                                              contaminated or destroyed beyond the ability of
                                              indigenous peoples to consume or practice its cultural,
                                              subsistence and ceremonial use
                                          <   Existence of legal frameworks for indigenous veto over
                                              the use of indigenous lands

Demographics      Patterns of migration   <   Percent of indigenous peoples living in urban areas
                                          <   Net migration rate from indigenous lands over time
                                              and rate of return

Indigenous        Indigenous governance   <   Recognition of indigenous governance and laws by
rights to and     and management              state governments
perspectives on   systems                 <   Support for indigenous capacity, leadership, policy and
development                                   program development by state and indigenous
                                              governance, including number of programs and
                                              persons participating in and completing trainings




                                                                                                    27
Core Theme   Sub-Theme(s)              Examples of Indicators
             Free, prior, informed     <   Recognition of the existence and rights of indigenous
             consent, full                 peoples in state laws
             participation and self-   <   number and effectiveness of consultations
             determination in all          implementing free prior and informed consent with
             matters affecting             indigenous community members and representatives
             indigenous peoples        <   percent of indigenous peoples’ participation in state
             well being                    civil service, state elections and parliaments
                                       <   Degree of state governments’ accountability to
                                           indigenous peoples’ on the extent to which they are
                                           meeting their legal obligations and responsibilities
                                           (case studies and/or court decisions)

             Degree of                 <   Number of complaints filed by indigenous peoples
             implementation or         <   Number of nation to nation agreements between state
             compliance with               governments and indigenous peoples
             international standards
             and agreements
             relating to indigenous
             peoples rights: Nation-
             to-Nation Treaties
             between states and
             indigenous peoples,
             IOL 169, UN Draft
             Declaration on the
             rights of Indigenous
             Peoples, and relevant
             UN human rights and
             other instruments
             recommendations by
             relevant international
             monitoring bodies

             Government funding for    <   Government expenditures relative to need for
             indigenous peoples’           indigenous peoples’ programs and services, and
             programs and services         relative to percentage of population
                                       <   Existence, and extent of, economic burden of remedial
                                           actions for disadvantaged indigenous peoples (case
                                           studies)
                                       <   Existence of targeted budgetary, legal and policy
                                           measures implemented by state governments to
                                           address discrimination




                                                                                               28
                                                               Appendix B
                      Assembly of First Nations Wholistic Indicators (2006)
1. Health Care

   •   Individual Health - Morbidity and Mortality
       • Life expectancy
       • Infant mortality
       • Rate of diabetes
       • Rate of unintentional injuries
       • Suicide rates, suicide ideation, or suicide attempts

   •   Individual Health - Well-Being and Quality of Life
       • Self-rated health and mental health
       • Impact of residential schools

   •   Health Determinants - Personal Choices
       • Rate of alcohol/drug consumption
       • Immunization coverage

   •   Community Health - Self-Determination
       • Community control of health services

   •   Health Services - Traditional Services
       • Availability and use of traditional healers/medicines

   •   Health Services - Western-Based Services
       • Access to primary or mental health care
       • Access to home care services
       • Satisfaction with health care services

2. Education/Lifelong Learning

   •   First Nations Education Index:
       • Sovereignty Implementation Index: Number/percentage of First Nations restoring
           their full and complete jurisdiction over education:

       •   Capacity Index:
           • First Nations allocations per Student, by level of education;
           • Sustainable First Nations allocations (i.e. not project-based funding) per Student,
              by level of education;
           • Number and scope of educational systems providing 2nd and 3'd level K-12
              services to First Nations schools/learners;

       •   Language and Cultural Index:
           • Fluency of First Nations learners in their Local language;
           • Number/percentage of First Nations learners (and the degree to which they are)
              engaged in traditional practices;


                                                                                             29
              •    Number/percentage of learners enrolled in First Nation Language Immersion
                   Programs;
              •    Percentage of qualified First Nations Language teachers;

   •   Achievement Index:
       • Academic performance (including graduation rate) of First Nation schools by
          education program level and subject area;
       • Age-specific participation (including attendance) rates of First Nations Students by
          gender and level of education.

