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Poultry Farm Information Assessment Sheet Poultry Farm Information Assessment Sheet Expansion to

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Poultry Farm Information Assessment Sheet Poultry Farm Information Assessment Sheet Expansion to Powered By Docstoc
					Poultry Farm
Information Assessment Sheet
Expansion to existing poultry farms and new poultry farms
This Poultry Farm Information Assessment Sheet is intended to assist assessment officers
and the poultry industry:

   •   Ensure new poultry farms are established in locations suitable to their operational
       requirements and long term viability;
   •   Minimise the impact of poultry farms on incompatible / sensitive land uses and the
       environment; and
   •   Ensure correct information is submitted at the start of the development application
       process to expedite the assessment and determination of the development
       application.

The use of this Information Assessment Sheet is voluntary and is not intended to regulate
or encroach on any other areas of legislative responsibility. The information is to be used
as a guide only.

The focus of the Information Assessment Sheet is on the two main commercial poultry
enterprises of meat chicken production and egg production. However, much of the
information can be applied to other commercial poultry industries such as duck farming
and free range operations.

This Information Assessment Sheet includes the following contents:

   •   A – Pre-Purchase / Due Diligence Checklist
   •   B – Town Planning Development Application Lodgement Checklist
   •   Appendix A     Types of Poultry Farms & Support Facilities
   •   Appendix B     Useful Terminology & Poultry Farming Overview
   •   Appendix C     Useful Sources of Information / Reference Material
   •   Appendix D     Example of a Site Plan (indicative only)
     A. Pre-purchase / due diligence checklist
     The following checklist identifies key issues for consideration when undertaking
     investigations of potential locations for establishing a new poultry farm and expanding an
     existing farm.

     Consideration of potential issues and resolution at the early planning stage will minimise
     the potential for conflict with neighbours, manage potential environmental impacts and
     ensure the long term viability of the farm. Assessing Officers may wish to use this
     checklist for enquiries and pre-lodgement meetings.
     Note: References to specific standards / requirements in the following checklist are extracts from the draft
     “Best Practice Technical Guide for the Meat Chicken Industry in Queensland”. For a comprehensive checklist
     refer to the draft “Best Practice Technical Guide”, Appendix F: Best Environmental Practice Checklist.


       Key Issue                                   Best Management Practice #                                      Yes   N/A
Farm location and size
1.      Planning Scheme     Check the site has an appropriate land use zone / area for poultry farming
        provisions          (Check the planning scheme provisions applicable to the local government area)
                            Check the site can achieve the necessary separation distance from existing and
                            future urban or rural residential land uses and other sensitive land uses to ensure
                            there are no adverse odour, noise and dust impacts.
                            (Note: this is one of the key issues and will require further detailed investigation
                            if all the other criteria referred to in this Information Assessment Sheet are met)
                            Check for potential impacts of future land use planning within the surrounding
                            local area. (This information may be obtained from the relevant Council)
2.      Locational          The site should be located outside the following South East Queensland Regional
        Requirements –      Plan areas:
        Hard Constraints    •      Urban Footprint
        (Refer to DLGPSR    •      Rural Villages (including Schedule 5 list)
        maps available at   •      Rural Living Area
        Council)            •      Investigation Area
                            The site should be located outside Rural Residential zoned land
                            Sheds, roads and spent litter storage areas are to be located above the 1 in 100
                            year flood line
                            The site should be locate outside declared water catchments and watercourses:
                            •      For a major water supply storage (any public water supply storage, lake,
                                   lagoon, marsh or swamp) - 800 m buffer distance or as per authority
                                   requirements
                            •      For a watercourse – 100 m buffer distance or as per authority requirements




