XML Web Services Enterprise Architecture - PowerPoint

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					XML Web Services: Enterprise
      Architecture
                    Brand Niemann
(from XML Web Services Evangelist to Solutions Architect)
         Office of Environmental Information
                       US EPA
                     June 26, 2002



                                                            1
                      Overview
•   1. Enterprise Architecture
•   2. E-Government Initiatives
•   3. EPA Enterprise Architecture
•   4. XML Web Services
•   5. Architecture of An EPA XML Web Service
•   6. Architecture of XML Web Services Pilots Projects
•   7. Some Next Steps
•   8. Contact Information

                                                          2
          1. Enterprise Architecture

• Enterprise architecture – a description, in
  useful models, diagrams, and narrative, of the
  mode of operation for an enterprise (agency):
  – Logical terms – interrelated business processes and
    business rules, information needs and flows, and
    work locations and users.
  – Technical terms – hardware, software, data,
    communications, and security attributes and
    standards.
                                                      3
   1.     Enterprise Architecture (continued)

• Enterprise architecture – both for the current
  environment and for the target environment, as well
  as the transition plan for sequencing from the current
  to the target environment.
• Enterprise architecture – clarify and help optimize the
  dependencies and relationships among the agency’s
  business operations and the underlying IT
  infrastructure and applications that support these
  operations.
Source: GAO Report on Challenges in Managing and Preserving Electronic
   Records, June 2002, page 28.

                                                                         4
          2. E-Government Initiatives
• The E-Government Task Force found that the federal
  government could significantly improve customer
  service over the next 18 to 24 months by focusing on
  24 high-payoff, government-wide initiatives that
  integrate agency operations and IT investments.
  These initiatives could generate several billion dollars
  in savings by reducing operating inefficiencies,
  redundant spending and excessive paperwork. The
  initiatives will provide service to citizens in minutes
  or hours, compared to today’s standard of days or
  weeks. Moreover, by leveraging IT spending across
  federal agencies, the initiatives will make available
  over $1 billion in savings from aligning redundant
  investments.
                                                         5
              2. E-Government Initiatives
• In addition, the e-Authentication initiative and the Enterprise
  E-Government Architecture Project were added to address key
  barriers. The E-Government Architecture project will carry out
  two major concurrent activities:
    – One of the activities will be the development of a architecture, toward
       the development of a Federal Enterprise Architecture, for each of the
       current E-Government initiatives, as well as a core set of standardized
       technology models to facilitate technology solutions.
    – The second activity will be the collection and analysis of business and
       data architecture information across the federal government to identify
       new opportunities for E-Government initiatives and elimination of
       redundancy. Initially this effort will focus on four key areas including
       Homeland Security, economic stimulus, social services, and back office
       operations.
Source: E-Government Strategy, February 27, 2002.