3. Housing

   •   Proportion of adequate housing on reserve
   •   Housing market on-reserve as an economic engine creating value
   •   Prevalence of Social Capital advancements
   •   Proportion of First Nations communities with at least 90% of homes serviced by
       centralized water treatment plants and community sewage disposal systems
   •   Adequate long term base of serviceable land
   •   Frequency of household overcrowding (> 1 persons per room)

4. Relationships-Based
   •   Community control over services: Assesses the efforts that a First Nation community
       has made towards self-government. Three other promising measures of community
       control include: Education, Child and Family services and Police and Fire Services.
       (Lalonde 2005)
   •   Involvement of youth and elders in community decision-making: A measure of
       community engagement that measures the efforts to promote citizen involvement within
       the community35. Another example of community engagement measures include:
       availability of recreation and employment programs within the community and
       participation in tribal council games or gatherings.

5. Economic Development

   •   Income Level
   •   First Nations Business Activity: Economic diversity, Sector-based activity of the
       workforce, Regional economic activity, First Nations Procurement Activity
       (Mainstream/Federal/Provincial)

       •      Access to communications and information technology: Telephone service,
              Computers in the home, Internet access
       •      Labor Force Participation/Activities

6. Environmental Stewardship

       •      Drinking water quality


       35
            Ibid

                                                                                                30
7. Social Services

       •     Proportion of First Nations children on-reserve in care
       •     Number of First Nations children served by day care

8. Justice

       •     Rate of Alternative Measures
       •     Correctional Service Admissions
       •     Personal experiences of racism

9. Lands and Resources

       •     Traditional use of land

10. Language, Heritage and Culture

       •     Participation in traditional spiritual ceremonies or rituals

11. Employment

       •     Employment Income
       •     First Nations representation in employment
       •     Proportion of social assistance beneficiaries
       •     Unemployment rate

12. Gender

       •     Income Level between First Nations men and women living away from reserves
       •     Shelter Cost to Income Ratio

13. On/Away From Reserve

       •     Income Level between First Nations living on and away from reserves

14. Urban/Rural

       •     Access to health care between First Nations living in urban and rural areas




                                                                                           31
                                                                     Appendix C
                                       Broad Dimensions and Associated Indices
                               of Quality of Life Measures and Conceptual Models

The following broad dimensions may include but not be limited to the sub-categories
and indices identified below.

Health : Mental health, life expectancy, mortality rates (children, adult and maternal mortality), youth
suicide, drug abuse, alcohol related fatalities, physicians per 100,000 people, children vaccination, low
birth rate babies, elderly care in facilities, clean water accessibility, undernourished population, health care
coverage, home health care, health conditions, physical injuries, health care access, prevention
programming, personal wellness, disability and activity limitation, dental care, food and nutrition, physical
activity, lifestyle, rates of chronic or infectious disease, immunization coverage, access to traditional
healers and medicine.

Education: Adult literacy rate, gross enrollment ratio, innovation, primary school completion, schooling
years, research facilities and infrastructure, communication systems of belief and expression, value of
higher education, proportion of population 15 years and up without post-secondary education, age left
school, working population without post-secondary education.