     June 2007                                                                                                           2
       Key Issue                                  Best Management Practice #                                      Yes   N/A
Farm location and size
       Locational          The site should be located to ensure appropriate separation between poultry
       Requirements –      farms:
       Hard Constraints    •    1,000 m between existing or new meat chicken farm complex and any
       (cont.)                  alternative form of intensive poultry farming
                           •    5 km between a meat chicken farm complex and a meat chicken breeder
                                farm
                           The location of sheds and access ways must avoid clearing endangered remnant
                           vegetation. The ability to clear other significant vegetation (eg of concern) on the
                           Regional Ecosystem maps should be checked. This is a legislative requirement.
                           Refer to the Department of Natural Resources & Water Regional Ecosystem maps.
                           (Website -
                           http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/nature_conservation/biodiversity/regional_ecosyste
                           ms/introduction_and_status/Regional_Ecosystem_Maps/)
3.     Locational          Avoid steep land for sheds and access ways:
       Requirements –      •    Maximum ground slope for sheds – not exceeding 1:10 (10%)
       Soft Constraints    •    Consider maximum grade for vehicular access (eg B-Doubles and semi-
       (Refer to DLGPSR         trailers)
       maps available at   (Note: steeper topography on the balance of the site can be used as a buffer to
       Council)            surrounding properties)
                           Locate sheds away from natural waterways, wetlands, habitat and biodiversity
                           areas where practical
                           Avoid sites in close proximity to gas or oil pipelines (i.e. 200m buffer)
4.     Locational          Consider proximity of the site to processing plants / abattoirs
       Requirements –      •    Preferred maximum travel distance of 100 km
       Opportunities       Consider proximity of the site to feed mills / food supplies
       (Refer to DLGPSR    •    Preferred maximum travel distance of 100 km
       maps available at   Consider proximity to major roads for delivery and pick up vehicles (avoid
       Council)            encouraging heavy vehicle transportation through residential areas)
5.     Buffer /            Ensure that adequate buffer distances can be provided to relevant features (eg
       Separation          water bodies, riparian zones)
       Distances           Consider separation distances and buffer zones to sensitive land uses and
                           property boundaries (eg residences, public meeting places etc)
                           (Note: this will require detailed assessment of potential odour, dust and noise
                           emissions to determine potential impacts)
                           Potential odour impacts will have significant impact on the size of the property
                           that is required to ensure necessary buffering can be achieved. The location of
                           the sheds and outlet fans in relation to the property boundaries can assist in
                           reducing impacts.
6.     Infrastructure      Access to suitable power supply:
                           •    Three phase power
                           •    Backup generator with automatic switch control
                           Access to suitable water supply (drinking and cooling):
                           •    Town water supply or water treated to potable standard (require
                                approximately 2 litres of water for every kilogram of feed consumed)
                           •    Backup supply for minimum 2 days total requirement
                           •    If used, surface water is to be treated to an adequate standard




     June 2007                                                                                                          3
       Key Issue                                     Best Management Practice #                                         Yes   N/A
Farm location and size
7.     Infrastructure         Consider proximity to external road access:
       (cont).                •   All weather road access to property to accommodate anticipated types and
                                  number of vehicles
       Note: Whilst setting   •   Sufficient road width for turning on/off the site (possible need for
       the sheds back from        acceleration and deceleration lanes)
       the road frontage      •   Site access located on a straight stretch of road with good visibility in both
       makes the provision        directions
       of services such as
       power and access       •   Site access is designed not to interfere with adjoining roads and located
       more costly,               away from other property entrances
       appropriate shed
       setbacks can help      Internal road access / parking:
       reduce potential       •     Traffic and parking – on-farm roads/parking is located to minimise noise and
       adverse impacts.
                                    vehicle light impacts to nearby sensitive land uses
                              •     Accommodate all anticipated vehicles (eg semi-trailers and B-Doubles)
                              •     Ensure internal road, manoeuvring and parking can meet local government
                                    standards (eg gravel etc)
8.     On-site spent litter   An adequate area of suitable land is available for sustainable litter utilisation if it
       utilisation            is intended to apply spent litter on the farm
                              (Note: utilisation of on-site spent litter is a separate land use to the poultry farm
                              itself and may require a separate material change of use approval. Provisions for
                              the use of on-site spent litter are not addressed in this Information Assessment
                              Sheet)
9.     Consideration of       Potential impacts on neighbours are investigated through consideration of:
       adjoining and          •   Wind directions
       nearby neighbours      •   Use of natural buffers (eg topography, existing vegetation)
                              •   Location of sheds
                              •   Direction of exhaust fans
                              •   Location of waste bins and spent litter
                              •   Use of night lights
                              •   Location of on-site driveways, pick up and loading areas and parking

     After investigating the ‘pre-purchase / due diligence checklist’ issues, and prior to
     proceeding with a sales contract and/or the preparation of a development application, it is
     recommended that applicants arrange a pre-lodgement meeting with Council’s town
     planning and environmental health officers.




     June 2007                                                                                                                4
     B. Town Planning development application lodgement checklist
     The following checklist identifies key issues for consideration in the preparation,
     lodgement and assessment of a town planning development application for establishing a
     new poultry farm or expanding an existing farm.

     This checklist does not cover:

         •     The Environmentally Relevant Activity (ERA) component of a development
               application. Please note that an application for the ERA component must be
               submitted to Council at the same time as the town planning application. It should
               be noted there are a number of overlaps between the requirements for the town
               planning component and the environmentally relevant activity component.
         •     The use of spent litter. The use of spent litter may be defined as a separate land
               use activity to poultry farming and may require an independent development
               approval.

     Preparing and monitoring a development application under the Integrated Planning Act
     1997 is not an easy task for applicants. The use of suitably qualified consultants is
     therefore strongly recommended for the preparation of the development application (town
     planning consultant) as well as any supporting technical report / studies.
     Note: References to specific standards / requirements in the following checklist are extracts from the draft
     “Best Practice Technical Guide for the Meat Chicken Industry in Queensland”. For a comprehensive checklist
     refer to the draft “Best Practice Technical Guide”, Appendix F: Best Environmental Practice Checklist.

