Docstoc

DESEGREGATION _ MASSIVE RESISTANCE_ NORFOLK_ VA

Document Sample
DESEGREGATION _ MASSIVE RESISTANCE_ NORFOLK_ VA Powered By Docstoc
					TITLE:       DESEGREGATION & MASSIVE RESISTANCE, NORFOLK, VA

TOPIC:       Integration and Massive Resistance – key perspectives, sources, themes,
             and classroom strategies

OBJECTIVES:
   identify possible perspectives associated with desegregation and massive
    resistance in Norfolk, Virginia
   identify types of sources to explore for lessons about desegregation and massive
    resistance
   introduce key themes and topics for analysis
   explore ideas for classroom instruction

SOL CONNECTION:

Elementary School Curriculum Frameworks Across Grade Levels

1.10         Good citizens show a variety of positive traits.
1.12         Communities in Virginia include people with different ethnic origins,
             customs, and traditions.
2.12         The United States is a land of people who have diverse ethnic origins,
             customs, and traditions
VS9b         Massive Resistance Movement was designed to avoid desegregation in
Virginia.

Middle School Curriculum - United States History: 1877 to the Present

USII.1a      Analyze and interpret primary and secondary source documents.
USII.1b      Make connections between past and present.
USII.7d      Demonstrate knowledge of African Americans’ aspirations for equal
             opportunities and Civil Rights legislation
USII.8a      Examine the Civil Rights Movement.

High School Curriculum

VUS.1a       Identify, analyze, and interpret primary and secondary source documents,
             records data, including artifacts, diaries, letters, photographs, journals,
             newspapers, historical accounts, and art to increase understanding of
             events and life in the United States.
VUS.1c       Formulate historical questions and defend findings based on inquiry and
             interpretation.
VUS.14a      Identify the importance of Brown v. Board of Education decision (Supreme
             Court, Virginia case, Massive Resistance).
GOVT.1a      Analyze primary and secondary sources.
GOVT.8.d     Examine the ways individuals and groups exert influence on state and
             local governments.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:

In the United States, desegregation of public schools occurred after the 1954 Supreme
Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education. Many southern states resisted
desegregation. In Virginia, the Massive Resistance Movement arose in response to
desegregation legislation. Norfolk closed its schools in the Fall of 1958 and did not
reopen until February 1959. This document was designed to provide an overview for a
teacher. The overview of the Special Collection on Desegregation and Massive
Resistance in Norfolk provides possible perspectives, sources, themes, topics to
analyze, and classroom strategies.

STEPS:

1. Access http://www.lib.odu.edu/special/schooldesegregation/ and explore the web
   material by clicking on the tabs.

2. Use the suggestions in this document to guide you as you design lessons that allow
   students to explore the website and desegregation in Norfolk.




CLASSROOM SUGGESTIONS

       As you explore the website, these ideas may help you to design creative lessons
for your students.

      Compare court cases
      Create a story board to depict one person’s experience
      Create a story board to represent different perspectives
      Design a web quest to explore the issues and events
      Connect broadcast to personal papers of Margaret White
      Listen to and analyze oral histories of Vivian Carter-Mason, Ruth James, and
       Edith White (advanced)
      Follow one political leader’s actions
      Explore sociological and psychological issues
      Explore economic issues
      Station work (walk-about) to gather information from a variety of perspectives


WEBSITE RESOURCES

http://www.lib.odu.edu/special/schooldesegregation/ Access the picture and individual
information.
            DESEGREGATION & MASSIVE RESISTANCE, NORFOLK, VA

KEY PERSPECTIVES

        Use this material to create activities that explore the material through the lens of
women, the members of the Norfolk 17, educators, lawyers, politicians, business
leaders, School Board members, community members, religious groups, and the
military.

1. Women

       Women’s Council for Interracial Cooperation

       Vivian Carter-Mason

       Ruth James

       Margaret White

2. Norfolk 17

3. Educators (teachers and professors)

4. Community members

5. Norfolk School Board

6. Norfolk Committee on Public Schools

7. First Baptist Church on Bute Street

8. Politicians in Virginia

9. Beyond Virginia

10. Business leaders
TYPE OF SOURCES

       This collection contains a wide variety of sources that allow students to explore
diverse material.

1. Oral histories

2. Judicial/legal issues and Supreme Court cases

       Plessy v Ferguson, 1896

       Brown v Board of Education, 1954

       Beckett v School Board of the City of Norfolk, 1957

       Adkins v School Board of the City of Newport News, 1957

       Ruth Pendleton James, a minor, etc., et al. v J. Lindsay Almond, Jr., Governor of
       Virginia, et al., 1958

       Ruth Pendleton James, a minor, etc., et al. v W. Fred Duckworth, et al, 1959

3. Newspaper articles

4. Photographs

5. Journals, diaries, personal papers




KEY THEMES

1. Economic factors and effects

2. Political ramifications

3. Social and cultural actions and reactions

4. Military influence
TOPICS TO ANALYZE

1. Pictures only of the Norfolk 17

2. Written documentaries about the Norfolk 17

3. Synthesizing pictures and documentaries of the Norfolk 17

4. Videos

5. Education and career paths of the Norfolk 17

6. Compare to the Little Rock 9

7. Treatments and experiences at the different schools




                SCHOOLS        MALES FEMALES TOTAL

                Norview HS     2       5           7

                Maury HS       1       0           1

                Granby HS      0       1           1

                Norview        2       3           5
                JHS

                Northside      0       1           1
                JHS

                Blair JHS      1       1           2

                TOTAL          6       11          17

				
DOCUMENT INFO