Economy: Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Gross National Income, purchasing power, unemployment
rate, external debt, poverty index (Gini Index), military defence effort, family allowance, job security,
financial systems, country wealth, poverty, inflation, trade, material goods, water, food & shelter, personal
consumption, income distribution, services of consumer durables, services of highways and streets, cost
of crime, cost of consumer durables, cost of under-employment, cost of noise pollution, net capital
investment, affordable housing, child poverty, wages, salary, elderly poverty, real income, consumption,
household facilities, bankruptcies, employment ratio; Income Level; First Nations business activity:
economic diversity, sector-based activity of the workforce, regional economic activity, First Nations
procurement activity (mainstream, federal, provincial); access to communications and information
technology (e.g., telephone service, computers in the home, Internet access), ownership, access, use and
sovereignty of lands, territories, resources and waters, community economic resources, First Nations
representation in employment

Environment: National protected areas, disaster related deaths, per capita metric tones of CO2, climate,
diversity of forests, diversity of farmlands, diversity and quality of water, marine ecosystems, air quality,
indoor and outdoor air condition, wild species, genetic diversity, resource use, energy and materials,
waste conservation and disposal, recycling, fisheries, mining, water pollution, air pollution, loss of
farmland, loss of forests, health of ecosystems, renewable energy sources, CO2 emissions, cost of Ozone
layer depletion, environmental spills, blue box recycling, landfills.

Gender: gender equality, female literacy, contraceptive prevalence, maternal mortality, female school
enrollment, women seats in parliament, ratio of male/female earnings, income Level between First Nations
men and women living away from reserves, state of violence against indigenous women and in indigenous
families

Social Climate: Welfare effort, food stamp coverage, affordable housing, women status, old age invalidity,
sickness and maternity, workplace injury, distribution between ethnic groups (or degree of diversity), value
of volunteer work, child welfare, children in care, social assistance, social housing lists.

Political Climate: Social chaos, political stability, security, human rights and political freedom, civil
liberties, peace and order, crime, deaths in armed conflicts, externally displaced people, perceived
corruption, community life, community well-being.


                                                                                                             32
Demographics: Population growth rate, population 14 years old and younger, population 65 years and
older, percentage of population having common heritage, percentage of population sharing same religion,
percentage of population speaking same mother tongue, divorce rates, population change.

Culture/Language: Language use, verbal and oral skills, traditional culture, heritage, cultural awareness,
traditional approaches to healing, renewed relationship with the land, traditional ceremonial activity,
identity, land and ways of living, maintenance and development of traditional knowledge, traditional
cultural expressions and practices, use and inter-generational transmission of indigenous languages,
support of and access to bilingual, mother tongue and culturally appropriate education,     fluency of First
Nations learners in their local language, number/percentage of First Nations learners (and the degree to
which they are) engaged in traditional practices, number/percentage of learners enrolled in First Nation
Language immersion programs, percentage of qualified First Nations language teachers, largest
percentage of population sharing the same or similar racial/ethnic origins, largest percentage of population
sharing the same or similar religious reliefs, largest share of population sharing the same mother tongue,

               Table C.1) Economic Sub-categories by Assessment Tool
                                or Conceptual Model
                         1    2    3    4    5    6     7    8    9   10   11   12    13   14   15   16

 Economy                 T    T    T    T    T    T    T    T    T     T    T    T    T    T    T    T
 -purchasing power       T    T                             T

 -gross national              T
 income
 -GDP                    T    T    T                        T

 -unemployment                T                        T    T     T                             T    T
 -economic                                                                                           T
 development activity
 -external debt               T

 -gini index                  T

 - access, use,                                                                       T              T
 sovereignty of
 lands,
 resources/waters
 -wealth/income                         T                                   T    T         T    T    T

 -financial systems                     T

 -income distribution                   T         T                    T                   T         T

 -poverty                               T                   T

 -inflation                             T

 -employment                            T                                   T                        T

 -personal                                        T         T                              T
 consumption
 -weighted                                        T
 consumption
 -cost of crime                                   T

 -cost of consumer                                T
 durables


                                                                                                               33
                             1   2   3    4    5     6    7     8    9    10   11    12   13   14   15   16

 -net capital                                        T
 investment
 -wages                                                   T                    T

 -bankruptcies                                                       T

 -trade                                   T

 -material goods                          T                                    T
 -salary                                                                       T