             Checklist                                    Detailed Description                                       Yes N/A
General
1.    IDAS Forms             Mandatory (all applications):
                             • Part A – Common Details
                             • Part D – Material Change of Use
                             • Part G – Environmentally Relevant Activity
                             • IDAS Assessment Checklist (assists applicants to determine when an
                                 application requires assessment by a Queensland State entity (eg Department
                                 of Main Roads)
                             (Website: - http://www.ipa.qld.gov.au/idas/idasformsdevform1.asp)
                             Mandatory (subject to site specific details):
                             • Check all other IDAS forms (Parts A to P) to see if any are applicable eg Part J –
                                 Clearing Native Vegetation
                             (Website – http://www.ipa.qld.gov.au/idas/idasformsdevform1.asp)
2.    Application Fee        Refer to Council’s Schedule of Fees – development application
                             • Planning component
                             • Environmental Relevant Activity (ERA) component
                             (Note: if the application triggers referral agencies check with each applicable
                             referral agency if an application fee applies).


        Checklist                                         Detailed Description                                       Yes N/A
General (cont).
3.    Type of Poultry Farm   • Applicants must provide a clear description of the type of poultry farm being
                                proposed. Refer to Appendix A for definitions of the various types of poultry
                                farms (For example: meat chicken farm, egg farm, free range)
                             • Assessing Officers should state the type of poultry farm that is approved in the
                                development permit.
                             (Note: utilisation of on-site spent litter is a separate land use to the poultry farm
                             itself and may require a separate material change of use approval. Provisions for
                             the use of on-site spent litter are not addressed in this Information Assessment
                             Sheet).




     June 2007                                                                                                           5
4.    Maximum scale /        • Applicants must provide a clear statement of the maximum number of birds to
      intensity of use         be housed on-site at any given time (any future increase in bird numbers over
                               this figure may require a new application)
                               (Note: Birds are raised in batches. The figure applies to the maximum number
                                of birds kept on site at any one time. It does not apply to the total number of
                                birds that may be kept on the farm in one year. For example: the maximum
                                number may be 100,000 birds. If there are 5 batches of birds in one year this
                                means that there will be 500,000 birds raised on that farm in one year.
                                However the maximum number of birds at any given time will be 100,000 birds)
                             • Assessing Officers should state the maximum number of birds permitted on site
                                 at any given time in the approved development permit.
5.    Proposal Description   Provide a clear description of all proposed land use activities, including but not
                             limited to:
                             • Number of sheds
                             • Type of shed ventilation
                             • Maximum number of staff
                             • Staff car parking details
                             • Proposed landscaping
                             • Number and type of vehicle movements (eg maximum number of vehicles
                                 including heavy vehicle movements per week, maximum size of vehicles,
                                 manoeuvring and turning circle details, parking areas)
                             • Availability of necessary services / infrastructure (eg power, water etc)
6.    Plans / Drawings       Submit the following plans drawn to scale showing, but not limited to, the
                             following details (where applicable):
                             Location Plan
                             (Aerial photography may be used if it covers all applicable buildings)
                             • Separation distances from the outer edge of proposed sheds to any adjoining
                                residences and / or sensitive receiving environment (as defined in the
                                Environmental Protection Act and the planning scheme) within 2 km of the site
                                boundaries
                             • Separation distance to nearest poultry farms (if applicable): - 5 km to breeder
                                farms or 1 km to all other poultry farms
                             Site Plan (drawn to scale)
                             • All site boundaries
                             • Contours
                             • Location and size (dimensions) of all sheds and associated buildings /
                                 structures
                             • Location of tunnel ventilation fans
                             • Location and size of spent litter storage area/s (stockpiles)
                             • Separation distances to all property boundaries
                             • Internal driveways, truck turning areas, parking areas
                             • Location and size of proposed stormwater detention dam
                             • Proposed landscaping buffer/s (refer to landscaping details)




