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					    Harmonisation of Definitions
   of Energy Products and Flows




REVISED DEFINITIONS OF PRODUCTS
  BASED ON DECISIONS TAKEN AT
   THE 29-30 OCTOBER MEETING



        IEA, Paris, 13 February 2009
                                                  Table of Contents
Summary .................................................................................................................... 3
Introduction................................................................................................................ 3
General Points ........................................................................................................... 3
       Definitions .......................................................................................................................... 3
       National Territory............................................................................................................... 4
       Movements between products ............................................................................................ 4
       Primary Energy Form ......................................................................................................... 5
       Presentation of primary electricity in balances .................................................................. 6
       Losses ................................................................................................................................. 6
       Classification of economic activities.................................................................................. 7

Notes on Flows and Products .................................................................................. 8
       Flows .................................................................................................................................. 8
       Products .............................................................................................................................. 9

Biofuels classification ................................................................................... 12
Coal ........................................................................................................................... 13
Electricity and heat .................................................................................................. 39
Renewables and Waste ........................................................................................... 43
Oil .............................................................................................................................. 71
Natural Gas .............................................................................................................. 99




2
                            Harmonisation of definitions of
                          energy commodities and their flows


                           Introductory Notes by Tim Simmons


Summary
Revisions to definitions are provided and accompanied, where appropriate, by explanations
and suggestions as to their nomenclature or use. More general comments and proposals are
made for methodological conventions as they influence use of key flows and also a definition
for national territory is offered. A number of umbrella product groups are introduced and the
activity codes revised to meet the latest ISIC/NACE revisions.
Introduction
The report contains the revised definitions resulting from a review of definitions undertaken
following the third InterEnerStat meeting at the end of October 2008. The revisions take into
account the decisions reached during the meeting. In some cases simplification of the
definitions has taken place where the sentiment of the meeting indicated it as desirable. The
report also contains some more general observations on methodological issues which have
influenced the proposed definitions and inter alia suggests a classification hierarchy for
biofuels.
The revised definitions have been placed in the Annexes and the body of the report contains
comments on methodological issues raised during the meeting and notes on the definitions
where points need commenting.
General points
This section describes the approach taken to the revision of the definitions and also responds
to some general issues which have arisen during the meeting or in response to decisions
formulated at the close of the meeting.
Definitions
Definitions for products have been framed, to the extent possible, in a manner which
describes the product nature. The definition may then be amplified with additional
explanatory notes or remarks which clarify its nature, provenance and use where this
information is thought useful. Points which relate to reporting have been avoided wherever
possible as this is the responsibility of those who prepare the questionnaires.
Definitions for flows follow the same general approach although the distinction between the
nature of the activity described by the flow and its reporting is less clear as it is the flow
activity which leads to the quantity to be reported. Where a flow in the transformation sector
is simply the name of the plant where a product is manufactured this is stated without
describing the manufacturing process as this is already described under the product definition.
For a few definitions, where their nature is broad or complex and where good background
material exists in a single document, a URL link to the document has been given.
It is envisaged that those preparing questionnaires and using these definitions would firstly
present the definition for the product or flow and then add a separate note setting out any
additional clarifying points describing the conditions and requirements for data collection.



                                                                                              3
National territory
Following discussions during the 3rd meeting and during subsequent emails a definition of
national territory for the purposes of energy statistics has been drafted.

The national territory for the purposes of energy statistics consists of the geographic territory
within the effective economic control of the national government and it comprises:
(a) the land area;
(b) airspace;
(c) territorial waters, including areas over which jurisdiction is exercised over fishing rights
and rights to fuels or minerals; and
(d) in a maritime territory, islands that are subject to the jurisdiction of the national
government.


Amplifying notes:
The national territory includes any free trade zones, bonded warehouses or factories operated by
enterprises under customs control within the areas described above.
Territorial enclaves in the rest of the world (embassies, consulates, military bases, scientific stations,
etc.) are part of the national territory where they are physically located.


The definition proposed here results from discussions with the IMF, UNSD and IEA which
started from the definition used by the SNA and modified it to reflect the requirements of
energy data collection and use. There are two areas of activity which test the definition of
national territory for energy statistics and which require support in the definition. The first is
the flows of oils through Free Trade Zones and customs controlled areas such as refineries.
The second is the definition of a domestic flight or voyage which is of particular importance
for countries with distant overseas territories. In both cases the choice of definition has been
made in a manner which should minimise the risks of breaks in series and appear consistent
with normal usage of the terms.
Movements between products
During the 3rd meeting there was some discussion of whether fuel treatments which simply
modified the shape of a fuel (peat briquetting, for example) or blended or separated
components without any intrinsic change to them should be regarded as a transformation
activities. The question was also raised in the decisions noted for the draft definition for
„Other (transformation)‟.
The transformation sector within commodity and energy balances is one of three groups of
activities in which input commodities disappear from the balance and new commodities are
created. The three groups are:
     i.   Transfers, in which the products are usually renamed to reflect change of use, change
          of form or simply for statistical convenience.
    ii.   Separation, blending, aggregating and upgrading, in which the various products are
          separated or combined without change to their intrinsic physical qualities or chemical
          nature. However, the physical characteristics of the resulting product(s) will be
          different from the inputs.




4
 iii.   Transformation, in which products undergo a process or processes during which there
        are physical or chemical changes into other products whose intrinsic properties differ
        from those of the input products.
The transformation activities may be:
       Chemical or physical changes to the input product(s) resulting in the creation of
        products containing new chemical compounds. (For example, refining)
       Physical changes to the input which involve separation into several different products
        with intrinsic physical properties which are different from those of the input material.
        (For example, Coke oven carbonisation of coal).
       Conversion of thermal energy (heat) into electricity.
       Production of heat for distribution to third parties.
Of these three groups only (ii) and (iii) lead to secondary products. The separation and
blending group, (ii) , does not include simple reshaping operations, such as peat briquetting,
and where the product is recognised and input and output data exist, this and similar
operations could be handled by a transfer. Nevertheless, in view of the small size of the
activity and to keep things simple, briquetting without a binder will be included in group (ii)
above.
The revised definitions in the Annexes have been divided and grouped to align with the
transformation activities and those of separation and blending. However, it is not suggested
that the balance be divided further to create a new sector to accommodate „separation and
blending‟. It might be helpful to those using balances to simply place the transformation
activities before those for separation and blending.
Primary Energy Form
Discussions of the presentation of electricity from renewable sources leads to questions as to
the most appropriate form for the primary energy in the statistics system. Some of the ideas
used are applicable elsewhere where new energy commodities enter the statistics.
Production of electricity requires a device and process which convert the thermal, kinetic or
electromagnetic energy into electricity. One may therefore consider all electricity to be a
secondary energy commodity with the thermal, kinetic or electromagnetic energy flows as the
primary inputs. This would then lead naturally on to questions as to the amounts of primary
energy input and the measurement points. For example, the annual amount of kinetic energy
passing through the swept area of a wind turbine. Unfortunately, for many of the renewable
energy sources answers to the questions are available only in qualitative terms and
measurements of amounts not practicable. Estimates would be based on the basic physics of
the process or laboratory tests.
A more pragmatic approach is proposed for energy statistics which leads to a convention
classifying electrical energy into primary and secondary commodities. The primary
commodities are the electricity from wind, wave, tide, hydro and photovoltaic. For example,
using this convention, the amount of wind energy available is the amount of electricity
produced by the wind generators. Secondary electricity is simply that produced from inputs
already recognised and present in the statistics system. This is usually electricity produced
from steam or gas turbines or internal combustion engines and may also be called thermal
electricity.
The choice of primary energy form (electricity in this case) is not only influenced by the
practicalities of measurement and data gathering but also by the needs for energy statistics as


