Respondents by Category

Document Sample
Respondents by Category Powered By Docstoc
					Use of Uniformed Police
Officers on Federal-Aid
Highway Construction Projects


     Executive Summary Presentation
     Prepared by Editor’s Ink
     Subcontractor to Henderson Assoc.
     June 8, 2000
Overview of Presentation

     •   Background
     •   Survey
     •   Policies
     •   Effectiveness
     •   Summary
     •   Recommendations
Background


     • TEA-21 required DOT to:

     “…conduct a study with States, State
       transportation departments, and
       law enforcement organizations, on
       the extent and effectiveness of
       use of uniformed police officers on
       Federal-aid highway construction
       projects.”
Background


     • Survey
       – Federal Register Notice
          • Federal Register Survey Questions
          • General Comments encouraged
       – AASHTO Survey


     • Analysis of Policies & Studies
    Federal Register Respondents
    by Category N = 95
                  Contractors
       State
                  & Suppliers
    Legislators
                       8        Individuals
      3 (3%)
                     (9%)            1
Law Enforce-                       (1%)         State Trans-
   ment                                          portation
 Agencies                                        Agencies
     16                                              46
   (17%)                                           (48%)
                                       Highway
        Law Enforce-                   Industry
        ment Assoc.                     Assoc.
             8                             13
           (8%)                          (14%)
State Transportation
Agency Respondents




                   Respondents
Law Enforcement Respondents




                       Respondents
Survey
Survey Respondents
by Category N = 70

                              Law
                          Enforcement
               Highway     Agencies
               Industry        15
                Assoc.       (21%)
                   3
                 (4%)            Law
    State                    Enforcement
 Transporta-                   Assoc.
     tion                          6
  Agencies                       (9%)
      46
    (66%)
Survey Responses

  • The total number of survey respondents
    was 70.

  • Not all survey respondents answered all
    questions.

  • Therefore the number of respondents
    (N) is DIFFERENT for EACH QUESTION.
Size of Law Enforcement
Agency


    • Only 25 Responses
    • Average = 1,123
    • Range = 132 - 6,644
    • Median = 3,388
Size of Jurisdiction




        • All > 100,000
                population
Policies
Does Agency Have Policy?
N = 61


                            Yes
    No                       34
    27                     (56%)
  (44%)
Does Agency Have Policy?


 • Written policies generally provide for
   hiring off-duty police officers to work
   construction zones, although a few
   States use only on-duty officers
 • Funding from DOT, usually
 • Some “yes” responders said they had
   “unwritten” policies
What is the Source of Funding for
UPO Program? N = 68

          Law      Other
        Enforce.     8
        Approp.    (12%)
            6
          (9%)
        Hwy
       Admin.                Highway
       Funds                Construc-
          5                tion Funds
        (7%)                    49
                              (72%)
Extent of Use of UPOs

     • Survey Data
     • Analysis of Policies Submitted
Circumstances Where UPOs
Most Often Used



   • Nighttime operations

   • Lane or road closures

   • High speed/ Hi volume traffic
Only a Few Agencies
Use UPOs in All Projects




      • Arizona (unwritten
        policy)
      • Rhode Island
      • City of Boston
How is Number of Officers
Determined?

   • Responses vary widely
   • Job site factors
      – location
      – traffic volume/speed
      – nighttime operations
      – complaints, problems, or special operations
   • Available funding
   • Procedural factors
   • Manpower factors
Off-duty Only, or On-Duty
As Well? N = 57


       On Duty
        Only            Off-Duty
          7              Only
        (12%)              22
                         (39%)



     On-Duty As
        Well
         28
       (49%)
Use of Off-Duty vs On-Duty UPOs
  (Based on Survey Data & Policies Submitted)




                                        Off Duty

                                        On Duty
92% of Respondents said UPOs used
  Marked Vehicles at Construction
            Projects

                           Yes 92%


                            No 4%

                            Varies 4%

                           No response
Officer Positioning & Gear


       • 11% of survey respondents said
         they require officers to be
         outside vehicle

       • 33% require high-visibility
         clothing
     24% of Survey Respondents said their
     State Conducts a UPO Training Program

40
35
                               Hwy Assoc.
30
25                             State Trans.
                30             Agencies
20
                               Law Enf. Assoc.
15                       1
10      9                3     State Police
                         2
        2       2
5
        4       4        6
0
       Yes     No      Other
Who’s In Charge?