     June 2007                                                                                                    6
        Checklist                                              Detailed Description                                      Yes N/A
General (cont).
      Plans / Drawings             • Other on-site features such as existing buildings not associated with the farm
      (cont.)                         sheds (eg residence, sheds)
                                   • Any existing stands of vegetation. Specify if remnant vegetation (check
                                      Regional Ecosystem Maps)
                                   • Any water bodies (eg bores, wells, wetlands, surface water, drains or water
                                      courses) within 500 metres of the shed or enclosure.
                                   • The 1 in 100 year flood level or areas of flood prone / low lying land.
                                   • Location of any easements or building location envelopes
                                   • Any aboriginal archaeological sites or other natural / cultural areas of
                                      significant
                                   Refer to Appendix D - Example of a Site Plan (indicative only)
                                   Shed Plans:
                                   • Shed floor plan
                                   • Shed elevations
                                   • External details on fans and cool cells
                                   Landscaping Details:
                                   • Landscaping details may be shown on a separate plan or included on the Site
                                      Plan
                                   • Issues for consideration (opportunity to improve visual amenity and reduce
                                      noise, light and dust impacts):
                                          o Use existing vegetation (where practical) and terrain to maximise visual
                                               screening
                                          o Use quick growing low maintenance plant species indigenous to the
                                               local area (preferably with slender leaves)
                                          o Use a variety of different size trees, shrubs and / or earthen mounds
                                               (low, medium and high range screening)
                                          o Use vegetation screening at the end of tunnel ventilated sheds;
                                               preferable with a width of 8 m
                                   Planting should be set back from sheds to allow for adequate airflow and fire
                                   control
7.    Supporting technical         • Planning assessment report (including assessment of applicable planning
      reports which may be            scheme codes).
      required                     • Odour assessment report (include spent litter utilisation areas if applicable).
                                      Refer to draft “Best Practice Technical Guide for the Meat Chicken Industry in
      Note: It is recommended
      that Applicants                 Queensland – Appendix D (Calculating Separation and Buffer Distances)” for
      undertake a preliminary         guidance.
      investigation of the         • Noise assessment report (subject to proximity to other sensitive receiving
      supporting technical            environments)
      report issues (i.e. odour,   • Environmental or Farm Management Plan, detailing proposed farm practices
      noise, environmental
      values) and where               and procedures (Note: this Plan does not need to be prepared by a consultant
      applicable confirm with         if the farm operator has suitable poultry farming experience)
      the relevant Council         • Environmental assessment report (flora and / or fauna) depending upon the
      officers on the level of        environmental values of the subject site and surrounds
      technical detail required.
      The preliminary              • Traffic assessment report, depending upon the size and location of the farm
      investigation material       • On-site drainage and stormwater assessment report
      should be submitted
      with the development         Notes:
      application to               1. It is recommended that Applicants use qualified consultants to prepare the
      demonstrate if a                above technical reports.
      supporting report is not     2. If Council does not have the expertise in-house to assess the technical reports,
      required.
                                      it is recommended that Council get an independent review by a suitably
                                      qualified consultant, particularly for the odour assessment report.

        Checklist                                              Detailed Description                                      Yes N/A
General (cont).
8.    Pre-Purchase / Due           The information that was obtained as part of the Pre-Purchase / Due Diligence
      Diligence Checklist          Checklist process should be submitted with the development application.
Location Issues
9.    Proximity to existing        The site should be located outside:
      and future                   • The following South East Queensland Regional Plan areas:
      development areas                  o Urban Footprint




     June 2007                                                                                                               7
                                       o Rural Villages (including Schedule 5 list)
                                       o Rural Living Area
                                       o Investigation Area
                                • Rural Residential zoned land
10. Declared water              The farm is located outside declared water catchments and watercourses as
    catchment areas,               follows:
    watercourses and            • Major water supply storage (any public water supply storage, lake, lagoon,
    biodiversity areas             marsh or swamp) - 800 m buffer distance or as per authority requirements
                                • Watercourse – 100 m buffer distance
                                • Separation distances from biodiversity area will depend on individual
                                   situations
11. Protection of surface       The farm is designed and located to ensure surface and groundwaters are
    and groundwaters            protected.
12. Flood immunity              The farm complex (sheds and spent litter stockpiles) and roads are located above
                                the 1 in 100 year flood line
13.    Separation to other      • 1,000 m between an existing or new meat chicken farm complex and any
       poultry farms               alternative form of intensive poultry farming
                                • 5 km between a meat chicken farm complex and a meat chicken breeder farm
14.    Adjoining land uses      • Identify existing sensitive land uses in the local area (eg 2 km radius)
       and sensitive land       • Adequate separation distances from sensitive land uses should be resolved
       uses in the local area      through the odour assessment process
                                • Consider potential future land use development on surrounding / adjoining
                                   properties, particularly for sensitive land uses
15.    Miscellaneous            • Avoid loss of any good quality agricultural land (however, consider the use of
       Location Issues             surrounding agricultural land for buffer purposes)
                                • Avoid locating in close proximity to gas or oil pipelines (eg 200 m buffer)
External and on-site facilities
16. Reliable water supply       • Town water supply or water treated to potable standard (require approximately
                                  1.2 megalitres of water for every 100,000 birds housed)
                                • Back-up supply for minimum 2 days total requirements
                                • If used, surface water is to be treated to an adequate standard
                                • Water is required for drinking and cooling
17.    Reliable power supply    • Three phase power is available
                                • Backup generator with automatic switch control
18. External road access        • All weather road access is required to the property to accommodate anticipated
                                  types and number of vehicles
                                • Consider transport routes for transporting resources and products
                                • Ensure there is sufficient road width for turning on/off site (possible need for
                                  acceleration and deceleration lanes, accommodate semi-trailers and B-doubles
                                  if required)
                                • Site access is to be located on a straight stretch of road with good visibility in
                                  both directions


        Checklist                                           Detailed Description                                       Yes N/A
External and on-site facilities (cont.)
       External road access     • Site access is designed to not interfere with adjoining roads and is located
       (cont.)                    away from other property entrances
                                • Siting and design is to minimise noise and vehicle light impacts to sensitive
                                  land uses
19. Internal road access /      • Traffic and parking - on-farm roads/parking is located to minimise noise, dust
    parking                       and vehicle light impacts to nearby sensitive land uses
                                • Internal roads can accommodate all anticipated vehicles (eg semi-trailers and
                                  B-Doubles)
                                • Internal road, manoeuvring and parking can meet local government standards
                                  (eg gravel etc)
                                • Lighting of sheds and lighting from vehicles is not to interfere with nearby
                                  sensitive land uses and adjoining properties
Farm Design
20. Consideration of            Potential impacts on neighbours are addressed through careful consideration of:
    adjoining and nearby        • Wind directions
    neighbours                  • Use of natural buffers (eg topography, vegetation)
                                • Location of sheds