 -participation in                                                                   T
 subsistence
 economy
 -economic inclusion                                                                 T
 -community economic                                                                           T
 resources
 -food & shelter                          T                                                         T
 -self-employment                                                                                   T
 -FN business & sector                                                                                   T
 based and
 procurment activity,
 economic diversity,

 -labor force                                                                        T         T         T
 participation or activity

 -working conditions                                                                           T

 -access to information                                                              T
 technology


1: Human Development Index
2. Weighted Index of Social Progress
3. Quality of Life Index
4. Prescott-Allen’s Indices of the Well-being of Nations
5. Conference Board of Canada’s Quality of life Scorecard
6. Genuine Progress Indicator
7. Fordham Index of Social Health
8. Fraser Institute Index of Living Standards
9. Ontario Social Development Quality of Life Index
10. Index of Relative Indigenous Socio-economic Disadvantage
11. Regional Health Survey
12. Duhaime's Conceptual Framework
13. United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues - Indicators of Well-being
14. Elizabeth Mark's Conceptual Framework of Indigenous Well-being
15. Aboriginal People’s Survey
16. Assembly of First Nations Holistic Indicators (2006)




                                                                                                              34
                                                                                    Appendix D
                                                                   Indices of Good Governance36

                            Objective 2.1 Strengthened Rule of Law and
                            Respect for Human Rights


 2.1.1 Foundations for      2.1.2 Laws, regulations,     2.1.3 Equal access to       2.1.4 Effective and fair
 protection of human        and policies promote a       justice                     legal sector institutions
 rights and gender equity   market-based economy
 conform to international
 commitments

 2.1.1.1                    2.1.2.1                      2.1.3.1                     2.1.4.1 Increased
 Legislation promoting      Legislation, regulations     Increased availability of   transparency
 human                      and policies in conformity   legal services
 rights enacted             with sound commercial
                            practices enacted

 2.1.1.2                    2.1.2.2                      2.1.3.2                     2.1.4.2
 Effective advocacy for     Effective advocacy for the   Increased availability of   Increased independence
 adherence to               promotion of a market-       information
 international human        based economy
 rights commitments         increased
 increased

 2.1.1.3 Government         2.1.2.3                      2.1.3.3                     2.1.4.3
 mechanisms                 Government mechanisms        Decreased barriers          Improved management
 protecting human           that promote market-                                     and administrative
 rights established         based economies                                          capacity
                            established

                                                                                     2.1.4.4
                                                                                     Improved functional
                                                                                     organization

                                                                                     2.1.4.5
                                                                                     Professionalization of
                                                                                     technical personnel




       36
           Adapted from the Handbook of Democracy and Governance Program Indicators: Centre for
Democracy and Good Governance, Bureau of Global Programs, Field Support and Research, US Agency
for International Development, Washington DC, 20523 - 3100

                                                                                                                 35
                                                             Objective 2.2
                                             More Genuine and Competitive Political Processes


 2.2.1                  2.2.2                   2.2.3 An           2.2.4 Effective        2.2.5                         Inclusion of              Effective
impartial              Credible                informed and        oversight of          Representative and            women and                 transfer of
electoral              electoral               active citizenry    electoral             competitive multiparty        disadvantaged             political power
framework              administration                              process               system                        groups

2.2.1.1 Substantive,   2.2.2.1 Impartial       2.2.3.1 Increased   2.2.4.1               2.2.5.1 Political parties     2.2.6.1 Laws              2.2.7.1 Procedures
inclusive debate on    and transparent         understanding of    Effective electoral   have institutional            pertaining to             for the transfer
new electoral laws     electoral authority     the political       process               structures which reflect      elections and             power are
and/or changes to                              system among        monitoring            internal democratic           political processes       established and
laws and                                       targeted citizens                         procedures, that are          provide for non-          followed
regulations                                                                              judged to be transparent,     discrimination
                                                                                         inclusive, and                against women and
                                                                                         accountable by the party      disadvantaged
                                                                                         leaders                       groups

