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					DECENTRALIZATION


  The Creation of the
       Suburb
    The Street as Public Space
… the standard up to the mid 20th c.
Riverside, Illinois
                         designed by
                          Frederick Law
                          Olmsted, 1869
                         a prototype suburb 9
                          mi. from Chicago
                         reached by streetcar
                         Why?
                          –   Cities at that time
                              were smoky, dirty,
                              places
                          –   Urban ailments were
                              wrongly associated
                              with density itself
                          –   Suburbs quickly
                              became the
                              fashionable places
                              for the wealthy to
                              live
The streetcar
             From the 1870s
             Driven by horse, by
              cable, and eventually
              by electricity
              – on-grade
              – elevated (the “el”)
              – below ground (the
                subway or “metro”)
             Driven out of business
              in the 1950s in the US
              through buy-outs,
              aggressive
              competition from bus
              companies, and
              government
              subsidization of
              freeways
        The
     Interstate
      Freeway
FAHA: Federal Aid Highway
Act (1956)

Federally-subsidized highway
construction (states ended up
paying only 10%)

Congress created a form of
corporate welfare under hard
lobbying from the “road gang”:
oil, car, and tire corporations


                                http://www.gbcnet.com/ushighways/US101/101pics2b.html
The Post-War House (from 1940s)
  a product of its economic and social
              environment
 Mass-produced housing
Levittown, etc. from 1950s

            Prefab parts, standardized plans,
            rotating work crews
A Levittown Photo Album




• Federal Govt. insured home loan
  providers from 1933 (FHA)
• Term was lengthened from 5-10 yrs to
  20-30 yrs.
• Veterans Administration (GI-Bill) created
  no-down-payment loans
    What is it?
The Mall (from 1950s)
                        Came into
                        direct
                        competition
                        with
                        downtown
                        shopping
                        districts and
                        external
                        pedestrian
                        space, in
                        general
The Service-Oriented Suburban
 Office Building (from 1970s)
The Back Office (from 1980s)
Greenfields 1980s
Greenfields 1980s
Brownfields
                TOADs
Temporarily Obsolete and Derelict Structures
                 “TOADs”
Purified Residential Spaces
Centrifugal Forces
   classism
   racism
   federal policy
   automobile
    dependency
   ageing infrastructure
   inner-city crime
   school quality
   inner-city pollution
Cyclical Relationship



  FLIGHT OF
                       DECENTRALIZATION
  AFFLUENT
                           OF JOBS
 POPULATIONS




               INCREASING
                  CRIME &
                TENSION IN
                INNER CITY
What happens to those who remain in
          the inner city?
      Urbanization of Poverty
 less than 1/3 of the poor in 1961 lived in
  inner city areas, now about 1/2 of the
  poor live in these areas
 level of urban poverty has gotten worse:
  from less than 40% to more than 50% in
  Chicago’s Black Belt
 ghettos are expanding at their edges
         Discovery of the 1990s
   If everyone wants to live where the rich live, and
    the rich flee to the suburbs or the “urban fringe,”
    only the really poor will be left in the inner city
   This will mean the city has few fiscal resources to
    address social and environmental problems
   Urban problems will fester and cities will become
    hostile, dangerous places
   90% of those who live there will suffer from the
    unfavorable conditions without sharing any of the
    “blame”
   The way for well-off urbanites to address the
    social problems of the inner city is to quit running
    away
    Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton
   More than 85% of all ghetto-dwellers by 1990 were ethnic
    minorities
    – Racial segregation got much worse up to 1990 (most recent
      data they obtained)
   Fiscal retrenchment
    – Schools were overcrowded and poor quality so students and
      parents avoided them
    – Apartment maintenance by landlords declined
    – Street and utility maintenance by the city declined
    – Quality of policing and fire protection declined
   Spatial mismatch
    – Job opportunities disappeared as inner-city businesses were
      replaced by shopping malls in the suburbs
   Unemployment led to substance abuse
    – chemical addiction affected pre-teens
    – addiction led to a general sense of hopelessness
Much of this comes down to
    a struggle against
  anti-urban ideologies

        What are our
   dreams of the “good life”?
Anti-Urban Dreams
More Anti-Urban Dreams …
…and a Little Paranoia
Costs of the Anti-Urban
        Dream
Deforestation
          Who Suffers from Exurban
               Development?




Possum photo from http://www.rundevilrun.com/ezine/carcass.html
Exurban Development
Habitat destruction for lawn
Habitat destruction for recreation
  An Urban
Renaissance?
Pedestrian Malls
             Pearl Street Mall
          (Boulder, Colorado)
   Riverwalk
(San Antonio)
Quincy Market
     (Boston)
    Medium to High-Density,
Mixed-Use Developments in Austin
        The Triangle
        Development
                       The Mueller
                       Development
Mueller Community, Austin
  (under construction)
New Downtown Development
Gentrification
              Actual realtor’s
               listing
               (from Toronto)
               Grand High Park
                  residence
               “Diamond in the rough”
                  with parking
               Awaits your touch
               Exceptionally high
                  basement with separate
                  entrance
               Easy access to High Park
                  & subway
               Stroll to trendy Bloor Street
                  shops & restaurants
               Problems with the
             “Urban Renaissance”
   Rising cost of an apartment lease and replacement of low-
    income populations by professionals (gentrification)
   Displacement of the urban poor to the urban fringe
    – Mobile home parks interspersed with new $200,000 homes at
      the fringe
    – Leapfrog development
   Extra demands on old urban infrastructure
    – Must provide space for more cars, more people, more
      businesses, etc.
    – Must complement higher densities with greater access to
      public transit: buses and light rail
    – Must safely accommodate more of two kinds of pedestrians:
      walkers and bikers
    – Must integrate historic architecture and sense of place with
      large amounts of new construction
                       Summary
   The city has undergone a series of changes throughout the
    20th century
   Decentralization has had a detrimental effect on inner city
    areas
   The federal government has played a major role,
    encouraging and literally subsidizing decentralization
   Racist and classist attitudes drove the initial wave of
    suburbanization and were “proven” by the evidence of
    decline that followed from massive decentralization and
    disinvestment
   Since the mid 1990s, a wave of interest has brought people
    back to the city and has rejuvenated interest in urban
    living, producing a kind of urban renaissance or
    revitalization with some good effects but also some
    challenges and some negatives

				
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