                                                                                               5
well as a desire to keep things simple. It is unlikely, for example, that we, as energy
statisticians or users of the energy statistics, shall need data for the annual total kinetic energy
of the wind flowing through the area swept out by the turbine blades of a wind generator, nor
the total kinetic energy of the rotating alternator driven by the turbine over the year. Only if
this flow of mechanical energy is put to uses before it is used to generate electricity do we
need to take it into account. Fortunately, amongst the types of primary electricity listed only
wind and water mills are used for mechanical tasks as well as electricity and their contribution
to mechanical energy requirements is too small to be recognised in the statistics at present.
The argument in the preceding paragraph can be generalised to provide a rule for choice of
the primary energy form for fuel and energy sources namely, “for statistical purposes, follow
a fuel or energy commodity no further upstream than is necessary to capture all of its uses”.
Presentation of primary electricity in balances
The various sources of primary electricity may be identified as individual products or
commodities with their own commodity balances. Alternatively, they may be shown within a
breakdown of total electricity production in a single commodity balance for all electricity. If
the former presentation is used then the primary electricity may be moved into the electricity
balance through the transfers flow and its consumption will be included in the consumption
figures for all electricity. Although it is possible to use a flow in the transformation sector for
the transfer purpose the activity is not a transformation and to the extent possible flows within
it should be seen as flows within the groups (ii) and (iii) described above.
Similar points arise in relation to primary heat namely, solar heat, geothermal heat, nuclear
heat and heat from chemical processes (other than combustion). Production should be defined
and measured before their first use and only the quantity used for electricity generation and
heat for sale will pass through the transformation sector.
Losses
Two suggestions have been received on the decisions taken at the 3rd meeting which relate to
distribution losses or losses generally. One proposes a general taxonomy for losses which
distinguishes between conversion (transformation) losses, losses during production and losses
in distribution/transmission. The other comment points out that flared gases are not losses in
its pejorative sense but more accurately technical losses required to maintain safe operating
conditions.
The statistical use of the „distribution losses‟ flow is simply to maintain the commodity
balance between supply and use of a commodity already present in the balance. It assumes
independent estimates of the losses and failing such estimates it risks becoming a „statistical
difference‟. It would be possible to introduce a new flow to cover flaring of manufactured
gases but the group would need to assess the benefits and costs of doing so.
The concept of losses in production is different from use of the commodity during its
production. Material (with or without energy content) removed from an extracted fuel before
it is reported as produced will not be in the balance, consequently, it is not clear what activity
or event losses in production might cover. For secondary fuels, flared or vented gases could
be reported under this heading rather than a specific „flaring‟ flow as mentioned in the
preceding paragraph.
Conversion losses is essentially a mass/energy balance concept reflecting the difference in
energy or mass between the input and output commodities. It is conceptually different from
the energy consumed to support the transformation process. It is not possible to ascribe the
difference in energy to the input commodities nor discriminate realistically between the
amounts of input commodities lost in transformation and the amounts appearing in the outputs.


6
Classification of economic activities
The 3rd InterEnerStat meeting decided that any references to NACE or ISIC codes for the
classification of economic activities should be brought up to date. The latest NACE revision
is Rev.2 and that for ISIC is Rev. 4. A list of the relevant codes and their correspondences to
the earlier ISIC/NACE revisions was provided by the IEA and the updating performed.
The decisions on the draft definitions for the energy sector requests the addition of ISIC codes
to activities identified as belonging to the energy sector. There are, however, certain activities
within the sector which are not explicitly identified within ISIC/NACE but either form part of
an identified activity or are absent. Examples are gas to liquids transformation, briquette
manufacture, gas separation/treatment plants and blast furnaces. The codes are given only for
listed economic activities which define closely the energy sector activity.

                         Notes on Flows and Products

In this section comments, explanations or suggestions are provided which are specific to the
definitions or sectors. Only those flows or products are mentioned which require a note.


Flows
Supply
The formula for supply is given which subtracts international aviation bunkers as well as
international marine bunkers. The balancing change has been made to final consumption by
omitting international aviation from the transport sector.
Production
The revised definition has been kept brief but relies heavily on the supporting explanation and
remarks as it draws on other important distinctions in use which should be immediately
available to the reader. The definition covers both production of primary and secondary
commodities in two separate statements. Note the important difference in the treatment of
venting, flaring and losses for secondary fuels.
Production from other sources
The use of this flow needs review. Ideally the underlying principle that it catches additions to
supply from production in previous periods should be retained. Existing reporting notes show
that it is being used for transfer and reclassification as well. As there are flows which exist for
these purposes it is recommended to limit the flow to the activity described in the definition.
Transformation sector
Electricity plants
This definition has been framed to make clear that only thermal electricity plants using steam
or gas turbines or internal combustion engines are included. The name suggests that all
electricity plants would be covered including, for example, hydro electricity plants. To
remove this ambiguity a better name would be „Thermal electricity plants‟.
The reference to the preferred use of generating units rather than plants for the collection of
CHP data is really a reporting point and should be omitted.
Energy sector
See the comments above under Classification of economic activities.




                                                                                                 7
Final consumption
See the comments above under Classification of economic activities.
Domestic navigation and aviation
These have been framed to make reference to the national territory but have not introduced
the detailed definitions for international and domestic flights set out in the IPCC‟s Guidelines
for National Inventories of GHG emissions.
Products
Oils and Natural Gas
Crude oil
The distinction between conventional and non-conventional has been maintained and defined
on the basis of the oil recovery practice.
Condensate from gas condensate fields is included under NGL as a more satisfactory location
on technical grounds. However, it is often included in Crude oil production figures and so it
may be necessary to place it under the definition for conventional crude oil.
Additives/Oxygenates
Following advice that some additives are hydrocarbons the reference to non-hydrocarbons has
been removed from the draft definition. There are, in principle, risks associated with this
although in practice their effects are likely to be small. The risks arise from the uncertainty
surrounding the origin of hydrocarbon based additives and whether they are, in reality,
already accounted for in the fuel statistics under „Other oil products‟.
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
It was decided not to include ethane in LPG as marketed to consumers. A more general
definition LPG is in use where ethane is included with liquefied gases from separation plants
but the physical characteristics of ethane and its value as a petrochemical feedstock favour its
separation from the liquefied gases further downstream.
Aviation fuels and motor gasoline
Definitions for these products have been considerably amplified.
Kerosene
An umbrella definition has been introduced.
Gas Oil/Diesel Oil and Fuel oil
The revised data presented here were taken from CONCAWE product dossiers 107 (Gas Oils)
and 109 (Heavy Fuel Oils). A URL is provided with the definition.
Bitumen
Investigation of the possible heat raising use of bitumen (as a secondary product) revealed
Japan as the primary user in power generation. It does not appear to be their use of
Orimulsion as that is separately reported. There is also use in other countries of much smaller
quantities in patent fuel plants and in refineries. The use in the former is likely to be as a
binder for patent fuel and may also be a coal product (coal tar) rather than an oil product. The
nature of the use in refineries is not clear and it may be solid residue from crude distillation
reported as bitumen.
Without further clarification of the apparent nature and uses of bitumen for heat raising the
definition has been left as describing a non-energy product only.