                       2.2.2.2 Effective       2.2.3.2 Increased   2.2.4.2 Media         2.2.5.2                       2.2.6.2 Women’s           2.2.7.2 Newly
                       administration of       consumption of      fulfills role as      Political parties have        and disadvantaged         installed officials
                       the electoral           political           watchdog in the       established functioning       groups’ legal rights      are prepared to
                       process                 information         electoral process     political party               are protected             fulfill their
                                               among targeted                            administrative structures     through effective         responsibilities
                                               citizens                                  that advance institutional    enforcement of non-
                                                                                         stability in the long-term.   discriminatory laws
                                                                                                                       pertaining to
                                                                                                                       electoral and
                                                                                                                       political processes

                                               2.2.3.3 Increased                         2.2.5.3 Increased             2.2.6.3 Increased         2.2.7.3 Agencies
                                               political                                 institutional capacity of     participation by          of government,
                                               participation                             each political party to       women and                 including military
                                               among targeted                            identify, represent, and      disadvantaged             and security,
                                               citizens                                  expand its defined            groups on elections       accept the
                                                                                         constituency in the           day                       authority of newly
                                                                                         electorate                                              installed officials

                                                                                                                       2.2.6.4 Electoral         2.2.7.4 The public
                                                                                                                       administration is free    recognizes the
                                                                                                                       from bias, impartial      legitimacy of the
                                                                                                                       in its oversight, and     process by which
                                                                                                                       devoid of                 new officials are
                                                                                                                       discrimination            chosen
                                                                                                                       against women and
                                                                                                                       disadvantaged
                                                                                                                       groups

                                                                                                                       2.2.6.5 Effective
                                                                                                                       voter education
                                                                                                                       provided to facilitate
                                                                                                                       women’s and
                                                                                                                       disadvantaged
                                                                                                                       groups’
                                                                                                                       understanding of
                                                                                                                       and ability for
                                                                                                                       political participation

                                                                                                                       2.2.6.6 Political
                                                                                                                       parties are
                                                                                                                       supportive of the
                                                                                                                       participation of
                                                                                                                       women and
                                                                                                                       disadvantaged
                                                                                                                       groups in the
                                                                                                                       political process




                                                                                                                                                                       36
                                                         Objective 2.3
                                                Increased Development of a
                                                Politically Active Civil Society


 2.3.1 A legal              2.3.2 Increased              2.3.3 Increased              2.3.4 Enhanced free          2.3.5 Strengthened
framework to protect       citizen participation         viability of                 flow of information          democratic political
and promote civil          in the policy process         community service                                         culture
society                    and oversight of              organizations
                           public institutions
2.3.1.1 Strengthened       2.3.2.1 Improved CSO          2.3.3.1 Improved financial   2.3.4.1 Plural array of      2.3.5.1 Expanded higher
advocacy for legal and     advocacy                      management systems           independent sources of       quality civic education in
regulatory reform                                                                     information encouraged       schools

2.3.1.2 Increased public   2.3.2.2 Increased             2.3.3.2 Improved             2.3.4.2 Improved             2.3.5.2 Expanded higher
support for needed         openness of public            fundraising techniques       investigatory reporting      quality informal civic
reforms                    institutions to CSO                                                                     education initiatives
                           involvement in the policy
                           process

                           2.3.2.3 Increased political   2.3.3.3 Increased            2.3.4.3 Increased use of     2.3.5.3 Community-based
                           participation representing    participatory management     new information              civic actions programs
                           marginalized populations                                   technologies                 expanded/initiated

                                                         2.3.3.4 Improved             2.3.4.4 Improved financial
                                                         management systems           and management
                                                                                      systems in media entities

