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There are dust in the ISM. The Shape of the Galaxy Difficult to determine, due to us being located within the Galaxy. Look in all directions, see stars. However, in some directions (e.g. in the „Milky Way‟), we see more stars. Led to the „star count‟ method of mapping out the shape of the Galaxy Difficulty: _____________ (the absorption of light by the ISM) Modern Structure of Galaxy. How to determine our location in the Galaxy? -Globular Clusters Globular clusters are gravitationally-bound systems of several hundred thousand stars in orbit around the center of the Galaxy. Mapping distances to these shows that they are centered on a point ~8.5 kpc from the Sun. We are located within the ____________ of the Galaxy. 21 cm radio emission Due to _________________________________. Due to extremely long wavelength as compared to optical or infrared light, can penetrate dust and gas very easily. Detected first in 1951 (Harold Ewen and Edward Purcell) Used to map the gas distribution of the Milky Way, also seen in many other galaxies. The Milky Way Our home galaxy Description: Disk of stars and gas/dust, surrounded by an extended spherical halo of widely- distributed stars and thin gas. Major components: Nucleus: very dense core of galaxy Bulge: central ~spherical (somewhat flattened) volume of dense stars, gas, dust. Radius ______________________ Disk: _________________ diameter, _____________________ thick disk of stars, gas, dust. Halo: spherical, radius _______________________________, filled with globular clusters, scattered stars, hot gas, and some (thin) dust. Components of the Galaxy Halo: old stars (11 billion years or so), very metal-poor Disk: young stars (0-5 billion years), metal rich Why difference? Halo stars formed early, before Galaxy flattened. Gas mostly hydrogen and helium, little metal enrichment by SN had occurred. Disk stars: formed later, after many SN had exploded. Gas of Galaxy had flattened into disk by this time. Present-day star formation: Only in the disk, in a very thin (200 pc think) layer of gas & dust. Open Star Cluster Found in ____________of Galaxy size: 1-10pc Number of stars: _____________________________ Example: Pleiades Stars are relatively young, most stars near main sequence Globular Star Cluster Found in _______________ of Galaxy contain old stars Number of stars: 104 – 107 No stars present on upper main sequence The Sun and the Galaxy Orbital distance: _______________ Orbital period: 240 million years *Note: the Sun has only orbited the center of the Galaxy ~20 times since its formation! (Earth around Sun: ~5 billion times) Mass interior to the Sun: 1011 solar masses Rotation Curve of the Galaxy A rotation curve is a plot of orbital radius versus velocity. Examples: ___________________________: all radii „orbit‟ in the same period, so velocity increases as the radius does. ___________________________: velocity drops with radius (non- linearly). Galaxy: from 1-20 kpc, the rotation speed is constant! Since orbital velocity set by gravity, this means that there is much more material inside 20 kpc than 1 kpc. Galactic Rotation and Dark Matter For the Sun‟s distance, one needs 1011 solar masses to explain the velocity. This is ~ what we see visibly. For 2 times the Sun‟s distance, we need 2*1011 solar masses of stuff, but there is little visible matter (i.e. stars) beyond the Sun in the Galaxy, certainly not another 1011 solar masses. Therefore, there must be matter in a form not visible to us either by emission of light directly or by absorption of light from more distant objects (like other galaxies)! This matter is called ______________________. What is dark matter? Short answer: unknown. Possibilities: MACHOs: Massive Compact Halo Objects. ________________________________. (Unlikely, these has been looked for and not found in sufficient quantities to fully explain the dark matter) WIMPs: ________________________________________. Unknown at this time, is a matter of physics to find or disprove these. Spiral Structure of the Milky Way The Galaxy (disk) is a spiral of material separated by less-dense regions. Spiral structure derived from 21-cm maps of gas, along with distances to star-forming regions in the nearby region of the Galaxy. Most star formation seems to take place in the spiral arms of the Galaxy. Spiral arms near the Sun: The Galactic Center Visible light: can‟t be seen from the Galactic center. However, infrared and radio gets to us from there. What we see: 100 pc from the center: 100 stars/cubic pc. 10 pc from the center: several thousand stars/pc3 