8
Catalytic coke (Petroleum coke)
A remark has been added to the definition explaining the nature of catalytic coke. As it is not
a recoverable product it is not identified as a finished petroleum product from refineries. It
does, however, form part of total petroleum coke production.
Natural gas
This definition has been revised to take into account the contributions from Marcogaz and the
work done by the International Standards Organization.
Solid fossil fuels and derived products
The hierarchy covering the various coals is set out in the definition. Calorific values of coals
are given prominence as a means of differentiating between coal types except when heating is
not the primary use. Calorific values are expressed in SI units (MJ/kg) and the values have
been taken from UNECE data or Perrys Chemical Engineers‟ Handbook.
Anthracite
It has been particularly difficult to find an authoritative source for the range of calorific values
for anthracite. The fuel has a calorific value considerably above the lower bound given in the
definition for hard coal and it was felt that this higher quality should be reflected in the
anthracite definition. A suitable lower value has been chosen from the ranges found for
anthracite.
Coke
An umbrella definition for coke has been introduced.
Patent fuel
The possibility of other patent fuel processes in the US which involve chemical sprays on coal
fines seems to be more closely associated with synthetic coal manufacture involving chemical
change to the coal. The extent of the practice is unclear and as it benefits from a subsidy its
continuation is uncertain. The draft definition has therefore not been changed.
Other recovered gases
This definition covers a wide group of waste or off gases from industrial processes which use
cokes as sources of carbon for reduction processes. The definition is a general one and
naturally covers similar gases produced from the processing of oil feedstock in the chemical
industry. At present the use of these oil-derived gases in industry does not form part of the
regular data collection by energy statisticians but in anticipation of the eventual collection of
data for this important fuel use the group may wish to consider adding it to the oil product
definitions.
Renewable energy, fuels and wastes
The definitions for the definitions of primary electricity and heat have been considerably
simplified by removing elements which explained the origins of the energy and limiting the
definition to saying just what distinguishes an individual source from others.
Geothermal heat
The definition for geothermal heat has been drafted to avoid the implication that the source of
heat is the earth‟s crust. A URL is given to an excellent review of the geothermal energy by
the International Geothermal Association which makes clear that more of the earth is involved
in the production of the heat than the crust region.
Biomass
The biomass definition has been extended to make clear that animal residues and by-products
are included. It also recognises that biomass is not only available in solid form.


                                                                                                  9
Bioenergy
The Bioenergy title was proposed by the meeting but the definition describes only biofuels as
biomass cannot cover primary heat or electricity sources. Use of the word bioenergy suggests
more than the definition covers. The title „Biofuels‟ is preferable.
By-products and residues
The terms „by-products‟and residues has been taken from the FAO‟s Unified Terminology.
The use of the „residues‟ is preferred to „wastes‟ as the latter implies some value judgement.
Residues has been used where it‟s use is unlikely to supplant long-established terminology.
The term „by-products‟ has been used when the by-products are the result of transforming
something. For example, animal droppings, extracted fats and black liquor are produced as
by-products of natural or technical processes but chips, sawdust and bagasse as residues from
processes. Consequently the word „by-products‟ may be omitted from the „Fuelwood, wood
residues and by-products‟ heading as the essential woody character is retained.
A classification hierarchy for biofuels is proposed in Annex 8. It corresponds well with the
scope of the existing definitions with two exceptions. Only the biomass component of
Industrial and Municipal wastes can be included and, a new definition for the production of
synthesis gas from biomass, Biosyngas, is required. Marcogaz already has a definition for
Biosyngas taken from an ISO standard, for example. If required this could be used.
Electricity and heat
The two „definitions‟ here simply set out the sources for electricity and the types of heat
sources. The definitions of plant types and relevant flow activities are given under flows.
The 3rd meeting requested a definition for nuclear energy. This proposal for nuclear heat as
the primary energy form should be read after the note on primary energy form in the „General
Points‟.
Nuclear energy
The choice of primary energy form for nuclear energy follows from the application of the
general rule for choice of energy form to the energy flow. There have been and are cases
where the steam produced from reactors is used for heating in addition to its far wider use for
electricity. Nuclear CHP is also being discussed. The possibility of going upstream beyond
the heat production to measures of nuclear fuel consumption has not been entertained by
statisticians for two reasons. It is not clear that this leads to a practical benefit and, secondly,
it is a technically difficult procedure and sometimes a sensitive matter to obtain figures for the
nuclear fuel consumption. It is evident then that a better choice for the primary energy form is
the heat from the reactor measured at a convenient point before first use. The quantity
produced will, in general, enter the transformation sector for generation of electricity or heat
for sale.




10
Biofuels classification
   1.1. Solid biofuels
     1.1.1.   Fuelwood, wood residues and by-products
     1.1.2.   Agrofuels
        1.1.2.1. Bagasse
        1.1.2.2. Animal wastes
        1.1.2.3. Other vegetal material and residues
     1.1.3.   Charcoal
     1.1.4.   Non-AFF* Residues (biomass only)
        1.1.4.1. Specialised wastes
        1.1.4.2. Municipal Solid Waste
   1.2. Liquid biofuels
     1.2.2.   Biogasoline
     1.2.3.   Biodiesel
     1.2.4.   Black Liquor
     1.2.5.   Other liquid biofuels
   1.3. Gaseous biofuels
     1.3.2.   Landfill gas
     1.3.3.   Sewage sludge gas
     1.3.4.   Other biogases
     1.3.5.   Synthesis gas**



* Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing.
** <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syngas>




                                                        11
                                           COAL


Coal
Coal is a fossil primary fuel, usually with the physical appearance of a black or brown rock,
consisting of carbonised vegetal matter. The higher the carbon content of a coal, the higher its
rank or quality. Coal types are distinguished by their physical and chemical characteristics.
These characteristics determine the suitability for various uses. There are three main
categories of coal: hard coal, sub-bituminous coal and brown coal (also called lignite). Peat,
which is another primary fuel closely related to coal, is often included under coal.


DECISIONS

      Delete the last 2 sentences.
      Say explicitly that peat is excluded.
      Make reference to standard characteristics in following definitions.
      Give preference to the calorific values.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:     Coal is a fossil primary fuel, usually with the physical appearance of a black or
brown rock, consisting of carbonised vegetal matter. The higher the carbon content of a coal,
the higher its rank or quality. Coal types are distinguished by their physical and chemical
characteristics. These characteristics determine the suitability for various uses.
Explanation: The relationship between the coal types defined below is illustrated here:
1. Hard Coal
   1.1. Anthracite
   1.2. Bituminous Coal
        1.2.1. Coking Coal
        1.2.2. Other Bituminous Coal
2. Brown Coal
   2.2. Sub-Bituminous Coal
   2.3. Lignite
Remark:        Peat is not included in the Coal group.




                                                                                              13
Hard coal
Coal that has a high degree of coalification with a gross calorific value above 23,865 kJ/kg
(5,700 kcal/kg) on an ash-free but moist basis, and a mean random reflectance of vitrinite of
at least 0.6. Hard coal comprises anthracite, coking coal and other bituminous coal (a.k.a
steam coal).


DECISIONS

        Simplify to have 1 criterion (calorific value) since this is what is generally used
         commercially.
        Also give technical reference or standard such as volatility or carbon content. Give
         extra information that can give an indication but is not exclusive when necessary.
        Hard coal is a sub-total that is made up of anthracite and bituminous coal. Bituminous
         coal is made up of coking coal and other bituminous coal.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:     Coal that has a high degree of coalification with a gross calorific value not less
than 24 MJ/kg on an ash-free but moist basis, and a mean random reflectance of vitrinite of at
least 0.6 per cent.
Remark:         Hard coal comprises Anthracite and Bituminous coals.




