LIS651 lecture 1 PHP basics

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					        LIS651 lecture 1

PHP basics, database introduction

            Thomas Krichel
• PHP part
  – we work with
     •   text
     •   numbers
     •   Booleans and flow control
     •   arrays
  – we reorganize the shop
• Database theory
• Introduction to mySQL.
• a piece of text in PHP is called a string.
• A string is often surrounded by single quotes.
  print 'I want beer';
  print 'I want $want';    // prints: I want $want
• If you want to use the values of variables, use
  double quotes
  print "I want $want";
  // prints: I want beer
        single and double quotes
• You can use single quotes to quote double
  print 'She wrote: "I want beer." and sighed.';
  // prints: She wrote: "I want beer." and sighed.
• and vice versa
  print "She wrote: 'I want beer.' and sighed";
  // prints: She wrote: 'I want beer.' and sighed.
• Sometimes it is not obvious when to put single
  quotes, double quotes, and when to leave them
  out. If one thing does not work, try something
            the backslash escape
• The backslash is used to quote characters in a
  that otherwise are special.
   print 'Don\'t give me bad beer!';
   print "<p class=\"$kind\">$beer</p>";
   // prints: <p class="bock">Festbock</p>
• The backslash itself is quoted as \\
   print "a \\ against beer consumption";
   // prints: a \ against beer consumption
           more backslash escapes
•   \n makes the newline character
•   \r make the carriage return      (no use in Unix)
•   \t makes the tab        (seldomly used in HTML)
•   \$ makes the dollar           (used in the shop)
     – $amount='1.50';
     – print "you owe \$$amount per bottle.";
     – // prints: you owe $1.50 per bottle.
    If the backslash was not there $ would be
     considered to be a variable.
               string functions
• There are a long list of string functions in the PHP
  reference manual. When you work with text, you
  should look at those string functions at
• Working with text is particularly important when
  checking the input of users into your form.
• I am looking at just a few of examples here. You
  really need to read the reference to see what is
• trim(string) removes the whitespace at the
  beginning and the end of the string string. It
  returns the transformed string.
   $input " Festbock ";
   print "|$output|"; // prints: |Festbock|
• whitespace is any of the following characters
   –   the blank character
   –   the newline
   –   the carriage return
   –   the tabulation character
• strlen(string) returns the length of the string string.
   print $zip_length;
   // hopefully, prints 5
• strip_tagS(string) removes HTML tags from the
  string string
  print strip_tags($input);   // prints: Butweiser
  $in="<a href=\"\"><img
  print strip_tags($in);      // prints nothing, hurray!
• htmlentities(string) makes HTML entities out of
  HTML special chars in the string string. <,>,&,
  and " are transformed. It returns the transformed
  $in="What does the <div> element do?";
  print htmlentities($in);
  // prints: What does the &lt;div&gt; element do?
• if a variable read from a form, say, for example a
  user name Antoine d'Amstel, contains a single or
  double quote, this can be very problematic in
  certain later treatments. Use addslashes(string) to
  add slashes to user input that may contain
  quotation characters.
• stripslashes(string) does the opposite.
• Numbers are set without the use of quotes.
• You can +, -, * and / for the the basic calculations.
• There also is the modulus operator %. It gives the
  reminder of the division of the first number by the
   print 10 % 7;           // prints 3
• Use parenthesis for complicated calculations
   $pack=2 * (10 % 7);
   print "a $pack pack";   // prints: a 6 pack
          other number functions
• abs() calculates the absolute value
  print abs(-3)     // prints: 3
  print abs(3)      // prints: 3
• The list of functions that use numbers is
      geeky increment/decrement
• ++ is an operator that adds one. The value of the
  resulting expression depends on the position of
  the operator
  print ++$a;    // prints: 5
  print $a;      // prints: 5
  print $b++;    // prints 4
  print $b;      // prints 5
• -- works in the same way
               variable names
• Variable name must start with a letter or
  underscore. They can contain letters, digits and
  underscores. The following are examples of
  illegal names
  – $2drunk
  – $bottle-content
  – $brewer@grosswald
• Variable names are case sensitive. I use
  lowercase only and add underscores in long
• It is good to give variables meaningful names.