                                                         2.3.3.5 Improved external
                                                         relations




                                                                                                                                            37
                     Objective 2.4
                     More Transparent and Accountable Government Institutions


2.4.1 Increased      2.4.2 Increased        2.4.3 Ethical          2.4.4                     2.4.5 More               2.4.6 Enhanced
government           citizen access to      practices in           Strengthened             effective,                policy processes
responsiveness       improved               government             civil-military           independent,              in the executive
to citizens at the   government             strengthened           relations                and                       branch
local level          information                                   supportive of            representative
                                                                   democracy                legislatures
2.4.1.1              2.4.2.1 Laws &         2.4.3.1 Laws and       2.4.4.1                  2.4.5.1 More              2.4.6.1 Rules for
Constitutional and   regulations reformed   regulations reformed   Constitutional and       effective and             making policy reform
legal reforms                                                      legal reforms            democratic internal
devolve power                                                      authorize civilian       management
                                                                   authority                systems

2.4.1.2 Local        2.4.2.2 Improved       2.4.3.2 Oversight      2.4.4.2 More             2.4.5.2 Increased         2.4.6.2 Policy
government’s         dissemination of       mechanisms to          accurate                 legislative capacity      formulation and
capability to act    information            maintain ethical        information             to influence national     implementation
                                            standards               publicly available      policy and budget         capacity
                                            strengthened                                    priorities                strengthened

2.4.1.3 Mechanisms   2.4.2.3 Increase       2.4.3.3                2.4.4.3 Increased        2.4.5.3 Increased         2.4.6.3 Intra-
of participation     civilian competence    Professionalization    civilian competence      citizen access to         government
increased                                   of staffing and        in defense and           legislative process       consultation and
                                            operations             security affairs                                   information improved

                                                                   2.4.4.4 Increased        2.4.5.4 Improved          2.4.6.4 Opportunities
                                                                   civilian and civilian-   capacity to reconcile     of public participation
                                                                   military-security        societal conflict in an   increased
                                                                   forces                   institutional
                                                                                            framework

                                                                                                                      2.4.6.5 Executive
                                                                                                                      leadership in
                                                                                                                      enhancing
                                                                                                                      democracy

                                                                                                                      2.4.6.6 Executive
                                                                                                                      leadership in
                                                                                                                      resolving divisive
                                                                                                                      conflicts




                                                                                                                                           38
                                                                                                                                                                        Appendix E
                                                                         Table E.1
                                                  Key Characteristics of Various Composite Indicators 37
                                                                                   Sources of Data                            Weighting of Concepts                     Income Scaling

                                    Number of          Number of        Census        Administrative      Other       Equally        Theoretical      Empirical      Income        Income
                                    Dimensions         Indicators                                                     Weighted                                       Logged         Linear

Human Development Index                   3                 4                                *                            *                                              *
(HDI)

Weighted Index of Social                 10                40              *                 *                                                             *                           *
Progress (WISP)

Quality of Life Index (QOL)               7                 7                                *               *            *                                                            *
Prescott-Allen’s Indexes of              10                87              *                 *               *                             *                                           *
the Well-Being of Nations

Conference Board of                       5                24              *                 *                            *                                                            *
Canada’s Quality of Life
Scorecard

Genuine Progress Indicator                9                27              *                 *               *            *                                              -             -
(GPI)

Fordham Index of Social                   4                16              *                 *                            *                                                            *
Health (ISH)

Fraser Institute Index of                 8                 8              *                 *                            *                                                            *
Living Standards

Ontario Social Development                4                12                                *                            *                                              -             -
Quality of Life Index38

Index of Reltive Indigenous               4                 4              *                                                                               *             -             -
Socioeconomic
Disadvantage*

Community Well-Being Index                4                 6              *                                              *                                              *
(CWB)


            37
               Reproduced from Cooke, M. (2005) The First Nations Community Well Being Index (CWB): A Conceptual Review, Strategic Research and Analysis Directorate, Indian and
   Northern Affairs. Page 8

            38
              The Ontario Social Development Quality of Life Index and the Index of Relative Indigenous Socioeconomic Disadvantage include income in the form of a poverty rate. The
   Genuine progress indicator uses personal consumption, rather than income, and discounts this by the Gini coefficient.