14
Anthracite
High rank coal used for industrial and residential applications. It has generally less than 10%
volatile matter and a high carbon content (about 90% fixed carbon). Its gross calorific value is
greater than 23 865 kJ/kg (5 700 kcal/kg) on an ash-free but moist basis.


DECISIONS

      Put characteristics first
      State carbon content and volatile matter as guidance.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:   The highest rank coal with a gross calorific value which is generally greater
than 27 MJ/kg on an ash-free but moist basis.
Explanation: It usually has less than 10% volatile matter, a high carbon content (about 86-
98% carbon) and is non-agglomerating.
Remark:        It is used for industrial and residential heat raising.




                                                                                             15
NEW ADDITIONAL DEFINITION


Bituminous coal
Definition:     Coals with gross calorific values in the range 24-32 MJ/kg with agglomerating
characteristics and higher volatile matter and lower carbon content than anthracite.
Remark:        Bituminous coals are used for industrial coking and heat raising and residential
heat raising. They comprise Coking coals and Other Bituminous Coal.




16
Coking coal
Bituminous coal with a quality that allows the production of a coke suitable to
support a blast furnace charge. Its gross calorific value is greater than 23 865 kJ/kg
(5 700 kcal/kg) on an ash-free but moist basis.


DECISIONS

      Add qualities that define coking coal.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:    Bituminous coal with qualities which allow the production of a coke capable of
supporting a blast furnace charge.




                                                                                          17
Other bituminous …… (steam) coal
Coal used for steam raising purposes and includes all bituminous coal that is not included
under coking coal nor anthracite. It is characterized by higher volatile matter than anthracite
(more than 10%) and lower carbon content (less than 90% fixed carbon). Its gross calorific
value is greater than 23 865 kJ/kg (5 700 kcal/kg) on an ash-free but moist basis.


DECISIONS

        Put the calorific value first.
        Omit anthracite.
        In the remarks, put that this is often referred to as steam coal.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:     All bituminous coal that is not included under coking coal.




18
Brown coal (lignite)
A relatively soft, non-agglomerating coal with a gross calorific value less than 17 435 J/kg
(4 165 kcal/kg) and greater than 31% volatile matter on a dry mineral matter free basis.


DECISIONS

      Change the name to Lignite.


REVISED DEFINITION

Brown coal
Definition:    Low rank, non-agglomerating coals with gross calorific values generally less
than 24 MJ/kg on an ash free but moist basis and a mean random reflectance of vitrinite of
less than 0.6 per cent.
Explanation: Brown coal comprises Sub-bituminous coal and Lignite. The distinction
between sub-bituminous and bituminous coal is better made by fixed carbon and calorific
value together. Some sub-bituminous coal may have a calorific value slightly above the
threshold of 24 MJ/kg mentioned above.
Remark:       Brown coals are usually used for steam raising, particularly for power
generation.




                                                                                         19
Sub-bituminous coal
Refers to non-agglomerating coal with a gross calorific value between 17 435 kJ/kg
(4 165 kcal/kg) and 23 865 kJ/kg (5 700 kcal/kg) containing more than 31% volatile matter on
a dry mineral matter free basis. This category includes Brown Coal (Lignite).


DECISIONS

        Remove the last sentence.
        Introduce sub-total for Brown Coal which is equal to sub-bituminous coal and lignite.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:    Low rank, non-agglomerating coals with gross calorific values generally less
than 24 MJ/kg but greater than 20 MJ/kg on an ash free but moist basis and the mean random
reflectance of vitrinite is less than 0.6 per cent..




20
NEW ADDITIONAL DEFINITION


Lignite
Definition:  Low rank, non-agglomerating coals with gross calorific values not greater than
20 MJ/kg on an ash free but most basis.
Remark:      Lignite has a higher moisture content and lower fixed carbon than sub-
bituminous coal.




                                                                                         21
Oil shale, shale oil and tar sands


DECISIONS

        Will provide separate definitions.
        We will see on Thursday where these items should be included.


REVISED DEFINITION
See definition of unconventional oils under Crude oil.




22
NEW ADDITIONAL DEFINITION


Coke
Definition:     The solid, cellular, infusible material remaining after the carbonisation of
coals, pitch, petroleum residues and certain other carbonaceous materials.
Remark:       Various cokes are defined according to the type of material carbonised and the
conditions of carbonisation. Those produced from coals are listed below. Other cokes made
from non-coal sources (in particular, charcoals) are excluded here.
      Coke oven coke
      Coke breeze
      Gas coke
      Brown coal coke
      Semi cokes




                                                                                          23
Brown coal coke
A solid product obtained from carbonization of brown coal briquettes.


DECISIONS

        Produce a general definition for “COKE” and keep the individual definitions. Use the
         definition from the UNSD manual as a starting point.
         COKE
                Brown coal coke
                Coke oven coke
                Semi cokes
                Coke breeze
                Gas coke
        Put a remark that charcoal is not included under Coke.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:     A solid product obtained from carbonization of brown coal briquettes.




24
Coke oven coke (metallurgical coke)
The solid product obtained from carbonization of coal at high temperature. Coke oven coke is
low in moisture and volatile matter and has the mechanical strength to support the blast
furnace charge. It is used mainly in the iron and steel industry acting as heat source and
chemical agent.


DECISIONS

      Insert hard coal into “carbonization of hard coal” ...


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:  The solid product obtained from carbonisation of coking coal at high
temperature.
Remark:         Coke oven coke is low in moisture and volatile matter and has the mechanical
strength to support the blast furnace charge. It is used mainly in the iron and steel industry
acting as heat source and chemical agent.




                                                                                           25
Semi cokes
Cokes produced by low temperature carbonization and used as a heating fuel. Note that semi
cokes may be made from bituminous and sub-bituminous coals including brown coals.


DECISIONS

        Remove the last part “including brown coals”.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:     Cokes produced by low temperature carbonization and used as a heating fuel.
Remark:         Note that semi cokes may be made from bituminous and brown coals.




26
Coke breeze
A by product of coke manufacture. It is the residue from screening coke and comprises
particle sizes less than 10 mm. Note that the coke which is screened may be made from
bituminous and sub-bituminous coals including brown coals.


DECISIONS

      Remove the last part “including brown coals”.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:   A by product of coke manufacture. It is the residue from screening coke and
comprises particle sizes less than 10 mm.
Remark:       The coke which is screened may be made from bituminous or brown coals.




                                                                                       27
Gas coke
A by-product from the carbonization of bituminous coal for the manufacture of town gas. Gas
Coke is used for heating purposes.


DECISIONS

        Make less restrictive by saying “mainly for heating purposes”.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:     A by-product from the carbonization of bituminous coal for the manufacture of
town gas.
Remark:         Gas Coke is used mainly for heating purposes.




28
Coke oven gas
A gas of high calorific value produced from coke ovens during the high temperature
carbonization of coal for the manufacture of metallurgical coke.


DECISIONS

      No change.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:   A gas of high calorific value produced from coke ovens during the high
temperature carbonization of coal for the manufacture of metallurgical coke.




                                                                                  29
Gas works gas (a.k.a town gas)
Covers all types of gases produced in public utility or private plants, whose main purpose is
manufacture, transport and distribution of gas. It includes gas produced by carbonization
(including gas produced by coke ovens and transferred to gas works gas), by total gasification
with or without enrichment with oil products (LPG, residual fuel oil, etc.), and by reforming
and simple mixing of gases and/or air.


DECISIONS

        Omit transport and distribution.
        Avoid confusion with natural gas in the reference to blending.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:   Covers all types of gases produced in public utility or private plants, whose
main purpose is its manufacture for sale.
Explanation: It includes gas produced by carbonization of coal (including gas produced by
coke ovens and transferred to gas works gas) with or without enrichment with oil products
(LPG, residual fuel oil, etc.), and by reforming and simple mixing of gases and/or air.