Much dust and gas also collects in the center 2-8 pc from the center: a ring of gas, rotating at 110 km/s. Implies that there is 10 million solar masses of material within the central 2 pc of the nucleus! Most likely this mass is all contained within a black hole at the center of the Galaxy. Other evidence for this: radio emission from likely near-motionless accretion disk. Galaxies in General (Ch. 23) What is a galaxy? Initially, it was unclear. Appearance of galaxies (early on): Fuzzy patches in sky The major debate in astronomy was if these objects were located within or outside the Milky Way. Types of Galaxies Two major types Spiral (SB/S) (Barred or un-barred) Elliptical (E) Classification system: Hubble „tuning-fork‟ diagram Spirals: S/SB (based on bar) Sa,Sb,Sc (based on bulge size and tightness of arm wrap) Ellipticals (E) 0-7 (based on apparent flatness) Elliptical Galaxies Nearly featureless Round balls of stars, have very little gas/dust (as compared to spirals Consist of only old stars, typically metal-poor. No (or nearly no) star formation taking place! Appearance (0-7) not due to intrinsic property of galaxy, rather due to viewing angle. Range in sizes: Smallest: _____________________ galaxies: few kpc across few 100,000 solar luminosities Largest: __________ galaxies Up to 2000 kpc across Few 100 billion solar luminosities Spiral Galaxies (Around 80% of all galaxies) Have flattened disks of stars as primary feature Most have spiral arms within the disk. Major types: Barred spiral Un-barred spiral Split based on presence of a central bar-like structure in place of a simple round nucleus. If the bar is present, the spiral arms (typically) will begin at the ends of the bar. Spiral Galaxy Classification Classed as (for most galaxies) type „a‟, „b‟, or „c‟. Type ___ galaxies have (as compared to type ___) More tightly-wound arms Larger bulges All spirals have a large component of gas and dust, leading to active star formation (typically within the spiral arms). Consist of stars with a wide range of ages (and metallicity). Irregular Galaxies Catch-all category for galaxies which are neither spiral nor elliptical. Typically patchy in appearance, with no major organized structure. Many have even more gas/dust than spirals. Galaxy formation Similar to stars, in that they form from the collapse of huge clouds of gas and dust. Spiral galaxies retained the initial rotation of the cloud, elliptical galaxies got rid of most of the rotational energy. How to get rid of rotational energy? (Remember, rotational energy can‟t be created or destroyed) Transfer of energy to the dark matter of the galaxy. Requires a lumpy initial distribution of matter for formation of ellipticals, and a smooth distribution for spirals. Galaxy collisions Compared to stars, galaxies are rather closely-packed. Average star-star distance: 30 million stellar diameters Average galaxy-galaxy distance (in clusters): under 1 diameter. Therefore: Collisions between galaxies are common, while collisions between stars are not. Collision between two galaxies The stars don‟t collide, they simply pass on by. Gas clouds, however, (as they are much larger), do collide, and get left behind. High-speed collision: Stars keep going (structure of galaxies are disrupted, however) Low-speed collision: Can result in eventual merger of two galaxies. Typical result of collision between two spirals: an elliptical Result of this (seems to): more ellipticals in dense regions of galaxies, and more spirals in less-dense regions of galaxies. In very dense regions, large galaxies can become galactic cannibals as they absorb multiple smaller galaxies. This leads to the giant cD galaxies. Rotation of Galaxies Rotation curves of galaxies like the Milky Way also show evidence for dark-matter halos. In fact, spiral galaxies must be made mostly of dark matter. Rotation curves of various galaxies also show extreme orbital speeds in the nucleus, probably due to massive black holes in the centers of many galaxies. However, this is a very difficult observation to do, due to the small angular scale of the nucleus in the distant galaxies. Cosmic Distances So how do we measure distances to galaxies? We use a sequence of measuring „rods‟, each calibrated by the previous one. Short (astronomical) distances: Primary distance indicators Parallax Cepheid variable stars These are defined by objects in the Milky Way Other Distance Indicators Moderate distances: Secondary distances: (Defined by objects in nearby galaxies) Largest HII region (scales with galaxy brightness) Average brightness of globular clusters Tully-Fisher