      June 2007                                                                                                            8
                          • Direction of exhaust fans
                          • Location of waste bins and spent litter
                          • Use of night lights
                          • Location of on-site driveways, pick up and loading areas and parking
                          • Use of non-reflective materials for sheds
21. Steep land            Avoid steep land for sheds and access ways:
                          • Maximum ground slope for sheds - not exceeding 1:10 (10%)
                          • Consider maximum grade for vehicular access (eg B-Doubles and semi-trailers)
                          (Note: steeper topography on the balance of the site can be used as a buffer to
                          surrounding properties)
22. Shed Separation and   Separation distances between sheds - minimum 15m, less for tunnel ventilated
    Orientation           sheds
                          Sufficient distance between sheds for collection from centre of sheds to reduce
                          noise and light impacts during bird pick-up
                          Long axis of sheds oriented in an east-west direction. Tunnel ventilated sheds
                          oriented to minimise odour, dust and noise impacts on surrounding community
23. Drainage System       • Address on-site drainage, waste and stormwater handling facilities
                          • Shed floors, spent litter stockpiles (if any), stormwater detention dams (to
                              capture runoff from around the farm complex / controlled drainage area during
                              a rainfall event) designed to minimise impacts on surface water and
                              groundwater
                          • Raise base of shed above natural surface level or bund sheds to prevent entry
                              of stormwater runoff
                          • Ensure stormwater from the controlled drainage area freely drains to
                              stormwater detention facilities
                          • Consider use of vegetation such as grass swales to treat the quality of the
                              stormwater runoff
                          • Can captured runoff from stormwater detention dams be irrigated back onto
                              trees, grass, crops or pasture when weather conditions permit?
24. Ventilation System    • Shed design to provide adequate ventilation to maintain bird health (refer to
                              Best Practical Technical Guide for details)
                          • Locate any extraction fans to direct any exhaust air away from sensitive land
                              uses to minimise potential impact from odour, dust and noise




   June 2007                                                                                                  9
       Checklist                                      Detailed Description                                     Yes N/A
Farm Design (cont.)
25. Feeding and Watering   Feeding and watering systems to be designed to supply sufficient feed and water
    Systems                to chickens (refer to draft Best Practice Technical Guide for details)
26. Monitoring and         • Automatic controllers for feed, water, fans and blinds (temperature and
    Control Systems            ventilation)
                           • Alarms (preferably visual and telemetry) to alert farm manager of malfunctions
                               or extended abnormal shed conditions
Farm Management
27. Issues for             •  Erosion management during construction
    consideration
                           •  Stock density (compliance with Animal Care and Protection Regulation 2002)
                           •  Clean bedding material
                           •  Litter clean-out and spent litter storage and composting:
                              o Avoid contamination of surface water/groundwater
                              o Minimise amenity impacts (odour, dust and noise)
                              o Avoid disease transmission and excessive fly breeding
                           • Traffic (both farm and contractor operator vehicles) managed to ensure off-site
                              impacts of noise, dust and light are minimised
                           • Use of energy and eco-efficiency measures (eg automatic control systems,
                              regular maintenance etc)
                           • Waste management - waste quantities produced, the method of treatment,
                              recycling and disposal
                           • Litter management for health of flock and to minimise off-site odour, dust and
                              ammonia impacts (including clean-out, spent litter storage, composting and
                              utilisation)
                           • Control of pest and disease vectors (including managing manure/litter beetles,
                              flies, rodents, feral animals, contact with native animals and wild birds)
                           • Dead bird disposal management
                           • Biosecurity protocols are followed by persons / vehicles entering and leaving
                              the site to avoid cross contamination
                           • Shed, plant and equipment maintenance to minimise odour and dust
                              emissions and to avoid excessive noise
                           • Minimise noise and light impacts to neighbours during delivery of feed and
                              harvesting of birds
                           • Safe chemical and fuel storage and use
                           • Contingency plans for dealing with extremes and emergencies (eg high
                              temperatures, power & water supply failure, mass bird deaths)
                           • Preparation of Environmental Management System farm plan or similar. This
                              provides a structure for documenting:
                              o The environmental risks of the farm
                              o How these risks are managed
                              o The effectiveness of design and management strategies through
                                    monitoring
                              o Any required reporting of monitoring results
                              o Any identified or implemented improvements
                           Refer to the draft Best Practice Technical Guide for details on the above issues




   June 2007                                                                                                      10
Appendix A – Types of poultry farms and support facilities
A. Summary:
         Farms:                                                Support Facilities:

         (a)   Breeder Farm                                    (e)   Feed Mill
         (b)   Hatchery                                        (f)   Processing Plant
         (c)   Meat Chicken Farm
               • Free Range Meat Chicken Farm
         (d)   Egg Production
               • Pullet Rearing Farm
               • Layer Farm
               • Free Range Egg Farm

B. Descriptions:
   (a)     Breeder Farms – Using parent breeding stock from the national breeder farms, fertile
           eggs are produced for use in either egg or meat production. Breeding commences at
           approximately 6 months of age and continues until the end of their commercial
           reproductive life at 16 months of age. At the end of their productive phase, breeders are
           removed for processing for meat or by-products. Breeding farms may incorporate cage,
           slatted floor or litter-based systems. The fertile eggs that the breeding chickens produce
           are collected daily and stored for transport to the hatchery.

   (b)     Hatcheries – Hatcheries are usually located on a separate property from the breeder
           farm. A small number of hatcheries supply the entire poultry industry within Queensland.
           Eggs from breeder farms are incubated at hatcheries until they hatch. Day-old chicks from
           the hatchery are transported to either meat chicken farms or egg farms.

   (c)     Meat Chicken Farms (also referred to as Broiler Farms) – Batches of day old chicks are
           delivered to meat chicken farms. Here they are raised within large naturally or
           mechanically ventilated sheds until harvested.
           • Day old chicks are usually placed in an insulated hot air brooding section (usually half
               of the shed), which occupies about one third to half of the shed. As the chickens
               grow, the floor space is increased over the next 10 to 14 days with the chicks
               ultimately occupying the entire shed.
           • Meat chickens feed on demand from automatic feeders filled from bulk bins or silos.
               Drinking water is continually available through designated waterers.
           • The meat chickens are reared on litter, which may consist of sawdust, wood shavings,
               paper or chopped straw, depending on availability, price and absorbency.




June 2007                                                                                         11
         Meat Chicken Farms (cont.)
         • There is a number of different clean-out regimes used in the industry. These are:
              o Full cleanouts where all the litter is removed at the end of a batch. The shed is
                  then washed and disinfected before fresh bedding is placed back into the shed
                  for the next batch of chickens.
              o Partial cleanouts where litter is removed from the brooding section of the shed
                  and this section is washed and disinfected and new bedding is placed back in
                  the brooder for the next batch of chickens. Sometimes the spent litter remaining
                  in the shed will be windrowed and allowed to heat up for 4-6 days before being
                  respread.
              o Full reuse involves leaving all the litter where it is and possibly covering up the
                  spent litter in the brooder area with a thin coating of new bedding. This would
                  normally only occur if there was a very short time between batches due to an
                  unexpected peak in production.
         • Sheds are mostly 100-150m long and 12-20m wide and house approximately 20,000
            to 50,000 meat chickens. Most farms have 3 to 4 sheds, with newer farms generally
            having a larger number of sheds.
         • Meat chickens are generally raised in batches and when they reach market age they
            are caught (generally at night), placed in crates and transported to processing plants.
            Part of the flock is usually processed after about 5 weeks (first thin-out), with the
            majority of the flock harvested between 6 to 8 weeks of age.
         • Sheds are generally empty for one to two weeks after bird harvest for shed cleanout
            and disinfection between batches.
         • Farms usually raise 5 to 6 batches of meat chickens per year.
         • Most growers have contracts with meat chicken integrators.(Chicken Meat Industry
            Committee Act 1976)

         Note: A meat chicken farm complex includes the sheds used to produce meat chickens
         and associated infrastructure (e.g. silos) and any nearby spent litter/compost stockpiles.
         It excludes any spent litter utilisation areas. For tunnel ventilated sheds it includes a
         distance of 25 m out from the exhaust end of the sheds.

         Free Range Meat Chicken Farms – Free Range farming is a system of poultry farming
         that does not confine birds to cages or a poultry house, but instead allows them access to
         pasture during daylight hours. Birds have access to indoor shelter for night and
         inclement weather conditions.

   (d)   Egg Production – There are two types of farms associated with egg production:

         1. Pullet Rearing Farms: Pullets are young hens normally less than six months of age.
            Pullets may be raised by the egg farmer, or by specialist pullet growers. At 16 weeks
            of age, when the birds are nearly mature, they are transferred to layer houses for
            commencement of egg production.




June 2007                                                                                       12
         Egg Production (cont.)
         2. Layer Farms: Layer farms usually employ a caged system (birds are continuously
            housed in cages within a shed), due to its production and labour efficiency. However
            barn systems (birds are free to roam within a shed which may or may not have vertical
            levels. The floor may be based on litter or other material such as slats or wire mesh)
            or free range systems (birds range outdoors and have indoor shelter for night and
            inclement weather conditions) are also used.
            • Layer farms operate on a 12 to 18 month cycle depending on whether birds are
                purchased from Hatcheries as day old chicks or from Pullet Growing Farms at
                point of lay.
            • Layer farms vary in size but the average is approximately 12,000 hens
            • Most layers remain in production for 14 months after which they are sold to
                poultry abattoirs for processing.
            • On average the eggs are picked up twice per week by an Integrators / processors
                pick-up truck for transportation to a central grading floor for grading and retail
                distribution.

