CB-7-Consumer_20Learning

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					      Consumer Behavior,
        Eighth Edition

 SCHIFFMAN & KANUK



                              Chapter 7

                    Consumer Learning



7-1
       The Importance of Consumer
      Learning to New Product Success
• Why did these products fail?
      – Listerine Toothpaste
      – Ben-Gay Aspirin
• Why did Pocket Packs succeed?




7-2
            Importance of Learning

• Marketers must teach consumers:
      –   where to buy
      –   how to use
      –   how to maintain
      –   how to dispose of products




7-3
           Learning Theories
• Behavioral Theories:    • Cognitive Theories:
  Theories based on the     A theory of learning
  basis that learning       based on mental
  takes place as the        information
  result of observable      processing, often in
  responses to external     response to problem
  stimuli. Also known       solving.
  as stimulus response
  theory.

7-4
                   A process by which
                 individuals acquire the
                      purchase and
      Consumer        consumption
      Learning         knowledge
                     and experience
                    that they apply to
                 future related behavior.


7-5
          Learning Processes

• Intentional:          • Incidental:
  learning acquired as    learning acquired
  a result of a careful   by accident or
  search for              without much effort
  information




7-6
      Consumer learning contd….
• Example

• some ads may induce learning (Brand names)
  even though the consumers attention is elsewhere
  (on a magzine article rather than the ads on facing
  page)
• Other ads are sought out and carefully read by
  consumers for making a purchase decision.


7-7
      Elements of Learning Theories

                • Motivation
                   • Cues
                 • Response
              • Reinforcement




7-8
               Motivation
• The degree of relevance or involvement
  determines consumer level of motivation to
  search for
   – knowledge OR
   – information about a product or a service.




7-9
                    Cues

• Motives serve to stimulate learning,
• Cues are the stimuli that gives direction to
  these motives e.g. an ad is a cue for
  consumer motivation for a specific product
  or service.
• In the market place price, styling,
  packaging, advertising and the store
  displays all serve as cues.

7-10
                   Cues
• Marketers teach motivated consumer
  segments why and how their products will
  fulfill the consumers need.

• Motives serve to stimulate learning.




7-11
                Response
• How individuals react to a drive or cue

• How they behave constitute their response
  e.g. a marketer that provides consistent cues
  to a consumer may not always succeed in
  stimulating a purchase.


7-12
           Response contd…
• However if marketer succeeds in forming a
  favorable image of a particular product in
  consumer’s mind.
• It is likely that he or she will consider that
  product.




7-13
                          A positive or
                       negative outcome
                       that influences the
                        likelihood that a
                        specific behavior
       Reinforcement
                       will be repeated in
                           the future in
                          response to a
                        particular cue or
                             stimulus.

7-14
Figure 7.1 Product Usage Leads to
          Reinforcement




7-15
       Behavioral Learning Theories

• Classical Conditioning
• Instrumental Conditioning
• Modeling or Observational Learning




7-16
                      A behavioral learning
                       theory according to
                       which a stimulus is
                       paired with another
        Classical
                      stimulus that elicits a
       Conditioning
                      known response that
                      serves to produce the
                      same response when
                           used alone.

7-17
                 Example
• If you usually listen to the 9 o’ clock news
  while waiting for dinner to be served you
  would tend to associate the 9 o, clock news
  with dinner, So that eventually the sounds
  of the 9 o’ clock news alone might cause
  your mouth to water even if dinner was not
  being prepared and even if you were not
  hungry.

7-18
                 A behavioral theory of
                    learning based on a
                 trial-and-error process,
                   with habits forced as
  Instrumental
                   the result of positive
   (Operant)
                        experiences
  Conditioning
                      (reinforcement)
                  resulting from certain
                        responses or
                         behaviors.

7-19
         Figure 7.2B Analogous Model of
              Classical Conditioning

   Unconditioned Stimulus
       Dinner aroma
                              Unconditioned Response
                                    Salivation
       Conditioned Stimulus
          9 o’clock news


  AFTER REPEATED PAIRINGS
       Conditioned Stimulus    Conditioned Response
          9 o’clock news            Salivation


7-20
 Strategic Applications of Classical
            Conditioning
• Repetition
• Stimulus Generalization
• Stimulus Discrimination




7-21
                Repetition
• Repetition
  increases strength      Figure 7.3 Cosmetic
  of associations and      Variations in Ads
  slows forgetting but
  over time may
  result in advertising
  wearout.