relation Type Ia SN Far distances (beyond 25 Mpc) Tertiary distance indicators (Based on entire galaxies) Brightest galaxy in cluster Hubble‟s Law Type Ia Supernova A binary system with ____________________________. Mass transfer in this case is very rapid Result: layer of accreted material on WD is kept so hot it doesn‟t go degenerate. Instead, get a steady shell of hydrogen fusion at the bottom of the accretion layer. Eventually, the core temperature reaches 10 billion K, and carbon fusion begins. The core is degenerate, so it doesn‟t expand, just gets hotter, fusion takes place faster, etc… The WD ends up running through all the fusion reactions, even generating elements heavier than iron (by other processes). The energy released blows the star apart entirely. 1) Extremely bright, so ___________________________________________. 2) The exploding object is _____________________________________________ _____________________________________ Therefore, the explosion will always be the same! This last makes SNIa exceedingly useful as standard candles. Distinguishing them from Type II SN done by examination of the lightcurve (Type Ia doesn‟t have the plateau in the decay) or by spectral analysis (Type Ia supernovae have no hydrogen lines). Tully-Fisher Relation For spiral galaxies, there is a relation between the rotation rate of the HI gas (measured in 21cm emission) and the luminosity of the galaxy. Astronomers can measure the Doppler width of the 21cm emission line for the galaxy, then derive the luminosity. Having measured the apparent brightness, they can derive the distance. Method calibrated using local galaxies and local clusters of galaxies (i.e. Virgo cluster, at 15 Mpc). (Revised calibration of this relation: M. Pierce & A. Rogel, in publication.) A somewhat similar relation exists for elliptical galaxies. Hubble’s Law This relation is based on the observation that (almost) all galaxies are moving away from us. First measurement of radial velocity: V.M. Slipher (1913) of Andromeda. It is moving towards us at ~300 km/s. (15 times the average radial velocity of stars) By 1917, 25 spirals had radial motions measured, and 21 were moving away. Edwin Hubble continued this process, and also was able to estimate distances to the galaxies by other means. He discovered that __________________________________ __________________________. v=H0D H0 is what is called Hubble’s constant. Hubble’s Law: the math Hubble‟s constant (today‟s value) is 71+/- 7 km/s/Mpc This means that A galaxy at 1 Mpc from us is moving away at ____ km/s. A galaxy at 2 Mpc from us is moving away at ____ km/s. A galaxy at 10 Mpc from us is moving away at ____ km/s. Also: A galaxy moving away from us at 284 km/s is _____ Mpc away. Etc. Hubble’s Law and the Expanding Universe Clearly, if everything is moving away from us, the Universe must be expanding! But are we the center of the expansion? NO Think of a spring being stretched on the table. ANY point on the spring will see all other points getting further away, and (per time), the more distant points will move away more. Therefore (extending the analogy to an infinite spring), every point on the spring sees the same thing, that is: Every point on the spring is moving away from it. Extend this to 3 dimensions (e.g. expanding raisin bread), and this is what is happening to the Universe. Astronomers in every galaxy will see the same effect, that is everything moving away from them, and the more distant galaxies moving away faster. Meaning of the Redshift of a galaxy 1st: the redshift observed is not actually (totally) due to a true motion of the galaxy. Rather, it is due (mostly) to the expansion of space between us and that galaxy. Therefore, the redshift is properly termed an expansion redshift 2nd: As we look farther away, the light that we are seeing has taken longer and longer to get to us. So, knowing a galaxy‟s redshift (and the evolution of the Hubble constant over time), we can compute the lookback time. Lookback time: _________________________________________________________ Questions about the expanding Universe 1) So does the space between objects here on the Earth expand? What about within the Solar System? The Galaxy? 2) How is it that the Andromeda Galaxy (at ~0.7 Mpc) is moving towards us at 300 km/s, instead of away from us at ~50 km/s? 3) What does this say about the history of the Universe? 4) Is the expansion rate constant? 