• This is done with the . operator.
   $message='This costs ' . $cost;
   print $message;
   // prints: This costs 5.23
• PHP sees that 5.23 is a number but will treat it as
  a string for this purpose.
       geeky combined operators
• There are some combined operators that change
  a value and set it to the new one. For example
  $a+=$b ;
• is the same as
• Same effect for -=, *=, /=, %=, and .=
  $a="I want ";
  $b="Balitka 8";
  echo $a;      // prints: "I want Baltika 8"
                Boolean value
• Every expression in PHP has a Boolean value.
• It is either 'true' or 'false'.
• In certain situation, an expression is evaluated as
  a Boolean
• For example
  expression1 or expression2
                  what is truth?
• All strings are true except
   – the empty string
   – the string "0"
• All numbers are true except
   – 0.0
• example
   $a=5-4-1;            // $a is false
• Note that variables that you have not assigned
  contents are false. This includes misspelled
           comparison operators
• Expressions that are evaluated in Boolean often
  use comparison operators.
  $beer == 'grosswald' // checks for equality
• note difference from
  $beer='grosswald'; // this is always true
• Other comparisons are
  < smaller than          <= smaller or equal than
  > larger than           >= larger or equal than
                 logical operators
• 'and' is logical AND. 'or' is logical OR.
   if($brand=='Budweiser' or $brand="Sam Adams") {
     echo "Commiserations for buying a lousy beer\n";
   } # where is the mistake in this piece of code?
• 'not' is Boolean NOT
• These can be combined. Use parenthesis
   if((($pints) > 2 and ($vehicle=='car')) or (($pints > 6) and
      ($vehicle=='bicycle'))) {
      print "order a cab!\n";
                 variable types
• Variables in PHP have types. You can check for
• They all return a Boolean value.
• They can be used to check the nature of a
                            if() { }
• if(expression) evaluates an expression
  expression as Boolean, and executes a block of
  code surrounded by curly brackets if the
  expression is true.
  if($drunk) {
    print "Dont\'t drive!\n";
• Note you don't need to indent the block as done
  above, but the way Thomas has done it there is
  pretty much standard, so do it in the same way.
                     if() {} else {}
• if you have an if() you can add an else block of
  code to execute when the condition is false
  if($sober) {
    print "You can drive\n";
  else {
    print "Check if you are fit to drive\n";
                     elseif() { }
• You can build chain of conditions
  if($pints_drunk==0) {
    print "You are ok to drive\n";
  elseif($pints_drunk<3) {
     print "Don't use the car, get on your bike\n";
  elseif($pints_drunk<=6) {
     print "Take a cab home\n";
  else { print "Call the local hospital!\n";
                     while() { }
• while() { } executes a piece of code while the
  condition is true
  while($count < 100) {
    print “ Пиво без водки -- деньги на ветер!<br/>";
    $count=$count+1; # don't forget to increment $count!
• The variables we have looked at up until now are
  scalars. They can only contain one piece of data.
• Arrays are variables that can contain one that one
  piece of data.
  – For example, a six pack in conveniently represented as
    an array of cans of beer.
  – For another example, a class is a group of people,
    each having a name, a social security number, etc.
                  numeric arrays
• An numeric array has key value pairs where the
  keys are numbers.
  $good_beers[0]="Baltika 8";
  $good_beers[1]="Bruch Festbock";
• or as follows
  $lousy_beers=array("Miller Lite", "Sam Adams",
  print $lousy_beers[0];    // prints: Miller Lite
  print $lousy_beers[2];    // prints: Budweiser
                   string arrays
• Sometimes you need data structured by a string.
