Consolidated Reply Southern AfricaTypes of support for MDG by tyndale

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									Consolidated Reply: Southern Africa/Types of support for MDG
processes by region/Support for country level MDG Costing
This is a consolidated response to two queries both posted 27 February 2003



Original Queries: Barbara Barungi, South Africa-SURF, UNDP
QUERY 1: Southern Africa/Types of support for MDG processes by region?
The main focus of UNDP support to the MDGs process is currently facilitating national MDGs
campaign processes and MDG reporting. However in Southern Africa we find that there is a
growing expectation for enhanced support in the following areas:
-      Support - analytical work on costings (financial and other resources) of attaining the
MDGs at country level.
-      Statistical - capacity building for Poverty monitoring and MDGs performance tracking
-      Enhanced - support to formulation and implementation of poverty reduction programmes
with a view to accelerating achievement of goal 1. If there is any one that can share the
experience in other regions it will be most appreciated.

QUERY 2: Southern Africa/Support for country level MDG Costing
One of the most important issues tabled at the International Conference on Financing for
Development (FfD) in March 2002 was what will it take in resource terms, to meet the universal
human development goals of the Millennium Declaration – i.e. the MDGs . At this Conference
UNDP presented a summary report on Financing the Development Goals : An analysis of
Tanzania, Cameroon, Malawi, Uganda and Philippines was at a panel discussion. These country
studies were facilitated by BDP headquarters and the Southern Africa SURF. We have since
received several requests to support this work on costings of the MDGs however in many
instances there have been data constraints and the lack of clarity on methodology poses a
serious problem. Your views on the methodological issues around costing of the MDGs
in particular how to avoid double counting will be most appreciated.

In a recent World Bank publication on “Goals for Development: History, Prospects and Costs” by
Shantayan Deverajan et al , two approaches are adopted : One, calculation of the additional
financial resources required to meet the income poverty goal by estimating the additional growth
required to raise average incomes by enough to reach goal 1, and then estimating the additional
aid required to attain that growth. Here the focus is exclusively on goal one since achieving this
goal will go some way towards achieving the others.

The second approach is to estimate the costs of attaining the health, education and environment
(access to water and sanitation) goals, but note that the achievement of these goals will go a
long way towards reducing income poverty. The work on the costing of education draws from the
paper by Jan Vandemoortele et al on “Education For All Is Affordable: A minimum Global
Estimate”. UNICEF. 2001
In our case studies we found the second approach more difficult to use given the data paucity.
For instance for education are the unit costs estimates of universal enrollment were either not
available or not accurate. Net enrollment rate data is not available in many of the SSA countries.
There is also the argument that even where progress toward universal primary enrollment is
good, there is concern that this does not reflect the quality issues. Some argue that the primary
completeion rate may be a better indicator to monitor. I hope that Jan will provide some further
insights on this issue and the costing of MDGs as a whole.

Can UNDP provide more support to country-level analytical work on costing of MDGs
and is it worth doing –In the hope that such work will inform policy decisions? In the
Southern Africa SURF we have discussed the possibility of using the above mentioned approach
(beyond just costing of the MDGs) of focusing on particular goals in the areas of our
competencies so as to provide higher impact support to countries in out region.




Summary Response
Contributions from Network Members were received with thanks from:
(* message not previously posted on MDG Net)

1. Santosh Mehrotra, HDRO UNDP
2. Jana Ricasio, UNDP Philippines*
3. Geoff Prewitt, Central & East Africa-SURF, UNDP
4. Amon Manyama, UNDP Tanzania*
5. Stephanie Donley, WFP Rome
6. Christian Akplogan, UNDP Burkina Faso
7. Washington Kaira, UNHCR
8. Daisy Kuzinya,*
9. Soraya Mellali, West Africa-SURF, UNDP
10. Barbara Barungi, South Africa-SURF, UNDP




The following is a summary of the main points (see below for the complete messages
of all contributors):

Types of support for achieving the MDGs:



        Experiences from Western Africa: Support has been focused on the statistical capacity
        building for poverty monitoring and MDGs' performance tracking, as well as on strategic
        planning and coherence of actions with a view to stimulate operational synergies in terms
      of implementing and monitoring the MDGs; Analytical work on costing the MDGs was not
      a priority in this region; For more information, visit http://www.undp.org/surf-
      wa/mdgforum.
      In Southern Africa MDG costing is a priority in some countries particularly those that
      are looking beyond preparation of the report and national campaigns. In the second
      phase a critical area of focus is on integrating the MDGs within the PRSP/PRS process
      particularly monitoring poverty related outcomes; and costing and financing of the MDGs.
      Countries like Uganda have also raised policy issues around short term, medium term
      and long term MDGs costings so as to inform or relate to ongoing PEAP(PRSP) medium
      term framework and other strategic planning exercises.
      In Zanzibar, Tanzania UNDP supported the development and operationalization of a
      strategic plan for the Statistics Office; The Poverty Monitoring System for Zanzibar is still
      in the making but it will definitely capture MDGs; UNDP supported the establishment and
      operationalization of the TSED - Tanzania Socio-Economic Database managed by the
      National Bureau of Statistics to help monitor MDG performance; UNDP, Development
      partners and Government signed MOU for financing poverty monitoring system, in which
      MDGs monitoring is embedded.

Recommendations and suggestions for supporting analytical work on MDG costing:

      It is best to stay with net enrollment rate for MDG costing of the Education goal as used
      in Delamonica, Mehrotra and Vandemoortele, 'Education for All: A Minimum Cost
      Estimate'. The other options are either too crude or too complicated. For most recent net
      enrollment rates for southern Africa see: Unesco Institute for Statistics, Montreal
      Recommendations from last year's MDG Action Forum for Central and Eastern
      Africa: Internal Resources: Governments should try to mobilize internal resources by i)
      improving tax and revenue collection; ii) tracking and making expenditure patterns and
      allocation of resources more efficient and effective; iii) strengthening anti-corruption
      drives; iv) encouraging governments to increase allocations to social sectors, agriculture
      and other productive sectors; v) community mobilization and participation, for example
      through volunteerism; vi) reversing the brain drain and utilizing the Diaspora; vii)
      decreasing capital flight; viii) increasing domestic savings; and ix)encouraging
      multinational companies to reinvest. External Resources: Governments should create a
      stable macroeconomic and legal framework to attract FDI and encourage national and
      international private sectors to invest; better and fairer trade terms and practices should
      be sought; mechanisms for efficiently channeling FDI from North to South should be
      investigated; and indigenous technology should be supported and strengthened. External
      resources are needed to supplement internal resources. Suggestions on how to achieve
      this in Central and Eastern Africa included: i) campaigning for capital repatriation in the
      form of the return of embezzled assets from international banks; ii) encouraging cost
      effective regional interventions; iii) developing greater South-South co-operation through
        mechanisms like the Nigerian Trust Fund in the African Development Bank (ADB); iv)
        reducing transaction costs and working towards more effective delivery of development
        aid; v) reminding partners to meet their commitments of providing aid from 0.7% of their
        budgets; and vi) convincing donor country taxpayers that their governments are doing
        the right thing by helping African countries, and show them how their money is used.
        MDG Costing with regards to poverty monitoring through food security
        improvement: See information on theCommunity Food Security Initiative and FAD’s
        gender and household food security strategies: http://www.ifad.org/gender/index.htm

Additional suggested resources:

        Basic Services for All: A Minimum Cost Estimate, by Delamonica, Mehrotra and
        Vandemoortele. http://www.unicef-icdc.org/publications/
        Costing the Millennium Development Goals: Uganda Country Study -
        http://www.undg.org/archive_docs/2292-Uganda_-_MDG_Costing_Study_-
        _Uganda_Country_Study.doc
        Localising the Millennium Development Goals: Some Examples -
        http://www.undg.org/docs/7334/Nepal%20-%20Examples%20localising%20MDGs.doc
        MDG Net Resource Corner/ MDG Tools, Research, and Experiences/ MDG
        Issues: Reading List on Financing the MDGs prepared by Romilly Greenhill
        (Jubilee Research); Debt Relief and Costing of MDGs prepared by Romilly
        Greenhill.