30
Blast furnace gas
A low calorific value gas which is a by-product of blast furnace operation for the manufacture
of iron. Its heating value arises from the carbon monoxide produced by the partial combustion
of coke in the blast furnace. It is used to heat blast air and as a fuel in the iron and steel
industry. It may also be used by other industrial plants.


DECISIONS

      Change to be “coke and other products”.
      Charcoal may also be used within the furnace (therefore a fraction may be considered
       as renewable).


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:   A low calorific value gas which is a by-product of blast furnace operation for
the manufacture of iron.
Explanation: Its heating value arises from the carbon monoxide produced by the partial
combustion of coke and other products in the blast furnace.
Remark:       It is used to heat blast air and as a fuel in the iron and steel industry. It may also
be used by other industrial plants. Note that where charcoal is used in blast furnaces part of
the carbon supply may be considered renewable.




                                                                                                 31
Basic oxygen steel furnace gas (BOSF gas)
A by-product of the production of steel in a basic oxygen furnace. The gas is recovered as it
leaves the furnace. The gas is also known as converter gas, LD gas or BOSF gas.
?? What about the other gas forms such as the phosphor oven gas ??


DECISIONS

        Add another category for “other recovered gases”.


REVISED DEFINITION

Basic Oxygen Steel Furnace Gas
Definition:    A by-product of the production of steel in a basic oxygen furnace. The gas is
recovered as it leaves the furnace.
Remark:         The gas is also known as converter gas, LD gas or BOSF gas.




32
NEW ADDITIONAL DEFINITION


Other recovered gases
Definition:   Combustible gases produced as by-products of manufacturing processes.
Explanation: They may also be referred to as waste or off gases and usually result from the
use of cokes as a reductant in the process.
Remark:      Examples of fuel gas production from metals and chemicals processing are in
the production of zinc, tin, lead, ferroalloys, phosphorus and silicon carbide. Other
combustible gases are produced from the petrochemical industry when processing oil
feedstock.




                                                                                         33
Coal tar
A liquid by-product of the carbonization of coal in coke ovens.


DECISIONS

        No change.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:    A liquid by-product of the carbonization of coal in coke ovens.




34
Patent fuel
A composition fuel manufactured from coal fines by shaping with the addition of a binding
agent such as pitch. ……………


DECISIONS

      Explicitly mention hard coal briquettes.
      There are cases where the patent fuel is not coal fines by shaping. In the US the hard
       coal was sprayed and there was no reshaping. IEA will provide documentation.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:    A composition fuel made by moulding hard coal fines with the addition of a
binding agent.




                                                                                          35
Brown coal (lignite) briquettes (a.k.a Braunkohlenbriketts, BKB)
…A composition fuel manufactured from … brown coal. The brown coal is crushed, dried
and moulded under high pressure into an even shaped briquette without the addition of
binders.


DECISIONS

        Omit lignite in the title.
        Change to be “with or without the addition of binders”.
        Note: the new definition will implicitly include sub-bituminous briquettes.


REVISED DEFINITION

Brown coal briquettes
Definition:   A composition fuel made of brown coal (including dried lignite fines and dust)
produced by briquetting under high pressure usually without the addition of a binding agent.
Remark:          Either Sub-bituminous Coal or Lignite may be used.




36
Peat
A solid fuel formed from the partial decomposition of dead vegetation under conditions of
high humidity and limited air access (initial stage of coalification). It is available in three
forms as a fuel.
Sod peat: slabs of peat, cut by hand or by machine, and dried in the air; mostly used as a
household fuel;
Milled peat: granulated peat, produced on a large scale by special machines; used either as a
power station fuel or as raw material for briquettes;
Peat briquettes: small blocks of dried, highly compressed peat; used mainly as a household
fuel.


DECISIONS

      Put peat briquettes as a separate product.
      Will specify that peat is not renewable and that the regeneration period is long.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:    A solid fuel formed from the partial decomposition of dead vegetation under
conditions of high humidity and limited air access (initial stage of coalification). It is available
in two forms as a fuel.
      Sod peat: slabs of peat, cut by hand or by machine, and dried in the air; mostly used as
       a household fuel;
      Milled peat: granulated peat, produced on a large scale by special machines; used
       either as a power station fuel or as raw material for briquettes;
Remark:        Peat is not considered a renewable resource as its regeneration period is long.




                                                                                                 37
NEW ADDITIONAL DEFINITION


Peat Briquettes
Definition:   Small blocks of dried, highly compressed peat without a binding agent, used
mainly as a household fuel.




38
                            ELECTRICITY and HEAT

DECISIONS:


      Add a definition for nuclear



Electrical energy
Heat and mechanical energy may be converted into electrical energy using generators driven
by steam, flowing air or water and internal combustion engines. Electricity may also be
produced from the chemical reactions within fuel cells and light falling on photovoltaic cells.
The definitions below do not state what electricity and heat are but define the types of
generation and plants in which they are generated.


DECISIONS

      Remove the last sentence.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:    Heat and mechanical energy may be converted into electrical energy using
generators driven by steam, flowing air or water and internal combustion engines. Electricity
may also be produced from the chemical reactions within fuel cells and light falling on
photovoltaic cells.
The electricity may be classified as primary or secondary where secondary electricity is
produced by alternators driven by steam, gas turbines or internal combustion engines. In short
secondary electricity is produced from heat.




                                                                                            39
Heat energy
Heat is obtained from the combustion of fuels, nuclear reactors, geothermal reservoirs,
capture of sunlight and heat pumps which can extract it from ambient fluids. It may be used
for heating or converted into mechanical energy for transport vehicles or electricity
generation. Definitions of plants which supply heat for use by customers are given below.


DECISIONS

        Remove the last 2 sentences.
        Change “fluids” to “ambient air and liquids”.
        Include heat from chemical processes and use of electricity to produce heat.
        Make a proposal for distributed cooling.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:     Heat may be classified as primary or secondary heat. They are obtained from:
Primary heat
        Exothermic chemical processes, where the reactants are not fuels already present in
         the energy system,
        active capture of solar heat,
        nuclear reactors,
        geothermal reservoirs,
        heat pumps.
Secondary heat
        Combustion of fuels,
        electrical boilers.
Remark:       Heat output from heat pumps is partly primary (heat extracted from the
ambient air or liquids) and partly secondary (the heat produced from the electricity or fuel
used to drive the pump). Heat pumps have been placed under primary only because the
primary heat is normally the major part of the output. The main exception is when they are
recovering waste heat.




40
Classification of generating plants
Electricity and heat plants are divided into types according to whether they produce only one
or both forms of energy and by producer according to the producer‟s principal reason for
generation.


DECISIONS


      These should be moved to the flows.
      Change to be “generation/activity”.




                                                                                           41
The types of producer are:
Main Activity Producer (formerly known as public) undertakings generate electricity or heat
for sale to third parties, as their main business activity. They may be privately or publicly
owned. Note that the sale need not take place through the public grid.
Autoproducer undertakings generate electricity or heat wholly or partly for their own use as
an activity which supports their main business activity. They may be privately or publicly
owned.


DECISIONS


        These should be moved to the flows.
        Need to incorporate the idea of “heat for sale” for autoproducers.




NOTE
See the definition of Electricity and Heat Plants in the Document on Definitions of Flows


42
                         RENEWABLES and WASTE


Renewable fuels and energy
Renewable fuels and energy (Renewables) are captured directly or indirectly from the
incoming sunlight, geothermal heat and the effects of gravitational forces. The main groups of
renewables are described below and the various sub categories defined within them.