                                                                              6
             2. E-Government Initiatives
• Portfolios:
    – Government to Citizen (G2C) (5):
        • E.g., Recreation One-Stop
    – Government to Business (G2B) (5):
        • E.g., Business Compliance One-Stop
    – Government to Government (G2G) (5):
        • E.g., Geospatial Information One-Stop
    – Internal Effectiveness and Efficiency (IEE) (8):
        • E.g., E-Records Management
• Cross-cutting:
    – e-Authentication
• Infrastructure:
    – Federal Enterprise Architecture
Source: http://egov.gov/egovreport-3.htm
                                                         7
             2. E-Government Initiatives
• So far government agencies have avoided the kind of extensive
  re-engineering that e-government will require to be truly
  effective. Instead Federal agencies have been busy re-creating
  the stovepipes in cyberspace.
• Agencies are likely to exhibit significant resistance to
  dismantling niche business units and processes, fearing that
  doing so will result in loss control, funding and ultimately
  mission.
• As e-government matures, its focus will shift from simply
  providing online access to pre-existing services to offering
  new services and new ways of doing things.
• The newness will beg for a kind of methodology that allows
  success to be defined when e-government projects begin to
  cross agency jurisdictions or involve public/private
  collaboration.
Source: Measuring e-gov, Federal Computer Week, April 8, 2002, pp 20-21.
                                                                           8
           3. EPA Enterprise Architecture
• Dedicated staff: Chief Architect and eight Team
  Members.
• EPA’s architecture effort was rated a stage 3 out of 5
  in a recent GAO report, placing EPA in the top 20%
  of all federal agencies who reported.
• Completion of a draft baseline architecture
  assessment for the Environmental Information
  Architecture business domain.
• Incorporated a large number of modeling and analysis
  tools in the baseline applications inventory.
• Suggested that it include XML Web Services.
Source: EPA Enterprise Architecture, Quarter 2, Fiscal Year 2002(Jan-Mar
   2002).
                                                                           9
               4. XML Web Services
• Why XML?:
  – The eXtensible Markup Language became a World Wide Web
    Consortium (W3C) standard in 1998 as the universal format for
    structured documents and data on the Web (http://www.w3.org/XML/).
  – The CIO Council created the XML Working Group in 2000 to facilitate
    the efficient and effective use of XML through cooperative efforts
    among government agencies, including partnerships with commercial
    and industrial organizations (http://xml.gov/).
  – GAO report to Congress urges government to adopt XML and that
    Federal Agencies address XML in their enterprise architectures
    (http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d02327.pdf).
  – XML Web Services is what OMB’s Mark Forman is encouraging in the
    E-Gov Initiatives and especially for the “collect once, use many”
    knowledge management projects like the Geospatial Information One-
    Stop (http://egov.gov).
                                                                     10
                 4. XML Web Services
• What is XML?:
   – XML is a standard for preserving and communicating information –
     encoding, tagging, and internationalizing – that will be everywhere.
   – Web Services provide communication between applications running on
     different Web servers that will bring the Internet to its new level.
   – XML Web Services are applications running on different devices that
     communicate XML data using XML messages.
   – XML Web Services for geospatial data use the OpenGIS Consortium’s
     GML (Geography Markup Language) and OWS (Open Web Services)
     standards and specifications.
   – Web Services can and should be interoperable across multiple vendor
     tools and platforms in the enterprise (see http://www.ws-
     i.org/Community.aspx).


                                                                       11
4. XML Web Services




                      12
             4. XML Web Services
            The Web Services Standards “stack”

• Commonly used by the major vendors:
  – Work Flow (WFDL-Work Flow Description Language).
  – Publication and Discovery (UDDI-Universal Description,
    Discovery, and Integration).
  – Service Description (WSDL-Web Services Description
    Language).
  – Messaging (XMLP-XML Protocol from SOAP-Simple
    Object Access Protocol).
  – Content (XML-Extensible Markup Language).
  – Transport (HTTP-Hypertext Transport Protocol).

                                                             13
               4. XML Web Services
• XML.Gov, June 19, 2002:
  – E-Gov Solutions Architects Working Group (SAWG),
    Federal Enterprise Architecture – Program Management
    Office:
     • The usage of XML, Web Services, UDDI, SOAP, etc. (Lead-
       Marion Royal, Co-Chair XML Working Group)
     • Leveraging emerging technologies and industry-proven standards
       (J2EE, MS.NET, XML, XML Web Services)
     • Assignment of a Solution Architect to each of the 24 e-Gov
       initiatives.
  – XML Registry/Repository – Business Case Analysis:
     • Booz Allen Hamilton complete the A-11 Exhibit 300
     • Registries describing and pointing to business services (i.e., web
       services) offer higher value than registries that provide only XML
       definitions and classifications (i.e., XML Schemas).
  – XML Web Services Working Group Proposed:
     • Natural role for Government as a provider of raw data in standard
       format (XML) to private sector, who add value.                    14
                4. XML Web Services
• Software Development Lifecycle Models:
   – Classical Software Development:
      • Typically begins with a high-level architecting process which
        includes modeling the software objects and their interactions. Next
        an editor is used to write the source code using procedural
        programming languages (C/C++, Java, etc.) according to proper
        syntax and the compiler is invoked to translate and link the
        software to an executable binary format. Finally, a debugger is used
        to catch any errors, thereby ensuring correct program behavior.
   – Modern XML Software Development:
      • XML technologies are significantly different from classical
        procedural programming languages both in structure, syntax and
        nature. XML application development is also a completely different
        process that begins with the development of the content model
        using XML Schema or DTDs (see schematic diagram in next slide).
Source: XML Spy Integrated Development Environments, White
  Paper, 18 pp., 2002 (http://www.xmlspy.com)
                                                                          15
4. XML Web Services




                      16
              4. XML Web Services
• Document Framework Design – Advanced XML
  Application Development:
  – Schema Modeling: An iterative process which involves
    initial requirements analysis, use-cases, as well as
    examination of existing data schemas. Additional
    refinements are required to map all of the elements of your
    XML Schema to the underlying database (relational or
    XML-based) or content management system.
  – Data Flow and Process Modeling: The flow of information
    gathered by a document framework must be modeled from
    content author (non-technical domain experts), transported
    to the database, and then to content consumers (typically
    customers, partners, etc.).