5) Will the Universe keep expanding forever? Does local space expand? Short answer: ___________ The forces between materials (nuclear forces, electro-magnetic forces, gravity) all act to counteract this expansion. So on scales smaller than galaxies or so, the other forces act to keep the expansion from spreading out the local material. Think of the raisin-bread example (in text). The bread expands (this is space), but the raisins do not (these are galaxies, etc.). Motion of Andromeda The expansion of space as described by Hubble‟s Law is a universal phenomenon. However, galaxies can also have „peculiar‟ motions, motions with respect to space itself. In the case of Andromeda, the galaxy, under the influence of the gravity of the Milky Way, is moving towards us faster than the expansion of space is carrying Andromeda away from us. (Think of walking backwards on a slidewalk; one can make progress in the direction opposite that of the slidewalk if one walks fast enough.) Any given galaxy‟s measured motion will consist of the combination of its Hubble‟s Law expansion and its own peculiar velocity. Locally, the peculiar velocities can be larger than the Hubble expansion speed, so one can get galaxies moving towards us. Other Questions History of the Universe Does Hubble‟s constant change with time Fate of the Universe All these questions belong to the subject of Cosmology, which will be covered later on. But first, a look at some of the other strange objects in the Universe. Active Galaxies (Quasars) In the mid 1900‟s, some very strange objects were discovered. They looked like stars, but their spectral lines did not match any known elements. They were called „quasi- stellar objects‟, or quasars. In 1963, it was finally realized that the quasar spectra were normal elemental spectra, but highly redshifted! (Redshifts up to a factor of 6 have been measured for quasars to date, which means that a spectral line normally located at (say) 91.2 nm (UV) would be located at 638.4 nm (red visible). However, these objects can appear to be point-like (stellar) sources, so they must be extremely bright! What are they? - General (Observational) Properties of Quasars 1) Luminosity: up to ________________________ 2) Spectrum: Continuous radiation (from X-ray and above down to radio) of near-uniform brightness. Emission lines: Broad lines of various elements Narrow lines of various elements Examples of Spectra of Quasars Look at page 557 in your text for a „typical‟ quasar spectrum (note: this spectrum is not redshifted. Optical emission is from about 400 nm to ~700 nm). *Note: 100 nm = 1000 angstroms Compare that spectrum to these recently acquired at WIYN: Clusters of Galaxies Most galaxies are found in groups of one kind or another. Range from a few galaxies to thousands Richness of a cluster: Measures how many galaxies the cluster contains. Measured by counting bright galaxies only. *Note: not all clusters will contain the same ratio of bright/dim galaxies, so this is not a true measure of galaxy number… Shape of a cluster Regular: round Irregular: no overall symmetry. (possibly several groups) The Local Group Small cluster of ~35 galaxies Major members: Milky Way Andromeda Rest are small, dim galaxies of various types Size of cluster: ~1 Mpc. Virgo Cluster *Note: text is wrong as to distance ~2000 galaxies ~15 Mpc away Classed as a poor (in richness) irregular cluster. Brightest members: Both spirals and ellipticals Notable members: M100 (spiral) M87 (giant elliptical): has spectroscopic evidence for a 2-3 billion solar mass black hole at the center Other Clusters: Many other clusters exist, spacing ~10s of Mpc. Some examples: Fornax Cluster (~20 Mpc) Also used for distance scale calibrations Coma Cluster (~70 Mpc) Extremely rich, regular cluster Several hundred bright galaxies No spirals in core. two clusters in Ursa Major ( ~ 270Mpc and 680Mpc) Galaxy clusters: Other matter Clusters are made up not only of galaxies, but also other things: Inter-galactic medium Seems to be very hot (X-ray producing) this gas filling the cluster Mass similar to the galaxies in the cluster Dark matter Inferred by galactic velocities 90% of total mass of the cluster is dark matter. This is NOT counting the dark matter in the galaxies… Superclusters As galaxies are arranged in clusters, clusters are arranged in superclusters Examples: Local (or Virgo) Supercluster Consists of local group, Virgo cluster, etc. Spread over ~40 Mpc Great Wall Great sheet of clusters spanning ~100 Mpc, at a distance of ~60 Mpc Between the superclusters are voids, with very very few galaxies Why this arrangement? Totally unclear at this time. Fate of the Universe: Cosmology From Hubble‟s Law, the Universe is expanding. Looking back in time, we can calculate (for a constant Hubble parameter) how long