Find MDG Net Resource Corner resources by going to www.undg.org / Implementing
the Millennium Declaration / MDG Net / MDG Net Resource Corner / MDG Tools,
Research, and Experiences

With best regards,
Sarah Renner




Individual Contributions - In Full:

Santosh Mehrotra, HDRO New York wrote:
The MDG costing of the Educ goal in Delamonica, Mehrotra and Vandemoortele, 'Education for
All: A Minimum Cost Estimate' does use the net enrolment rate estimate for a reason. Gross enr
rate is too crude an indicator, since it captures the overage and underage children. Using
PRimary completion rate data would complicate your life enormously, and it is not immediately
obvious how the cohort flow over the 5-6 years of the primary cycle would be factored into the
unit cost estimate. Best to retain the NER measure. Check the Unesco Institute for Statistics,
Montreal, data for most recent NERs for the Southern African region. The cited paper uses a
methodology for factoring in quality improvement. In fact, without factoring in quality
improvement, the cost estimates are a sham. The paper is downloadable from
www.unicef.org/irc




Jana Ricasio, UNDP Philippines wrote:
I think we should continue to do work on costing the MDGs as they are important for public
expenditure reviews and overall policy reforms. From our case study in the Philippines which you
will recall, we are continuing to refine our estimates especially on building alternative
assumptions for growth and poverty reduction and estimation of financing parameters for goal 1.
I would appreciate receiving more information on sources of approaches, as you mentioned.




Geoff Prewitt, CEA-SURF wrote:
Trust all is well. How to fund the MDGs remains one of the largest hurdles for most countries. At
the national level, the costing exercise (complementary to the preparation of MDGRs) will provide
countries with an estimate of the resource requirements for achieving the MDGs. A few
recommendations that emanated from our MDG Action Forum of last year for Central and Eastern
Africa (as noted by participants): Internal resources: If the MDGs are not to be donor driven,
African governments will have to fund the MDGs primarily from their national budgets.
Governments should seriously attempt to mobilize internal resources for achievement and not
only financially (we need to be a bit more creative). This could be done in several ways,
including: i) improving tax and revenue collection; ii) tracking and making expenditure patterns
and allocation of resources more efficient and effective; iii) strengthening anti-corruption drives;
iv) encouraging governments to increase allocations to social sectors, agriculture and other
productive sectors; v)community mobilization and participation, for example through encouraging
volunteerism; vi) reversing the brain drain and utilizing the Diaspora;
vii) decreasing capital flight; viii) increasing domestic savings; and ix)encouraging multinational
companies operating in the countries to reinvest (based on principles of corporate social
responsibility).

External resources: African countries need market access and FDI for long-term sustained
development. Thus, it is essential that governments create a stable macroeconomic and legal
framework to attract FDI and encourage the national and international private sectors to invest in
their countries. Better and fairer trade terms and practices should be sought. Mechanisms for
efficiently channeling FDI from North to South should be investigated, including access to
innovative technologies and means to divert part of investments from the North to the South.
Development is not only a matter of quantity but also of quality. Efforts are also required to
support and strengthen indigenous technology. Although governments should be aware of the
danger of slipping into a new aid dependency, external resources are also needed to supplement
internal resources. Suggestions forwarded on how to achieve this included: i) campaigning for
capital repatriation in the form of the return of embezzled assets from
international banks; ii) encouraging cost effective regional interventions; iii) developing greater
South-South co-operation through mechanisms like the Nigerian Trust Fund in the African
Development Bank (ADB); iv) reducing transaction costs and working towards more effective
delivery of development aid; v) reminding partners to meet their commitments of providing aid
from 0.7% of their budgets; and vi) convincing the donor countries' taxpayers that their
governments are doing the right thing by helping African countries, and showing them how their
money is being used.

Whereas these are not methodological approaches to costing - never have been a number
cruncher - they are important criteria to consider in regard to source and flow. Hope it helps and,
agreed, UNDP will be requested, more and more, to move beyond advocacy and report writing to
the provision of diagnostic and analytical tools as well as operational support for achievement.