                                                              17
              4. XML Web Services
• Document Framework Design – Advanced XML
  Application Development (continued):
  – Transformation Modeling: XSLT has a two-fold critical
    role in both the input templates that are used by content
    creators and the output stylesheets that are required by the
    content consumers and must be designed to fit the data
    flow and process model determined earlier.
  – Implementation: The business logic and user interface of a
    document framework application must be custom
    developed, but can be easily implemented using any of the
    leading Internet application development platforms (e.g.,
    J2EE, Microsoft .NET web Services, Oracle Application
    Server, etc.)

                                                               18
4. XML Web Services




                      19
4. XML Web Services




                      20
5. Architecture of An EPA XML Web Service
• Enter your zip code to retrieve environmental
  information about your community:
   – Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPCs) provide a
     forum for emergency management agencies, responders,
     industry and the public to work together to understand
     chemical hazards in the community, develop emergency
     plans in case of an accidental release, and always look for
     ways to prevent chemical accidents. Local industries must
     provide information to LEPCs about chemical hazards,
     LEPCs are required by law to make this information
     available to any citizen who requests it. You can make a
     difference by attending an LEPC meeting or joining your
     LEPC.
      • Please Note: Currently we have over 3000 listings in our LEPC Database. It is our
        goal to provide the most current and accurate information. We look to the LEPC
        community to help us successfully meet this goal. Please forward any changes or
        corrections to Dana Robinson. These changes will be incorporated and updated
        monthly.
                                                                                            21
5. Architecture of An EPA XML Web Service




                                        22
5. Architecture of An EPA XML Web Service
        http://www.epa.gov/ceppo/lepclist.htm




                                                23
5. Architecture of An EPA XML Web Service
  http://130.11.53.73/lepc/FMPro?-db=LEPC.FP5&-format=-
          fmp_xml&zip_lepc::zip_code=22181&-find=




                                                          24
5. Architecture of An EPA XML Web Service
           http://130.11.53.73/brand.vxml




                                            25
5. Architecture of An EPA XML Web Service
             http://studio.tellme.com/




                                         26
5. Architecture of An EPA XML Web Service
                      1-866-745-7735

Welcome to the E. P. A. Local Emergency Planning
  Committee finder.
Please speak or touch-tone your 5 digit Zipcode.
84040
Here are results for the Zipcode 84040.
The L. E. P. C. nearest to you is listed in the E. P. A.
  database as follows. Davis County. At Davis County
  Sheriffs Department located in the city of
  Farmington.
Thank You for calling, goodbye.
                                                           27
 6. Architecture of XML Web Services Pilots Projects

• 6.1 EPA Geospatial Data Index (FileMaker):
   – Region 1 and 10 want to submit updates as XML Web
     Services.
• 6.2 EPA-Census Population Estimation:
   – Part of LandView 5 (XML Web Service using Vultus (desktop
     applications to XML Web Services portlets) in process.
• 6.3 EPA-State Content Network:
   – Multiple applications and public/private partnership with Earth 911
     (MS.NET) to integrate environmental content networks.
• 6.4 EPA Region 3 (current OEI Lead Region) and EPA
  Region 5 (future OEI Lead Region):
   – GML/OWS tasks in Geospatial Blueprint Report (May 22, 2002).
• 6.5 E-Gov:
   – E-records, Business Compliance, and Geospatial Information

                                                                           28
  6. Architecture of XML Web Services Pilots Projects

• Evolution*:
    – 6.1 XML using HTTP GET and POST.
    – 6.2 XML and Java.
    – 6.3 XML, SOAP/XMLP (XML messaging), XML
      metadata (RDF), and XML content adapters in a e-content
      network platform.
    – 6.4 All the previous plus GML/OWS (Open Web Services).
    – 6.5 All the previous plus Enterprise Content Networking
      and XForms.
* From individual services to chaining together of services.