  For example for a price list.
  $price['Grosswald Export']=1.45;
  $price['Bruch Festbock']=1.74;
  // the array $price has strings as keys
• An equivalent way to declare this is
  $price=array('Grosswald Export' => 1.45, 'Bruch
    Festbock' => 1.74);
               array functions
• There is a very large number of array functions.
  They are described in the array function
• Now we are just looking at some examples.
• count() returns the size of an array
   $price['Grosswald Export']=1.45;
   $price['Bruch Festbock']=1.74;
   print "We have $product_number products for you
   // prints: We have 2 products for you today.
      counting in numeric arrays
• For numeric arrays, you can add members very
  simple without keeping track of number.
  $beers=("Karlsberg", "Bruch") ;
  // $beer now has Karlberg, Bruch and Budweiser
  print count($beers) ; // prints 3
         looping through an array
• foreach() loops through an array. An example
   print "<table caption=\"price list\">\n";
   foreach ($price as $item => $euro_amount) {
      print "<tr><td>$item</td>\n";
      print "<td>&euro;$euro_amount</td></tr>\n";
   print "</table>";
• This prints the full price list. But it could also do
  the whole form. This is fabulous!
          example from the form
• $_GET is an array. You can loop through it.
  foreach($_GET as $control => $value) {
    print “you set $control to $value<br/>\n”;
    the well-aligned price table
$count=0; // counter of elements printed
print "<table caption=\"price list\">\n";
foreach ($price as $item => $euro_amount) {
   print "<tr><td align=\"$l_r[$count % 2]\"";
   print "$item";
   print "</td>\n<td align=$l_r[$count % 2]\">
print "</table>\n";
// This produces something like
// <table caption="price list">
// <tr><td align="left">Grosswald Export</td>
// <td align="right">&euro;1.45</td></tr>
// <tr><td align="left">Bruch Festbock</td>
// <td align="right"'>&euro;1.74</td></tr>
// </table>
                multiple arrays
• Example
     $products[0]['name']="Grosswald Pilsener";
     $products[1]['name']="Grosswald Export";
     $products[2]['name']="Bruch Landbier";
            restructure the shop
• Instead of having two files, one with HTML, the
  other with PHP, let us have just one. It's easier.
• One cool thing to help that is cool is
  It gives the file name of your script in the form. As
  you change your script file name, you do not need
  to change the name of the form submitted.
           check for submission
• We include a hidden element in the form to see if
  it was submitted
  <input type="hidden" name="submitted" value="1"/>
• We start the script we check for submission
  if($_GET['submitted']) {
      // work on the data that was submitted
  else {
        // print form
           define some variables
$form_greet='<h1>Please place your order</h1>';
$form_top="<form action=\"$_SERVER[PHP_SELF]\"
$form_submit='</table><input type="submit" value="I
$submit_check='<input type="hidden" name="submitted"
$order_head="<h1>Results of your order</h1><div>\n";
•$order_bottom="Thank you for your order. We will ship
when we get your check. Prosit!\n</div>";
                 printing results
if($_GET['submitted']) {
  $total_euro=0;                   print $order_head;
  foreach($_GET as $number => $amount) {
    if($amount > 0 and $products[$number]) {
      print "$amount bottles of ";
      print $products[$number][name];
      print " is &euro;$pay<br/>"; $total_euro+=$pay;
 print results, start form printing part
 print "The euro rate is $euro_rate<br/>\n";
 print "Your bill is \$$total_dollar\n</div>";
else { // print the form
  print $form_greet; print $form_top; $product_count=0;
  foreach ($products as $prod) {
   print "\n<tr><td>";
   print $prod['name'];
   print "</td><td>";
           final part, printing the form
     print "<input type=\"text\" name=\"";
     print $product_count;
     print "\" maxlength=\"2\" size=\"2\"/>";
     print "</td><td>@&euro;";
     print $prod['price'];
     print "</td></tr>\n";
     $product_count++; // don't forget!
    print $submit_check;
    print $form_submit;
    print $form_bottom;
• Databases are collection of data with some
  organization to them.
