Managing Performance throughout the year

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					            Throughout the Year

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1.    PfM is a natural management process.
2.    It is based on an ongoing process of communication between the
      employee and the manager.
3.    It is a circular practices of planning, managing, reviewing, rewarding
      and recharging.
4.    Objective setting and performance planning are integrated with the
      organizational objectives and strategic planning.
5.    The sequence of PfM activities provides a framework within which
      managers, individuals, teams work together in partnership to gain a
      better understanding of what is to be done, how it is to be done,
      and what has been achieved.

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6. In the process the manager acts as a guide, a
    coach, a mentor, and a counselor.
7. Reviews are conducted periodically to improve
    performance without rating the employees.
8. Performance is measured using different
    techniques/methods only to improve
9. Performance is not necessarily linked with
    rewards as in case of PA system.

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 The philosophy of PfM emphasizes:
  The achievement of sustained improvement in
  Continuous development of skills and overall
  The organization is a learning organization
   involving the employees in the process.

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The issues which may arise in the course of
   managing performance throughout the year
1. Updating the objectives.

2. Continuous learning.

3. Managing poor performers.

4. Taking disciplinary action as a last resort.

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 Performance agreements and plans are working documents. But new
    demands, new situations arise. Therefore, the provision needs to
    be made for updating or amending the objectives and work plans.
    This involves:
   Discussing what the job holder has done and achieved.
   Identifying any shortfalls in achieving the objectives or meeting the
   Establishing reasons for any shortfalls, in particular, by examining
    changes in the circumstances in which the job is carried out,
    identifying new demands and pressures, and considering
    aspects of behavior of the individuals or the manager which have
    contributed to the problem.
   Agreeing on the changes required to the objectives and work
    plans in response to changed circumstances.
   Agreeing on the actions required by the individual and the manger
    to improve performance.

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 PfM aims to enhance deliberate learning from experience. It
    means learning from the problems, challenges, and
    successes inherent in people’s day-to-day activities.
 The premise that every task the individuals undertake presents
    them with a learning opportunity, as long as they reflect on
    what they have done and how they have done it and draw
    conclusions as to their future behavior if they have to carry
    out a similar task to be followed in letters and spirit.
 This principle can be extended to any situation.
 The day-to-day contacts between the manager and the
    employee(s) provide training as well as learning
    opportunities. This is applicable to both the teams and
    individual employees.
 The employees and managers should consciously agree on the
    lessons learnt from experience and how that experience
    could be put to good use in the future.
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            AFFIRMING              ANALYZING

                                   ON ACTION


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     Assessing – what needs to be done.
     Analyzing – what has been done.
     Agreeing on Action – what needs to be done to
      achieve change.
     Action – getting the things done – achieving
     Adapting – adjusting to different needs or
      situations as they arise.
     Affirming – Stating what has been learnt.

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 Philip Atkinson once observed that on an average 10
    to 15% of all employees are poor performers. So
    what needs to be done?
 Improving the performance of this tribe of employees
    needs to be tackled at both the organizational and
    individual levels.
 Organizational Level – Poor performance may be a
    result of inadequate leadership, bad management,
    or defective systems of work.
 It may be a result of a failure to establish well defined
    and unequivocal expectations for superior
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 Robert Schaffer suggested the following strategy
   for action to improve performance at the
   organizational level:
1. Select the goal.

2. Specify the minimum expectations of results.

3. Clearly Communicate expectations.

4. Allocate Responsibility.

5. Expand and Extend the Process again.

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 The same steps are also applicable to improve the
   performance at the individual levels.
  Select the goal – establish priority areas for action.

  Define expectations – targets and standards.

  Define performance measures – the basis upon
   which progress towards achieving the goal can be
  Monitor – review progress and analyze feedback to
   ensure that the target or standard is achieved.
  Extend the Process – tackle other problem areas
   according to priorities.

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 The approach should be based on Reinforcement
   theory. What is this theory? “Applauding success
   and forgiving failure”.
 Charles Handy suggests that mistakes should be used
   as an opportunity for learning – ‘something only
   possible if the mistake is truly forgiven, otherwise
   the lesson is taken as a reprimand and not as an
   offer of help’.
 Managing underperformers, therefore, is a positive
   process which is based on feedback throughout the
   year and looks forward to what can be done by the
   individuals to overcome performance problems
   and, importantly, how managers can help the
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1.    Indentify and agree on the problem.
2.    Establish the reason(s) for the shortfall.
3.    Decide and agree on the action required.
4.    Resource the action.
5.    Monitor and provide feedback.

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 PfM is a positive process. So when an employee does
   not change his performance behavior the manager
   needs to adopt the method of counseling to
   improve the employee performance. He must start
   counseling when he notices the employee’s poor
   performance on a continuing basis.
 The employee must be given opportunities to
   improve his performance. But when he fails to
   improve even with counseling, guidance and
   coaching, it may be necessary to take to the
   method of disciplining the under/poor performer.

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      Informal warning.
     Written warning.
     Initiating disciplinary procedure –
         Call for explanation,
         Appoint an enquiry officer
         Conduct the enquiry.
         Consider the recommendations of the enquiry officer,
         Call for explanation once again from the employee
         before taking the final step.
         Discharge/dismiss if the explanation is not satisfactory.

 Termination should be along with terminal benefits if it is a
    discharge; if it is a dismissal no terminal benefits.

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