DECISIONS

      Change the title to be “renewable energy and fuels”.
      Take out the word “incoming”.
      Remove last sentence.


REVISED DEFINITION

Renewable energy and fuels
Definition:    Renewable energy and fuels (Renewables) are captured directly or indirectly
from the sunlight, geothermal heat and the effects of gravitational forces.




                                                                                            43
Solar renewables - direct
Photovoltaic cells
Incoming sunlight is converted into electricity through the photoelectronic processes in the
cells.
Thermal collectors
Incoming sunlight heats the surfaces of the collectors which transfer the heat to a fluid which,
in turn, carries it away for use.

Solar renewables – indirect

DECISIONS

        Will remove the direct and indirect.
        Add a remark saying that passive solar is not included.


REVISED DEFINITION

Solar energy
Definition:     Energy captured directly from sunlight using collectors which carry away the
heat or electricity for use.
Remark:        The definition is framed to cover active solar energy only. Two types of active
energy collection and conversion are defined, Photovoltaic cells and Thermal collectors.
Photovoltaic cells (Solar cells)
Definition:   Sunlight is converted into electricity through photoelectronic processes in the
cells.
Thermal collectors
Definition: Sunlight heats the surface of the collectors and the fluid circulating within them.
The fluid carries away the heat for use.




44
Wind
Some of the kinetic energy of wind is transferred to the motion of the propeller rotors for the
production of mechanical and electrical energy.


DECISIONS

      Rephrase the definition to reflect the energy form and mention mechanical output
       without referring to the point of measurement.


REVISED DEFINITION

Wind Energy
Definition:   Electrical energy produced from turbines driven by wind.




                                                                                            45
Wave
The action of wind on the surface of water produces vertical oscillations in water level which
may be used to drive mechanical devices and generate electricity.


DECISIONS

        Rephrase the definition to reflect the energy form and mention mechanical output
         without referring to the point of measurement.


REVISED DEFINITION

Wave Energy
Definition:    Electrical energy produced from devices driven by the motion of waves.




46
Hydro
Mechanical energy (usually converted to electricity) is obtained from the kinetic or potential
energy of falling water by passing it through a rotor system. The energy is renewable because
the water is continually returned to higher levels by the climate system driven by sunlight.


DECISIONS

      Remove the last sentence.
      Handle the pumped storage in the remarks.


REVISED DEFINITION

Hydro Energy
Definition:   Electrical energy produced from rotor systems driven by flowing water.
Remark:          Hydro energy is considered to be a primary energy resource with the exception
that hydro energy obtained from water which has been pumped to a higher level using
electricity is considered to be a secondary energy form.




                                                                                            47
Gravitational renewables
Tidal energy
Mechanical energy (usually used to generate electricity) provided by rotors driven by tidal
currents resulting from the rotation of the earth and the gravitational forces from the earth,
moon and sun.


DECISIONS

        Remove the reference to gravitational renewable
        Drop reference to mechanical energy


REVISED DEFINITION

Tidal energy
Definition:     Electricity generated from devices driven by tidal currents or the differences of
water level arising from tides.




48
Geothermal renewables
Heat
Heat captured from hot rocks in the earth‟s crust. The rocks are heated by the decay of
radioactive elements in the crust.


DECISIONS

      Use Eurostat definition.


REVISED DEFINITION

Geothermal Energy
Definition:   Heat extracted from the earth‟s crust and produced within the earth.
Explanation: The heat is usually extracted from the earth‟s crust in the form of hot water or
steam. For fuller information on the origins of geothermal energy see:
<http://iga.igg.cnr.it/geo/geoenergy.php>




                                                                                           49
Biofuels
Fuels derived from recent (that is, non-fossil) plant matter in which the carbon content is
stored in sugars formed through the photosynthesis of carbon dioxide and water using
sunlight. Fuels produced from animal fats and wastes obtain their calorific value indirectly
from the plants eaten by the animals.


DECISIONS

        Rename the title to be “Bio-energy”
        Use modified UBET definition and specify that peat is excluded.


REVISED DEFINITION

Bioenergy
Definition:     Fuels derived directly or indirectly from biomass.
Remark:         Fuels produced from animal fats, by-products and residues obtain their
calorific value indirectly from the plants eaten by the animals.




50
NEW ADDITIONAL DEFINITION


Biomass
Definition:    Solid, liquid or gaseous material of recent biological origin excluding peat and
material contained in geological formations.
Remark:       This includes animal by-products and residues.




                                                                                            51
Wood and wood wastes
Fuelwood or firewood (in log, brushwood, pellet or chip form) obtained from natural or
managed forests or isolated trees. Also included are wastes used as fuel, which are obtained
from the preparation of wood for fuel or derived products (for example, paper, furniture, etc).
…


DECISIONS

        Need an umbrella category for “solid biomass”.
        Rename this item to be “Fuelwood, wood residues and by-products”.
        Check if the definition should refer to “the original composition of wood” in order to
         exclude charcoal and black liquour – see FAO definitions.
        Remove references to derived products.
        The remarks should explicitly exclude charcoal and black liquour.


REVISED DEFINITION

Solid biofuels

Fuelwood, wood residues and by-products
Definition:    Fuelwood or firewood (in log, brushwood, pellet or chip form) obtained from
natural or managed forests or isolated trees. Also included are wood residues used as fuel and
in which the original composition of wood is retained.
Remark:         Charcoal and black liquor are excluded.




52
Vegetal material and wastes (other than wood)
Bagasse, straw, vegetable husks, ground nut shells, pruning brushwood, olive pomace and
other wastes arising from the maintenance, cropping and processing of plants.


DECISIONS

      Introduce an umbrella category called “agrofuels” which will show bagasse separately.
       Agrofuels
             Bagasse
             Animal wastes
             Other agrofuels


REVISED DEFINITION

Agrofuels
Definition:   Crops grown for fuel and/or by-products and residues from agricultural
production used as fuel.
Remark:       By-products and residues from agricultural production include animal solid
excreta and meat and fish residues. Agrofuel is sub divided into Bagasse, Animal Wastes, and
Other vegetal material and residues.




                                                                                          53
NEW ADDITIONAL DEFINITION


Bagasse
Definition:   The fibre remaining after juice extraction in sugar cane processing.




54
Animal wastes
Excreta of animals which, when dry, are used directly as a fuel.


DECISIONS

      No change


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:   Excreta of animals which, when dry, are used directly as a fuel.
Remark:        This excludes wastes used in anaerobic fermentation plants. Fuel gases from
these plants are included under biogases.




                                                                                        55
NEW ADDITIONAL DEFINITION


Other vegetal material and residues
Definition:   Straw, vegetable husks, ground nut shells, pruning brushwood, olive pomace
and other wastes arising from the maintenance, cropping and processing of plants other than
sugar cane.




56
Charcoal
The solid residue from the carbonisation of wood or other vegetable matter by pyrolysis.


DECISIONS

      No change


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:   The solid residue from the carbonisation of wood or other vegetal matter
through slow pyrolysis.




                                                                                           57
Wastes
Wastes are materials no longer required by the holder and destined for disposal in landfills or
incineration plants. Wastes need inclusion in energy statistics when they are incinerated with
heat recovery as they are then considered fuels. The heat may be used for space heating or
electricity generation.
Certain wastes are mixtures of materials of fossil and biomass origin and this complicates the
task of estimating the fossil and renewable fuels components for reporting purposes.
The following waste categories have been identified.