Amon Manyama, UNDP Tanzania, wrote:
Here are some of the recent development in Tanzania on statatistics/poverty/monitoring. In
Zanzibar (Tanzania), UNDP supported the development of the STRATEGIC PLAN for the Statistics
Office. Currently, we are supporting the operationalization of the Strategic Plan - hopefully, you
can get the plan document if you want. The Poverty Monitoring System for Zanzibar is still in the
making but it will definitely capture MDGs. In Mainland Tanzania, UNDP in collaboration with
other partners supported the establishment and operationalization of the TSED - Tanzania Socio-
Economic Database managed by the National Bureau of Statistics. The database helps to monitor
MDGs
performance. Last week UNDP, Development partners and Government signed MOU for financing
poverty monitoring system, in which MDGs monitoring is embedded. The work is on going to
revise the poverty monitoring indicators with a view of integrating fully the MDGs indicators in
poverty monitoring system. We will share the out put later. Tx,




Stephanie Donley, WFP Rome wrote:
Thank you for candidly sharing your points and perspectives on the MDG Costing issue! I wonder
if someone could kindly recommend some literature which highlights MDG Costing with regards
to poverty monitoring through food security improvement?




Christian Akplogan, UNDP Burkina Faso wrote:
About the Community Food Security Initiative, Background on Community Food Security
Initiative, Community Food Security Examples of Best Practices and New Commitments, National,
State, Local, and Federal Commitments, Community Food Security Initiative, An Action Plan,
State Technical Assistance Contact (Community Food Security Liaisons), Community Food
Competitive Project Grants Program and Find Funding and Technical Assistance.

More : http://www.reeusda.gov/food_security/foodshp.htm

Household food security is a prime concern of poor households, and determines their production
and investment choices. Women play a key role in ensuring the capacity of their families to
procure adequate supplies of food on a sustainable basis. Recognizing the different but
complementary roles played by men and women in the productive activities that form the basis
of household economies lies at the heart of good project design and implementation. IFAD’s
gender and household food security strategies require that these considerations be
mainstreamed in all IFAD interventions. More: http://www.ifad.org/gender/index.htm




Washington Kaira,
Actually the MDGs have existed with governments for many years and have been part of the
national budgets which means that the MDGs are not new what is new is the vocabulary 'the
name MDGs'. The emphasis now should be that governments and the donor community, be more
proactive in financing these sectors than before. I have no doubt that since the MDGs have been
identified...the stakeholders will be more focused with both the inputs and the outputs. By
involving the private sector, outputs will be realised sooner than later.




Daisy Kuzinya,
Too true Washington--its just the name that has changed. However, people must make
governments answerable to the people not the other way round.




Soraya Mellali, WA-SURF wrote:
In West Africa, the expectation for enhanced support is focusing :
- first on "Statistical capacity building for Poverty monitoring and MDGs performance tracking "
- and second on "strategic planning and coherence of actions with a view to stimulate
operational synergies in terms of implementing and monitoring the MDGs". Hence, a better
articulation between long term perspective, strategic planning and programming is expected.

Support in analytical work on costings (financial and other resources) of attaining the MDGs at
country level didn't appear as a priority. You could also look at our mdg web site for more
information http://www.undp.org/surf-wa/mdgforum. At the end of this week, all the documents
presented to the MDG forum in West Africa will be posted. I hope this willl help you.




Barbara Barungi, South Africa-SURF wrote:
I believe that Tanzania presented its case study on costing and financing of the MDGs. In
Southern Africa it is a priority in some countries particularly those that are looking beyond
preparation of the report and national campaigns. In the second phase a critical area of focus is
on integrating the MDGs within the PRSP/PRS process particularly monitoring poverty related
outcomes; and costing and financing of the MDGs . Countries like Uganda have also raised policy
issues around short term, medium term and long term MDGs costings so as to inform or relate to
ongoing PEAP(PRSP) medium term framework and other strategic planning exercises.

I have heard from my colleagues that you had a very successful event – CONGRATULATIONS!



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