      • Who Developed the Policy?
      • Who Determines the Number of
        Officers?
      • Are UPOs included in the
        Planning Process?
     Who Developed the Policy?
     N = 30
                             Law
Law Enforce-               Enforce-
ment Agency                 ment
  & Other
                           Agency
     3
                              3
   (10%)
                            (10%)

     Law
   Enforce-
     ment
   Agency &
     DOT                 DOT
      7                   17
    (23%)               (57%)
Who Determines Number of
Officers? N = 63
                  Contractor   Other
                      1          1
                    (2%)       (2%)    Highway
                                       Agency
                                          27
   Joint Effort
                                        (42%)
        26
      (41%)
               Law
           Enforcement
             Agency
                8
              (13%)
     Joint Effort Between Which
     Parties? N = 26

20      19
18
16
14
12
10
 8
 6                                              4
 4                                 2
 2                   1
 0
       DOT & Law  Contractor &     DOT &      Parties Not
      Enforcement     Law        Contractor    Specified
     Agency (73%) Enforcement      (8%)         (15%)
                  Agency (4%)
Are UPOs Included in Planning
Process? N = 60


         Some-            Yes
         times             16
           20            (27%)
         (33%)



                   No
                   24
                 (40%)
Effectiveness of Policies


     • Survey Data--Mostly Opinion,
       but Indicates Positive Effects
     • Hard “Real World” Data is
       Scarce
     • Academic Research also
       Scarce, but Generally Positive
Effects of Policies: Academic
Studies

 • Generally Positive Results

 • Document that UPO Presence Reduces
   Speed as much as or more than other
   traffic control methods

 • Some guidelines available
Effects of Policies: Academic
Studies

 Transafety Paper, Noel, et al, 1987
 Compared:
   1. MUTCD flagging procedure
   2. MUTCD flagging procedure w/ add’l
   flagger hand motions
   3. marked police car w/ lights & radar
   4. UPOs standing to control traffic
Effects of Policies: Academic
Studies

 Noel et al found:

 “The law enforcement methods
   demonstrated a stronger speed
   reduction capability; particularly when
   lane closures result in two or more
   lanes open.”
Effects of Policies: Academic
Studies

 Transportation Research Board, Richards,
   et al, 1985
 Findings:
 Flagging & law enforcement were best
   methods.
 Best flagging methods reduced speeds an
   average of 19%
 Best Law enforcement methods reduced
   speeds by an average of 18%.
Has Your Agency Conducted Studies on
use of UPOs in Work Zones?
N = 58

   45                      42
   40
   35
   30
   25
   20    16
   15
   10
    5
    0
              Yes (28%)         No (72%)
Studies by States


    • A few states track # of citations, #
      of collisions, injuries, etc. Generally
      do not provide conclusive data on
      effectiveness
    • Some law enforcement agencies
      provided info on budget, # of
      officers assigned, etc.
General Respondents by
Category N - 25

                    Individuals      Highway
                         1           Industry
   Contractors         (4%)           Assoc.
   & Suppliers                           10
        8                              (40%)
      (32%)

                                      Law
        State           Law       Enforcement
      Legislators     Enforce.      Assoc.
           3          Agencies          2
        (12%)             1           (8%)
                        (4%)
General Comments Received


   • General comments were overwhelmingly
     supportive
   • AASHTO 1997 Policy Resolution supports use
     of Federal-aid funds for UPOs in work zones
   • 2 of 10 highway industry associations had
     methodology suggestions:
     – AHAS: encourages gathering more hard data
     – IIHS: recommends study of automated
       enforcement as supplement to UPOs
Summary Findings

      • Report documents widespread use,
        and support for, the use of UPOs in
        work zones. (extent)

      • Little hard data available on actual
        effects of policies.

      • Survey data show State policies and
        procedures vary widely.
Issues Summary

  • Policies vary Re:
    – Circumstances Where UPOs are Required
    – Number of Officers Required
    – Training, Procedures, & Supervision


  • Conflicting Missions (Traffic Control vs.
    Speed Enforcement)
States Served By FHWA Mobile
Asphalt Laboratory 1993-2000




                          Asphalt
                          Trailer
                          Visited
Issues Summary

 • Funding and Personnel Availability

 • Payment of Officers
   – Rates (overtime vs straight pay)
   – Benefits & Retirement
Recommendations: Agencies should
consider...

 • Developing written guidelines to
   address:
   – situations where UPOs recommended
   – work zone traffic control planning process
   – officer pay/benefits, work procedures, etc.


 • Training UPOs in proper MUTCD work
   zone signage and flagging procedures.
Recommendations: Agencies should
consider...

      • Gathering better data on traffic
        safety incidents at Federally
        funded highway work zones in
        order to assess effectiveness of
        work zone traffic control
        techniques.
      • Using new technologies, such as
        automated enforcement and
        intrusion alarms, as well as UPOs.

				
DOCUMENT INFO