7-22
          Three-Hit Theory
• Repetition is the basis for the idea that three
  exposures to an ad are necessary for the ad
  to be effective
• The number of actual repetitions to equal
  three exposures is in question.




7-23
         Three-Hit Theory
• 1) to make consumers aware of the product
• 2) to show cosumers the relevance of the
  product
• 3) to remind them of its benefits
 according to others marketing scholars
• 11 to 12 repetitions


7-24
                    The inability to
   Stimulus       perceive differences
 Generalization     between slightly
                   dissimilar stimuli.




7-25
               Continued.
• It explain why some imitative “me-too”
  products succeed in the market place.
               Because
• Consumers confuse them with original
  product they have seen advertised




7-26
                Example
• That an individual can learn to take dinner
  not only to the sound of 9 o’ clock news but
  also to the some what similar sound of
  Azan.




7-27
       Stimulus Generalization and
               Marketing

• Product Line, Form and Category
  Extensions
• Family Branding
• Licensing
• Generalizing Usage Situations


7-28
          Figure 7.5
        Product Line
          Extension
       (adding related
        products to an
           already
         established
           brand)

7-29
       Product form extensions
• Such as crest toothpaste to to crest
  whitestrips,
• Listerine mouthwash to listerine paks
• Bath soaps to liquid soaps




7-30
       Figure 7.6 Product Form
              Extensions




7-31
   Figure 7.7
    Product
    Category
   Extensions



7-32
           Family branding
• The practice of marketing a whole line of
  company products under the same brand
  name




7-33
           Family branding
• The practice of marketing a whole line of
  company products under the same brand
  name.
• A strategy that capitalizes on the consumers
  ability to generalized favorable brand
  associations from one product to others: e.g
  Nestle

7-34
                 Licensing
• Allowing a well known brand name to be affixed
  to products of another manufacturer.
• A strategy that operates on the principle of
  stimulus generalizations.
• Examples: names of designers, manufacturers,
  celebrities, corporations and even cartoon
  characters are attached for a fee i.e rented.



7-35
        Figure 7-8
           Shoe
       Manufacturer
         Licenses
        Its Name



7-36
                         The ability to select
                          a specific stimulus
      Stimulus           from among similar
   Discrimination         stimuli because of
                               perceived
                              differences.

                    Positioning


                Differentiation

7-37
       Figure 7.10 A Model of Instrumental
                  Conditioning
                       Try                       Unrewarded
                     Brand A                     Legs too tight

                       Try                       Unrewarded
                     Brand B                     Tight in seat
       Stimulus
       Situation
                       Try                       Unrewarded
    (Need good-
   looking jeans)    Brand C                     Baggy in seat

                       Try                         Reward
                     Brand D                      Perfect fit
                               Repeat Behavior



7-38
       Instrumental Conditioning

• Consumers learn by means of trial and error
  process in which some purchase behaviors
  result in more favorable outcomes (rewards)
  than other purchase behaviors.
• A favorable experience is instrumental in
  teaching the individual to repeat a specific
  behavior.

7-39
       Instrumental Conditioning and
                Marketing
• Customer Satisfaction (Reinforcement)
• Reinforcement Schedules
       – Shaping
• Massed versus Distributed Learning




7-40
               Reinforcement
• Positive                • Negative
  Reinforcement:            Reinforcement:
  Positive outcomes that Unpleasant or negative
  strengthen the            outcomes that serve to
  likelihood of a specific encourage a specific
  response                  behavior
• Example: Ad showing • Example: Ad showing
  beautiful hair as a       wrinkled (smooth) skin
  reinforcement to buy      as reinforcement to buy
  shampoo                   skin cream
7-41
                   A process by which
                   individuals observe
                      the behavior of
                        others, and
   Observational     consequences of
     Learning      such behavior. Also
                   known as modeling
                        or vicarious
                      (observational)
                         learning.

7-42
  Model or observational learning
• Consumers often observe how others
  behave in response to certain situations
  (stimuli) and the ensuing (subsequent)
  results (reinforcement) that occur
                     &
• The imitate (model) the positively
  reinforced behavior when faced with similar
  situations.