                                                               29
6.1 EPA Geospatial Data Index (FileMaker)




                                            30
6.1 EPA Geospatial Data Index (FileMaker)




                                            31
6.2 EPA-Census Population Estimation




                                       32
Web server                     1

Filemaker               3                                    2              End User
with                   xml                               lat/long/          with web
Population           request                               radius           browser
database                               HTML               request
                                     w/javascript
                         4
                        xml
                        file                5

1.   End user enters URL for HTML page
2.   End user enters latitude/longitude and radius, presses “Get Population” button
3.   Javascript in web page issues URL to Filemaker for the census block records
4.   Filemaker sends XML file back to the web page
5.   Javascript reads the XML file, performs calculations, updates the web page.

                                                                                       33
   6.3 EPA-State Content Network
National Environmental Information Exchange Network




                                                      34
6.3 EPA-State Content Network




                                35
  6.3 EPA-State Content Network
NXT 3 Platform Architecture and Services (SCOTS*)




       *Standards-based Commercial Off-the-Shelf Software
                                                            36
6.3 EPA-State Content Network
  Build Your Own Enterprise Architecture!




                                            37
6.3 EPA-State Content Network
  Submit and Manage Distributed Content




                                          38
        6.3 EPA-State Content Network
A Content Node for Every EPA Office, Program, Region, State, and Partner




                                                                       39
        6.3 EPA-State Content Network
         Integrating Environmental Content Networks
• Earth 911:
   – Started in Arizona in 1991.
   – Recognized by EPA and others in 1995 with a Presidential
     Environmental Technology Initiative grant to expand nationwide
     dubbing it “Earth’s 911”.
   – Recipient of the Stockholm Challenge Award for Information
     Technology in September 2001 (742 nominations from 90 countries).
     Referred to as the Nobel Prize for the IT society.
   – Recently called “the future of e-government” by allowing
     thousands to upload their community information through a
     password protected user interface and be made available to the
     public in real time (Web and 800 phone number).
   – Earth 911 model replicated to Pets 911 with the goal of ending the
     needless euthanasia of over 5 million healthy adoptable pets in the
     United States.
   – Uses state-of-the-art hardware and software technology (AT&T,
     Hewlett-Packard, and Microsoft) including Visual Studio.Net for XML
     Web Services with information organized by ZIP code and state.
   – The Earth 911 Foundation is a 501 (c) 3 non-profit organization with a
     staff of about 40 support by grants and contributions.
                                                                         40
           6.4 EPA Region 3 and EPA Region 5
 Distributed Content Sources

     WordPerfect          Web Pages       LOTUS 123     Access XP
     Document             Database        Spreadsheet   Database

                                                             Note: Use
                                                             Manage
Software                                                     Content to
                                      NXT 3
Platform                                                     update if not
                                                             accessible

Folders     WordPerfect        DEFAULT          123     Access

                   XML            html           .WK3    .MDB

                   DTD                                     XML
                                                 XML
                                                          XSD
                                  html
                                                           XSL
                                                                     41
   6.4 EPA Region 3 and EPA Region 5
                                     Mobile/Wireless
                     Web Browser
                                        Devices


              IONIC Portrayal Engine (GML-to-SVG, etc.)



    IONIC Web Services Framework (Proprietary-to-GML Converters)




LandView/
               State of PA                   EPA Region 3     EPA
 Cameo                          USGS
                 PASDA                           CBP          WME
CD/DVDs

                                                                    42
   6.4 EPA Region 3 and EPA Region 5

• Notes on schematic diagram:
  – GML makes it possible to render legacy and third-party
    data and services interoperable – minimizing the coupling
    between components – by “wrapping” existing systems.
  – The forthcoming GML 3.0 will include support for SML
    (Sensor Modeling Language) for real-time spatial data
    network data streams.
  – Geospatial objects can be created, updated, and/or deleted
    through the Web Browser and Mobile/Wireless Devices.
  – LandView/Cameo would also use CD/DVD encryption and
    the CITRIX Terminal Web Server for secure access needs
    (e.g., Homeland Security and EPA Situation Room).
                                                            43
6.4 EPA Region 3 and EPA Region 5




                                    44
6.5 E-Gov (E-records)




                        45
6.5 E-Gov (Business Compliance)




                                  46
6.5 E-Gov (Geospatial Information)




                                     47
                 7. Some Next Steps

• Work together on incorporating XML Web Services
  in the EPA EA work.
   – Education and outreach.
   – Pilot projects.
   – Use the new paradigms (see next slides).
• Collaborate on the presentation to the CIO
  Architecture Work Group in September.
• Coordinate presentations on the EA and XML Web
  Services Pilot Projects at the Second OEI National
  Meeting (November).