                                                                                                                                                                                           39
40
                                                                             Appendix F
                                            Dimensions of the Genuine Progress Indicator39

The GPI starts with the same personal consumption data that the GDP is based on, but then
makes some crucial distinctions. It adjusts for factors such as income distribution, adds factors
such as the value of household and volunteer work, and subtracts factors such as the costs of
crime and pollution.

Because the GDP and the GPI are both measured in monetary terms, they can be compared on
the same scale. Measurements that make up the GPI include:

Income Distribution
Both economic theory and common sense tell us that the poor benefit more from a given increase
in their income than do the rich. Accordingly, the GPI rises when the poor receive a larger
percentage of national income, and falls when their share decreases.

Housework, Volunteering, and Higher Education
Much of the most important work in society is done in household and community settings:
childcare, home repairs, volunteer work, and so on. The GDP ignores these contributions because
no money changes hands. The GPI includes the value of this work figured at the approximate cost
of hiring someone to do it. The GPI also takes into account the non-market benefits associated
with a more educated population.

Crime
Crime imposes large economic costs on individuals and society in the form of legal fees, medical
expenses, damage to property, and the like. The GDP treats such expenses as additions to
well-being. By contrast, the GPI subtracts the costs arising from crime.

Resource Depletion
If today’s economic activity depletes the physical resource base available for tomorrow, then it is
not creating well-being; rather, it is borrowing it from future generations. The GDP counts such
borrowing as current income. The GPI, by contrast, counts the depletion or degradation of
wetlands, forests, farmland, and nonrenewable minerals (including oil) as a current cost.

Pollution
The GDP often counts pollution as a double gain: Once when it is created, and then again when it
is cleaned up. By contrast, the GPI subtracts the costs of air and water pollution as measured by
actual damage to human health and the environment.


Long-Term Environmental Damage
Climate change, ozone depletion, and nuclear waste management are long-term costs arising
from the use of fossil fuels, chlorofluorocarbons, and atomic energy, respectively. These costs are
unaccounted for in ordinary economic indicators. The GPI treats as costs the consumption of
certain forms of energy and of ozone-depleting chemicals. It also assigns a cost to carbon
emissions to account for the catastrophic economic, environmental, and social effects of global
warming.

           39
             Accessed and reproduced on May 26, 2008 from
   http://www.rprogress.org/sustainability_indicators/genuine_progress_indicator.htm

                                                                                                    41
Changes in Leisure Time
As a nation becomes wealthier, people should have more latitude to choose between work and
free time for family or other activities. In recent years, however, the opposite has occurred. The
GDP ignores this loss of free time, but the GPI treats leisure as most Americans do—as
something of value. When leisure time increases, the GPI goes up; when Americans have less of
it, the GPI goes down.

Defensive Expenditures
The GDP counts as additions to well-being the money people spend to prevent erosion in their
quality of life or to compensate for misfortunes of various kinds. Examples are the medical and
repair bills from automobile accidents, commuting costs, and household expenditures on pollution
control devices such as water filters. The GPI counts such "defensive" expenditures as most
Americans do: as costs rather than as benefits.

Lifespan of Consumer Durables & Public Infrastructure
The GDP confuses the value provided by major consumer purchases (e.g., home appliances) with
the amount Americans spend to buy them. This hides the loss in well-being that results when
products wear out quickly. The GPI treats the money spent on capital items as a cost, and the
value of the service they provide year after year as a benefit. This applies both to private capital
items and to public infrastructure, such as highways.

Dependence on Foreign Assets
If a nation allows its capital stock to decline, or if it finances consumption out of borrowed capital,
it is living beyond its means. The GPI counts net additions to the capital stock as contributions to
well-being, and treats money borrowed from abroad as reductions. If the borrowed money is used
for investment, the negative effects are canceled out. But if the borrowed money is used to
finance consumption, the GPI declines.




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