the Universe has been expanding to reach its present size. This is called the Hubble time. For H0=70 km/s/Mpc, tH= 13 billion years. So…according to this, 13 billion years ago, all of space itself and everything in it was at the same place. It then started to expand. This is the Big Bang theory Notes on the Hubble time Space is expanding, but gravity is an attractive force. Therefore, gravity is acting to slow the expansion of the Universe. Therefore, the Universe should have been expanding faster in the past than it is now, so the true age of the Universe is less than a Hubble time. *NOTE: Certain globular clusters have ages of ~15 billion years… Something is wrong Solving this is one of the primary mission of the Hubble space telescope. (If the Hubble constant is lower, the Hubble time is longer. Therefore, HST set out to measure H0 as accurately as possible, and (if possible) the change in the Hubble parameter over time due to gravity.) The Big Bang (or ‘Let there be light’) All of space itself was wrapped up in a singularity. Then, for whatever reason, it exploded. Initially (prior to 10-43 seconds after the explosion), physics doesn’t work, we can make no statements about this time. After that, we can try to unravel what happened. Significant events At first: pure energy. Temperature >1013 K Particles of all kinds are created, then destroyed immediately in the radiation field. 10-6 seconds: protons and neutrons „freeze out‟, no longer being created, as the photons no longer carry enough energy to create them. 1 second: electrons freeze out. (neutrinos „decouple‟ from other matter, leaving them free to travel forever. a lot of them pass through you each second.) 100 seconds: Helium nuclei form. Over the next 200 seconds, other reactions form lithium, beryllium, boron. Few 100 thousand years: Universe becomes transparent to radiation. Origin of the Cosmic Microwave Background, which is extremely redshifted photons from the 3000K transparent Universe. 1 billion years: matter in the Universe had gathered into concentrations that would become the galaxy clusters Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) - created in the __________________Epoch (after few 100 thousand years) Discovered accidentally in mid-1960s Spectrum: corresponds to a blackbody of _____________K (originally: K , redshift: 1000) Fate of the Universe The other great question of cosmology is the ultimate fate of the Universe: Will gravity finally reverse the expansion, bringing everything back together in a Big Crunch? Or will the expansion slow down over time, but always keep expanding? These are the only two options consistent with physics as we understand it. However… Perlmutter, et al, 1999 ApJ The Expansion of the Universe is Accelerating! By careful examination of distant SNIa, Perlmutter, et. al. determined that the expansion of the Universe is not slowing down, as was thought it had to be. Instead, just recently (last billion years or so), the expansion has begun to accelerate, increasing the Hubble parameter! This violated just about everything we thought we knew about how the Universe works, in particular: 1) Gravity is the only long-range force 2) Gravity is only attractive Therefore: the expansion must be slowing down! But actually… So what is driving the expansion? 5th force (quintessence) vacuum pressure dark energy Cosmological constant … We really don‟t know…this result is still so recent and so fundamental (and it has been fairly well confirmed by completely independent techniques) that it will take some time to sort it all out. Assumptions of modern science revisited the Perfect Cosmological Principle -“We are not at a special place or time in the universe.” (Scientists do not like to think there is anything special about us or our location in time and space.) However: The acceleration just started! So we are in a unique (relatively) time in the Universe! A NEW theory -- the cyclic universe by Paul Steinhardt & Neil Turok Big bang expansion (as the stand picture) Finally, everything are "diluted away," leaving the universe smooth, empty, and flat. Then everything contracts in “big crunch”, and a fresh cycle begins. two universes: the other one - dark matter - still controversial Fate of the Universe (general thought) Expansion forever, with rate first slowed by gravity, then (once the Universe reaches a critical size) an acceleration of the expansion rate. Nothing (as we understand it currently) will halt the expansion, so eventually matter will be very very thinly distributed in a cold, dark Universe.
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