         3. Free Range Egg Farms – Free Range farming is a system of poultry farming that does
            not confine birds to cages or a poultry house, but instead allows them access to
            pasture during daylight hours. Birds have access to indoor shelter for night and
            inclement weather conditions.

   (e)   Feed Mills – Most feed is supplied from mills owned and operated by the vertically
         integrated chicken companies. The remainder is supplied by commercial feed mills,
         formulating diets to the nutritional specifications determined by the chicken companies.
         The location of company feed mills is driven largely by transport costs, so most major
         feed mills are close to significant areas of chicken farming, although access to feed
         ingredients is also a factor.

   (f)   Processing Plants – Chickens are taken directly from the growing farms to the
         processing plant where they are unloaded from their transport crates or modules,
         slaughtered, plucked, cleaned, cooled and graded. They are then either packaged and
         frozen or chilled, or processed further (called Further Processing Plants) into various
         products prior to packaging and sale to distributors. Processing plants are very large,
         highly mechanised operations.

         Poultry processing plants have developed close to markets and labour sources, with
         many of the largest operations within 50km of a capital city. This keeps distribution and
         transport costs down and ensures labour and other services are available. Meat chicken
         farms are generally within 100km of the processing plant.




June 2007                                                                                      13
Appendix B – Useful terminology & poultry farming
0verview
Contents:
   A. Useful Terminology

   B. Poultry Farming Overview


A. Useful Terminology
   (a)   Farmers / Growers – provide labour, management, shedding, equipment and bedding
         material. Farmer who provides shedding and the care of birds from when they arrive on
         the farm until they are removed for processing.

   (b)   Integrators / Processors – ‘Vertical integration’ is a common feature of the poultry
         industry, particularly the meat poultry industry. An ‘integrator’ (invariably the processing
         company) owns and operates various stages of the production process, which may
         include breeding stock, breeding farms, feed mills, hatcheries and processing facilities.
         Some of these integrated production companies also operate poultry growing farms,
         however the majority of growing farms are owned by independent farmers operating
         under contract to the company operating the poultry processing facility. Integrators also
         provide day old chicks, feed, medication, technical advice and chicken pick-up crews and
         transport. There are only a few integrators / processors operating within South East
         Queensland.

   (c)   Environmentally Relevant Activity (ERA): Poultry farms are an environmentally
         relevant activity that is devolved to local government.
               • Level 1 ERA – A poultry farm with a total holding capacity exceeding 200,000
                   birds. Requires development permit and registration certificate.
               • Level 2 ERA – A poultry farm with a total holding capacity of 1,000 to 200,000
                   birds. Requires development permit and registration certificate.

   (d)   Bio-security – protecting the flock from introduced disease. This governs farm planning
         and operations. The aim is to prevent disease outbreaks and avian disease transmission
         from one poultry property to another. There should be one kilometre between poultry
         farms and five kilometres between a breeder farm and other poultry farms. The distance
         between on-site sheds is at the operator’s discretion.

   (e)   Poultry Litter – a mixture of manure and sawdust or other absorbent bedding material.
         (This is different to ‘manure’ which is 100% bird droppings).




June 2007                                                                                         14
B. Poultry Farming Overview
   1. General Practice:

      •     Usually involve night time activities (i.e. catching and loading chickens for
            transportation).
      •     Meat chicken farms usually raise 5 to 6 batches of meat chickens per year.
      •     Indication of costs of establishing farm (eg approximately $450,000 per shed for
            40,000 birds plus site works, roads, water, power and associated infrastructure) and
            need to protect from encroachment
      •     Involves the use of tunnel and / or naturally ventilated sheds for both meat chicken
            farms and egg production
      •     Meat chickens are raised on litter and egg production usually involves raising birds in
            cages or on litter. In caged systems, droppings fall through the bottom of the cage to
            accumulate on the floor below or onto conveyor belts. In litter-based systems, birds are
            kept on sawdust, wood shavings or other absorbent material over a compacted floor.
      •     Formulated feed is provided via automated delivery systems and drinking water is
            reticulated to the birds.

   2. What Growers look for:
      •     A nearby feed mill
      •     Guaranteed water supply
      •     Guaranteed electric power, preferably three phase
      •     Access for heavy transport for feed and live poultry
      •     Available labour, depending on farm size
      •     Available services such as tradesmen, servicemen and veterinarians

   3. Cost of Facilities:
      The cost of poultry industry facilities is very high:
      • An average plant that processes 200,000 birds each week costs $20 million
      • An integrated operation incorporating feed mill, fertile egg production, hatcheries, grow-
          out and processing facilities takes about $100 million in fixed and operating capital.
      • A typical family farm would house 100,000 meat chickens and produce a total of
          550,000 birds a year in several batches. The average investment in each poultry farm is
          around $3 million, including land value.
      (Source: 2005 Australian Chicken Meat Federation Inc website)

   4. Odour:

      •     During the cleaning of shed (when litter/manure is disturbed) ammonia and other
            odours are released in greater than normal quantities and it is at this time that most
            complaints are received.
      •     Cleaning and removal of litter/manure from sheds is usually done in a matter of hours
            and is a small percentage of the bird growing cycle.