                                                       48
                     7. Some Next Steps
               XML Separates Content from Presentation



Distributed    Personalization:
                                                 Content Network:
               Customer Relationship
                                                 “Uber” Portal
               Management

Presentation


                    Traditional                  Content Network:
Centralized                                      Integrated Portal




                  Centralized                       Distributed
                                       Content
                                                                     49
                     7. Some Next Steps
                       XML Meta Data Matrix

 Resource
Perspective            UDDI                                 RSS
                  http://www.uddi.org            http://www.purl.org/rss/1.0/
    External
               Open Directory Project                     Annotea
                     http://dmoz.org           http://www.w3.org/2001/Annotea/



                                                     HTML <META>
  Embedded       Outside case of
                  little interest.                          RDDL
                                                      http://www.rddl.org


                       Centralized                        Distributed
                                       Client Perspective                       50
               7. Some Next Steps
               XML Meta Data Architecture

• XML data and meta data architectures are connected.
• From a Resource Perspective, meta data is either
  external to or embedded within the data.
• From a Client Perspective, meta data is either
  centralized or distributed.
• There are standards efforts in each of the three areas
  of the 4 by 4 matrix. The combination of Centralized
  –Embedded meta data is of little interest.


                                                       51
               7. Some Next Steps
               XML Meta Data Architecture

• Client-server approaches to meta data work when
  there are a small number of known sources of meta
  data.
• Peer-to-peer approaches are needed in an more
  distributed environment to simultaneously query,
  discover, and aggregate the results locally.
• The architecture of peer-to-peer systems is instructive
  in the design of meta data applications using
  distributed external meta data.

                                                       52
                7. Some Next Steps
           “Hierarchical Peer-to-Peer” Diagram




Key: Client Nodes (outer circles); Server Nodes (inner circles)
                                                                  53
               7. Some Next Steps
            “Hierarchical Peer-to-Peer” Diagram

• Centralized meta data sources pass queries from
  server to server on behalf of a particular client.
• Combines the convenience for the client of needing to
  contact and communicate with only one server with
  the convenience of distributing the task of meta data
  aggregation across a number of servers.
• Any given client node must know the address of the
  server node which forms its point of contact for the
  network.

                                                     54
7. Some Next Steps
“True Peer-to-Peer” Diagram




 Key: Peer Nodes (all circles)
                                 55
               7. Some Next Steps
               “True Peer-to-Peer” Diagram

• Makes each networked client a server of the meta
  data that it has aggregated from its local machine.
• There is no distinction between nodes which generate
  queries and nodes which provide answers – any node
  may be a source of both queries and results sets -
  queries will eventually travel to all parts of the
  network to seek its results set.
• This form of distributed meta data architecture is
  expected to become more prevalent.

                                                     56
                   7. Some Next Steps
         “PIE:” Presence, Identity, and Edge Resources

PIE Pieces               Name                     Explanation
                                                  Content, storage cycles,
ER                       Edge Resources           bandwidth and even
                                                  human attention.
                                                  Name for one of the
I                        Identity                 resources -- a machine, a
                                                  document, or a person.
                                                  Ability to detect whether
P                        Presence                 that resource is accessible
                                                  in real time.


Resources at the Center migrate to the Edge, anonymous users gain Identity,
and transient connectivity yields to Presence.
                                                                                57
                 7. Some Next Steps
         “PIE:” Presence, Identity, and Edge Resources

• The third generation of the Internet.
• P2P architectures offer powerful approaches for
  solving the seemingly intractable problems of the
  Web and creating a more efficient and robust Internet.
• Creates the most significant challenges to the
  traditional centralized IT departments.
Source: O’Reilly: Peer-to-Peer and Web Services Conference,
  November 5-8, Washington, DC. P2P 2001 Networking
  Overview.


                                                              58
           8. Contact Information

• Brand Niemann, Ph.D.
  – USEPA Headquarters, EPA West, Room 6143D
  – Office of Environmental Information, MC 2822T
  – 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC
    20460
  – 202-566-1657
  – niemann.brand@epa.gov
  – EPA: http://161.80.70.167
  – Outside EPA: http://130.11.44.140

                                                59