7-43
  Figure 7.11
  Consumers
   Learn by
   Modeling



7-44
                   Holds that the kind
                    of learning most
                    characteristic of
       Cognitive    human beings is
       Learning     problem solving,
        Theory       which enables
                   individuals to gain
                   some control over
                   their environment.

7-45
       Figure 7.12
        Appeal to
        Cognitive
       Processing



7-46
                     A cognitive theory of
                         human learning
                          patterned after
                     computer information
       Information       processing that
        Processing       focuses on how
                     information is stored
                       in human memory
                           and how it is
                            retrieved.

7-47
Figure 7.13 Information Processing and
            Memory Stores


                                   Working
                                   Memory                    Long-
Sensory    Sensory
                                   (Short-                    term
 Input      Store      Rehearsal                Encoding
                                     term                    Store Retrieval
                                    Store)




          Forgotten;               Forgotten;              Forgotten;
             lost                     lost                 unavailable



7-48
                      Retention

• Information is stored in
  long-term memory
       – Episodically: by the order
         in which it is acquired
       – Semantically: according
         to significant concepts




7-49
  Table 7.1 Models of Cognitive Learning


                                          Decision-   Innovation   Innovation
             Promotional   Tricomponen    Making       Adoption     Decision
                Model         t Model      Model        Model        Process
              Attention     Cognitive    Awareness    Awareness
Sequential
                                         Knowledge                 Knowledge
  Stages
    of         Interest     Affective                  Interest
Processing      Desire                    Evaluation Evaluation Persuasion
               Action       Conative       Purchase     Trial    Decision
                                         Postpurchase Adoption Confirmation
                                          Evaluation




 7-50
                A theory of consumer
                      learning which
                      postulates that
                consumers engage in a
                 range of information
  Involvement
                   processing activity
    Theory
                    from extensive to
                     limited problem
                solving, depending on
                  the relevance of the
                         purchase.
7-51
                          Figure 7.14
                          Split Brain
       Figure 7.14
                              Theory

                     • Right/ Left Brain
                       Hemispheres
                       specialize in certain
                       functions


7-52
  Figure 7.15
 Encouraging
  Right and
  Left Brain
  Processing



7-53
       Issues in Involvement Theory

• Involvement Theory and Media Strategy
• Involvement Theory and Consumer
  Relevance
• Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion
• Measures of Involvement




7-54
                  A theory that proposes that
                  highly involved consumers
                 are best reached through ads
   Central and     that focus on the specific
   Peripheral    attributes of the product (the
                      central route) while
    Routes to     uninvolved consumers can
   Persuasion         be attracted through
                  peripheral advertising cues
                    such as the model or the
                 setting (the peripheral route).

7-55
                A theory that suggests
                that a person’s level of
  Elaboration     involvement during
  Likelihood    message processing is
    Model          a critical factor in
    (ELM)          determining which
                 route to persuasion is
                 likely to be effective.


7-56
  Figure 7.16
  Peripheral
   Route to
  Persuasion



7-57
  Figure 7.17 Unexpected Headline
     Metaphor Increases Impact




7-58
The Elaboration Likelihood Model
                    Involvement
            HIGH                  LOW

        Central                   Peripheral
        Route                       Route


        Message                    Peripheral
       Arguments                     Cues
        Influence                  Influence
        Attitudes                   Attitudes

7-59
  Measures of Consumer Learning

• Recognition and Recall Measures
       – Aided and Unaided Recall
• Cognitive Responses to Advertising
• Copytesting Measures
• Attitudinal and Behavioral Measures of
  Brand Loyalty



7-60
  Figure 7.18
    Starch
  Readership
Scores Measure
   Learning




7-61
         Phases of Brand Loyalty
•      Cognitive
•      Affective
•      Conative
•      Action




7-62
                 Figure 7.19
       Brand Loyalty As A Function of
       Relative Attitude and Patronage
                   Behavior

                           Repeat Patronage
                           High       Low
                                     Latent
                   High   Loyalty
        Relative                     Loyalty
        Attitude          Spurious     No
                   Low
                          Loyalty    Loyalty

7-63

				
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posted:3/26/2010
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