      Odour (cont.)
      •     All poultry litter/manure usually contains at least some water. This is essential to avoid
            dust problems, allow for ease of handling, and promote a suitable environment for
            beneficial insects and other organisms. Ideally, litter and manure will be sufficiently dry
            to be friable (i.e. contain water levels of approximately 25 - 30%). Excessively wet litter
            is the most likely source of offensive odour.




June 2007                                                                                           15
      •     Excessive odour from decaying litter and manure usually signals a breakdown in best
            management practices or inappropriate feed formulation.

   5. Free Range Farms (additional details):
      •     Birds must be able to range during daylight hours.
      •     The rangeland must be productive (i.e. covered with palatable vegetation). If it becomes
            barren, it must be rotated.
      •     Density restrictions of a maximum number of live bird per square metre apply to both
            the shed and range.
      •     Hens must have:
            o Permanent access to weather proof shelter with dry litter or slatted floor, and
                 equipped with feeders, drinkers, nesting boxes and perches
            o Adequate shade
            o Protection from predators at all times
      •     Bio-security issues: -
               o No feed or water (eg dams) on the ranges as this attracts wild birds
               o Discourage wild birds - keep the grass cut short (avoiding grass seeds), select
                   shade trees that do not attract birds, and use scarecrows and various devices that
                   discourage wild birds
               o Irrigation water that has not come from a closed source is to be treated if used
                   within two weeks of birds having access to the range.
      •     Only natural foods are permitted with vitamin and minerals as required for the bird’s
            welfare. Natural foods may include grains, green feed, and meat by-products (with an
            antioxidant added).
      •     Induced moulting and beak trimming are not allowed and antibiotics can only be used
            under veterinary advice for treatment of illness.
      •     If artificial lights are used, the combination of natural and artificial light should not
            exceed fifteen hours a day.




June 2007                                                                                         16
Appendix C – Useful sources of information / reference
material

1. Draft ‘Best Practice Technical Guide for the Meat Chicken Industry in Queensland’ [Copies
   available by contacting the Chicken Growers Association on (07) 3837 4767]


2. Maps applicable to the location of new poultry farms in South East Queensland, prepared by
   Department of Local Government, Planning, Sport and Recreation (DLGPSR), including:
      • Hard Constraints for Location of New Poultry Farms Map 1 of 4 (June 2007)
      • Soft Constraints for Location of New Poultry Farms Map 2 of 4 (June 2007)
      • Hard and Soft Constraints for Location of New Poultry Farms Map 3 of 4 (June 2007)
      • Opportunities for Location of New Poultry Farms Map 4 of 4 (June 2007)


3. Development application forms (IDAS forms):

       www.ipa.qld.gov.au/idas/idasformsdevform1.asp


4. Remnant vegetation check (Department Natural Resources and Water regional ecosystem
   maps)

       www.epa.qld.gov.au/nature_conservation/biodiversity/regional_ecosystems/introduction_
       and_status/Regional_Ecosystem_Maps/


5. ‘National Environmental Management System for the Chicken Meat Industry’, Publication No.
   03/038, Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC)


6. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC) website:

       www.rirdc.gov.au




June 2007                                                                                 17
Appendix D – Example of a site plan (indicative only)

The following items, where applicable, should be illustrated on a Site Plan drawn to scale:

               North point
               Scale bar
               Contours
               Property boundaries and adjoining properties
               Existing buildings and structures not associated with the farm sheds (eg residence,
               sheds)
               Location and size (dimensions) of all sheds and associated buildings           /
       structures
               Location of tunnel ventilation fans
               Existing internal roads / driveways
               Proposed roads / driveways, pick up and loading areas, turning areas           and
       parking
               Location and size of proposed stormwater detention dam
               Any water bodies (eg bores, wells, wetlands, surface water, drains or water courses)
               within 500 metres of the shed or enclosure.
               The 1 in 100 year flood level or areas of flood prone / low lying land.
               Location of any easements, building location envelopes or other
               encumbrances
               Any aboriginal archaeological sites or other natural / cultural areas of
               significant
               Any existing stands of vegetation:
                 o Existing remnant vegetation (check Regional Ecosystem Maps)
                 o Existing non-remnant stands of vegetation
               Proposed landscaping buffer/s (refer to landscaping details in          Checklist)
               Location and size of spent litter storage area/s (stockpiles)
               Separation distances:
                 • Sheds to closest property boundaries
                 • Nearest shed to water bodies
                 • Nearest shed to stormwater detention dam
                 • Nearest shed to road
                 • Separation distances between sheds
                 • Nearest shed to adjoining dwellings and noise sensitive places

An example of a Site Plan (indicative only) is attached.




June 2007                                                                                       18
June 2007   19

				
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Description: Poultry Farm Information Assessment Sheet