• The classic example is the relational database.
• But not all database need to be relational
           relational databases
• A relational database is a set of tables. There
  may be relations between the tables.
• Each table has a number of record. Each record
  has a number of fields.
• When the database is being set up, we fix
  – the size of each field
  – relationships between tables
        example: Movie database
ID   | title                 | director            | date
M1   | Gone with the wind    | F. Ford Coppola     | 1963
M2   | Room with a view      | Coppola, F Ford     | 1985
M3   | High Noon             | Woody Allan         | 1974
M4   | Star Wars             | Steve Spielberg     | 1993
M5   | Alien                 | Allen, Woody        | 1987
M6   | Blowing in the Wind   | Spielberg, Steven   | 1962
• Single table
• No relations between tables, of course
      problem with this database
• All data wrong, but this is just for illustration.
• Name covered inconsistently. There is no way to
  find films by Woody Allan without having to go
  through all spelling variations.
• Mistakes are difficult to correct. We have to
  wade through all records, a masochist’s
              Better movie database
ID | title                        | director     | year
M1 | Gone with the wind           | D1           | 1963
M2 | Room with a view             | D1           | 1985
M3 | High Noon                    | D2           | 1974
M4 | Star Wars                    | D3           | 1993
M5 | Alien                        | D2           | 1987
M6 | Blowing in the Wind          | D3           | 1962

ID      | director name           | birth year
D1      | Ford Coppola, Francis   | 1942
D2      | Allan, Woody            | 1957
D3      | Spielberg, Steven       | 1942
           Relational database
• We have a one to many relationship between
  directors and film
  – Each film has one director
  – Each director has produced many films
• Here it becomes possible for the computer
  – To know which films have been directed by Woody
  – To find which films have been directed by a director
    born in 1942
       Many-to-many relationships
• Each film has one director, but many actors star
  in it. Relationship between actors and films is a
  many to many relationship.
• Here are a few actors
  ID       | sex   | actor name        | birth year
  A1       |f      | Brigitte Bardot   | 1972
  A2       |m      | George Clooney    | 1927
  A3       |f      | Marilyn Monroe    | 1934
             Actor/Movie table
actor id | movie id
A1       | M4
A2       | M3
A3       | M2
A1       | M5
A1       | M3
A2       | M6
A3       | M4
… as many lines as required
              databases in libraries
• Relational databases dominate the world of
  structured data
• But not so popular in libraries
   – Slow on very large databases (such as catalogs)
   – Library data has nasty ad-hoc relationships, e.g.
      • Translation of the first edition of a book
      • CD supplement that comes with the print version
   Difficult to deal with in a system where all relations and
     field have to be set up at the start, can not be changed
     easily later.
            databases in web sites
• Lots of active web sites are driven by relational
  databases. All large active web sites are.
• The design of a active web site first involves
  looking at databases.
• In a shop situation, we have the following tables
  –   customers
  –   products
  –   orders
  –   orders_products
       for multiple to multiple relationship between orders and products.
• They are a very successful, open-source vendor
  of SQL software.
• Their product is basically freely available.
• We will learn the mySQL dialect of SQL.
• We will do this next week.
• phpmyadmin is a set of PHP scripts that create a
  general purpose interface to work with a mySQL
• It is written in PHP.
• It lives at
• You need an account. This is not your wotan
  account, but a permission to use a database on
  the mySQL server running at wotan.
      creating mySQL databases
• To create accounts however, I will do it in mySQL
  directly with you now. After logging into mySQL
  as the root user, I will issue
  GRANT ALL ON user_name.* TO user_name
• user_name is your user name. It is the name of
  your database as well as the name under which
  you are logging in.
• You will type in the secret word.

      Thank you for your attention!

  Please switch off machines b4 leaving!