DECISIONS

        Remove last sentence.




58
Industrial waste
This category comprises waste of non-renewable origin (…) originating from industrial
processes, institutions and hospitals and which are incinerated with heat recovery.
Renewable industrial waste is not included under this definition but is covered in the solid
biomass, biogas and/or liquid biofuels categories.


DECISIONS

      Wastes from hospitals and institutions will be moved to MSW.


REVISED DEFINITION

Industrial waste energy
Definition:    Wastes of non-renewable origin originating from industrial processes and
which are incinerated with heat recovery.
Remark:        Renewable industrial waste is not included under this definition but is covered
in the appropriate biofuel category




                                                                                           59
Municipal waste
Waste produced from households and commercial activities and which are collected by
services funded by public administration and incinerated with heat recovery.
Municipal wastes are divided into renewable and non-renewable categories.


DECISIONS

        Wastes from hospitals and institutions will be moved to MSW.


REVISED DEFINITION

Municipal waste energy
Definition:     Wastes produced by households, hospitals, institutions and commercial
activities and which are incinerated with heat recovery.
Remark:        Municipal wastes are divided into renewable and non-renewable categories.




60
Liquid Biofuels
Liquid biofuels are derived from organic matter and used as complete or partial substitutes for
petroleum products at the point of use.
The most common liquid biofuels are biogasoline and biodiesel.


DECISIONS

      This definition will be dealt with in the renewables part.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:   Liquids fuels derived from biomass used for vehicle engines or for heat raising.
Remark:       Liquid biofuels comprise Biogasoline, Biodiesel and Other liquid biofuels.




                                                                                            61
Biogasoline
A biomass derived liquid which is blended with fossil fuel derived gasoline. The blending
may take place in refineries or at or near the point of sale. Common examples are:
        bioethanol
        biomethanol
        bio ETBE (ethyl-tertio-butyl-ether)
        bio MTBE (methyl-tertio-butyl-ether)


DECISIONS

        Change the definition to include direct use and not just blending.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:    Biomass derived liquids which may be blended with fossil fuel derived
gasoline or used directly. Common examples are:
        bioethanol
        biomethanol
        bio ETBE (ethyl-tertio-butyl-ether)
        bio MTBE (methyl-tertio-butyl-ether)
Remark:         The blending may take place in refineries or at or near the point of sale.




62
Biodiesel
Oil derived from biological sources and modified chemically so that it can be used as fuel in
diesel engines either directly or after blending with petroleum diesel. Biodiesel is a linear
alkyl ester made by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats with methanol. The
transesterification distinguishes biodiesel from straight vegetable and waste oils. Straight oils
can be used as fuel only if the engine is modified; for this reason, it is not recommended to
report them as biodiesel. Biodiesel has a flash point of around 150°C and a density of 0.86
kg/litre. Biological sources of biodiesel include, but are not limited to, vegetable oils made
from canola (rapeseed), soybeans, corn, oil palm, peanut, or sunflower.


DECISIONS

      Change the title to be “biodiesels”.
      Omit the sentence referring to straight oils used in modified engines.


REVISED DEFINITION

Biodiesels
Definition:     Liquid biofuels which are usually modified chemically so that they can be used
as fuel in diesel engines either directly or after blending with petroleum diesel. Some liquid
biofuels (straight vegetable oils) may be used without chemical modification.
Explanation: Biodiesels obtained by chemical modifcation are a linear alkyl ester made by
transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats with methanol. The transesterification
distinguishes biodiesel from straight vegetable and waste oils. Biodiesel has a flash point of
around 150°C and a density of about 0.88 kg/litre. Biological sources of biodiesel include, but
are not limited to, vegetable oils made from canola (rapeseed), soybeans, corn, oil palm,
peanut, or sunflower.




                                                                                              63
Black liquor
The alkaline-spent liquor obtained from the digesters during the production of sulphate or
soda pulp required for paper manufacture. The lignin dissolved in the liquor is burned to
release heat when the concentrated liquor is sprayed into a recovery furnace and heated with
hot gases at 900º C.


DECISIONS

        No change


REVISED DEFINITION
Black liquor fuel
Definition:    The alkaline-spent liquor fuel obtained from the digesters during the
production of sulphate or soda pulp required for paper manufacture.
Explanation: The lignin dissolved in the liquor burns to release heat when the concentrated
liquor is sprayed into a recovery furnace and heated with hot gases at 900ºC.




64
Other liquid biofuels
Liquid biofuels not used as transport fuels.


DECISIONS

      Remove the existing text. Use the UNSD structure


       Liquid biofuels
              biogasoline
              biodiesels
              black liquor fuel
              other liquid biofuels (other liquid biofuels not elsewhere specified)


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:    Liquid biofuels not elsewhere specified.




                                                                                      65
NEW ADDITIONAL DEFINITION


Biogases
Definition:   Gases composed arising from the anaerobic fermentation or digestion of
biomass.
Remark:        These comprise Landfill gas, Sewage sludge gas and other biogases,
principally of methane and carbon dioxide.




66
Landfill gas
Gases composed principally of methane and carbon dioxide arising from the anaerobic
digestion of biomass in landfills.


DECISIONS

      Need 3 categories plus an umbrella group
       Biogas
                Landfill gas
                Sewage sludge gas
                Other biogas (agriculturally produced biogas)


REVISED DEFINITION

Landfill gas
Definition:  Biogas from the decay of organic matter in landfills.




                                                                                 67
NEW ADDITIONAL DEFINITION


Sewage sludge gas
Definition:   Biogas from the digestion of waste matter in sewage plants.




68
Other biogases
Sewage sludge gas and other gas obtained from the anaerobic fermentation of sewage sludge
or animal slurries or wastes from abattoirs, breweries and the agrofood industries.



DECISIONS

      See preceding decision.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:   Biogases from all other sources.




NOTE:
Other biogases is included in the broader definition of Biogases.


                                                                                       69
                                                Oil


Oil
A group of liquid hydrocarbons of fossil origins comprising Crude (that is, unprocessed) oil
and fully or partly processed products from the processing of Crude oil. Functionally similar
liquid hydrocarbons and organic chemicals from vegetal or animal origins are identified
separately within oil under liquid biofuels.


DECISIONS

         Keep the definition of oil but make it more specific.
         Mention conventional and unconventional oils.
         Add NGL to the definition.
         Move the part about biofuels to the explanatory works.


REVISED DEFINITION

Oils
Definition:   A group of liquid hydrocarbons of fossil origins comprising Crude (that is,
unprocessed) oil, liquids extracted from natural gas (NGL) and fully or partly processed
products from the processing of Crude oil.
Remark:        Functionally similar liquid hydrocarbons and organic chemicals from vegetal
or animal origins are identified separately under liquid biofuels.




                                                                                          71
Crude Oil
Crude oil is a mineral oil of fossil origin extracted from underground reservoirs and which
comprises a mixture of hydrocarbons and associated impurities, such as sulphur. It exists in
the liquid phase under normal surface temperature and pressure and usually flows to the
surface under the pressure of the reservoir. The physical characteristics (density, viscosity,
etc.) are highly variable.
In its marketable state crude oil may include field or lease condensate recovered from
associated and non-associated gas where it is commingled with the commercial crude oil
stream.
Crude oil may also be extracted from reservoirs containing heavy oils or tar sands which need
heating or emulsifying in situ before they can be brought to the surface.


DECISIONS
        Definition split into 2 parts which distinguishes the tar sands component.
        For NGLs, define condensates in manner which does not confuse lease condensate
         (field) with condensate from fields producing only condensates.
        Crude oil should incorporate heavy and extra heavy crude oil and tar sands.
        Crude oil should include some of the lease condensate.

REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:  Crude oil is a mineral oil of fossil origin extracted from underground reservoirs
and which comprises liquid or near-liquid hydrocarbons and associated impurities, such as
sulphur and metals.
Crude oils may be divided into conventional oil or unconventional oil according to the
methods required for their extraction from their natural reservoir or from the materials
containing them.
Conventional
Conventional crude oil exists in the liquid phase under normal surface temperature and
pressure and usually flows to the surface under the pressure of the reservoir.
Remark:         The physical characteristics (density, viscosity, sulphur content, etc.) are highly
variable and lead to the names „Sweet‟ (low sulphur), „Sour‟ (high sulphur), „Light‟ (low
density) and „Heavy‟ (high density) crudes. There are no rigorous specifications for the
classifications but a Heavy crude oil may be assumed to have an API gravity of less than 20º
and a Sweet crude oil may be assumed to have less than 0.5% sulphur content.
Unconventional (oils from oil sands, bitumen deposits, oil shale)
Unconventional crude oil is extracted from reservoirs containing extra heavy oils or oil sands
which need heating or treatment in situ before they can be brought to the surface for
refining/processing. It also includes the synthetic crude oil extracted from oil sands, bitumen
and oil shale which are at, or can be brought to, the surface without treatment and require
processing after mining (ex situ processing).
Remark:        In its marketable state crude oil may include field or lease condensate
recovered during extraction from associated gas where it is commingled with the commercial
crude oil stream.
Oil sands are also known as tar sands.

72
Bituminous Sands
Omit? See definition above for Crude Oil.


DECISIONS

      Add definition (will be included in the umbrella definition for “Crude oil”).
      May be renamed as “Oils from tar sands”.




                                                                                       73
Natural Gas Liquids (NGL)
NGL are liquid or liquefied hydrocarbons recovered from wet (associated or non-associated)
natural gas in separation facilities or gas processing plants. See entry for natural gas for an
explanation of some of the terms used here.
Natural gas liquids comprise ethane, propane, butane (normal and iso-), (iso) pentane and
pentanes plus (sometimes referred to as natural gasoline or plant condensate).
NGL may be distilled with crude oil in refineries, blended with refined petroleum products or
used directly depending on their characteristics.
Do not confuse NGL with Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG).


DECISIONS

        List the individual components.
        For NGLs, define condensates in manner which does not confuse lease condensate
         (field) with condensate from fields producing only condensates.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:    Natural gas liquids comprise ethane, propane, butane (normal and iso-), (iso)
pentane and a few higher alkanes collectively referred to as pentanes plus.
Explanation: NGL are removed from associated and non-associated natural gas in gas
treatment (separation) plants before sale of the gas. Also components, which are liquid at the
surface, may be extracted from gas condensate fields.
Remark:       NGL may be distilled with crude oil in refineries, blended with refined
petroleum products or used directly depending on their characteristics.




74
Refinery Feedstock
A product from crude oil refining or the processing of hydrocarbons in the petrochemical
industry which is destined for further processing in the refinery excluding blending.


DECISIONS

      Will add examples.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:   An energy product from crude oil refining or the processing of hydrocarbons in
the petrochemical industry which is destined for further processing in the refinery excluding
blending.
Explanation: Typical feedstocks include, naphthas, middle distillates, pyrolysis gasoline and
heavy oils from vacuum distillation and petrochemical plants.




                                                                                           75
Additives/Oxygenates
Additives and oxygenates are non-hydrocarbon compounds added to or blended with a
product to modify fuel properties (octane, cetane, cold properties, etc.):
        oxygenates, such as alcohols (methanol, ethanol), ethers (such as MTBE (methyl
         tertiary butyl ether), ETBE (ethyl tertiary butyl ether), TAME (tertiary amyl methyl
         ether);
        esters (e.g. rapeseed or dimethylester, etc.);
        chemical compounds (such as TML, TEL and detergents).


DECISIONS

        Mr. Heiberg will provide a contact to get more information on the nature of the
         hydrocarbon additives.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition: Compounds added to or blended with a product to modify its properties (octane,
cetane, cold properties, etc.). Examples are:
        oxygenates, such as alcohols (methanol, ethanol), ethers (such as MTBE (methyl
         tertiary butyl ether), ETBE (ethyl tertiary butyl ether), TAME (tertiary amyl methyl
         ether);
        esters (e.g. rapeseed or dimethylester, etc.);
        chemical compounds (such as TML, TEL and detergents).




76
Other Hydrocarbons
This group comprises crude oil extracted from reservoirs with in situ heating or emulsifying
(for example, Orimulsion) and oils extracted from the in situ processing of coal reserves. It
also includes liquid fuels (usually gasoline) produced from the conversion of natural gas.



DECISIONS

      Include liquids from coal and natural gas. Hydrogen, shale oil and orimulsion should
       also be included here.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:    Includes Orimulsion, shale oil and oils extracted from the processing of coal
reserves. Also includes liquid fuels (usually gasoline) produced from the conversion of natural
gas. Hydrogen, although not a hydrocarbon, should be included.




                                                                                            77
Refinery Gas
Refinery gas includes a mixture of non-condensable gases mainly consisting of hydrogen,
methane, ethane and olefins obtained during distillation of crude oil or treatment of oil
products (e.g. cracking) in refineries or from nearby petrochemical plants. It is used mainly as
a fuel within the refinery.


DECISIONS

        Definition stands.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:     Refinery gas includes a mixture of non-condensable gases mainly consisting of
hydrogen, methane, ethane and olefins obtained during distillation of crude oil or treatment of
oil products (e.g. cracking) in refineries or from nearby petrochemical plants.




78
Ethane
A naturally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon (C2H6) extracted from wet natural gas at gas
processing plants or during the refining of crude oil. Ethane is a valuable feedstock for
petrochemical manufacture.


DECISIONS

      Definition stands.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:    A naturally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon (C2H6) extracted from natural
gas at gas separation plants or produced during the refining of crude oil.




                                                                                         79
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
LPG refers to liquefied propane and butane or mixtures of both. Commercial grades are
usually mixtures of the gases with small amounts of propylene, butylene, isobutene and
isobutylene stored under pressure in metal containers. The exact mixtures vary according to
purpose and season of the year. The gases may be extracted from wet natural gas at gas
processing plants or at plants degasifying imported Liquefied Natural Gas. They are also
obtained during the refining of crude oil.


DECISIONS

        Ethane would be in trace quantities and new draft definition will reflect this.
        More reference to where the gas extraction takes place.
        Remove the word “metal”.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:   LPG refers to liquefied propane and butane or mixtures of both. Commerical
grades are usually mixtures of the gases with small amounts of propylene, butylene, isobutene
and isobutylene stored under pressure in containers.
Remark:        The mixture of propane and butane used varies according to purpose and
season of the year. The gases may be extracted from natural gas at gas separation plants or at
plants regasifying imported Liquefied Natural Gas. They are also obtained during the refining
of crude oil. LPG may be used for heating and as a vehicle fuel.




80
Naphthas
Light or medium oils distilling between 30 ºC and 210 ºC, for which there is no official
definition, but which do not meet the standards laid down for motor spirit. The properties
depend upon consumer specification.
Different naphthas are distinguished by their density and an analysis based on the content of
paraffins, isoparaffins, olefins, naphthenes and aromatics.
The primary uses for naphthas are as feedstock for high octane gasolines and the manufacture
of olefins in the petrochemical industry.


DECISIONS

      Singular will used.
      Accept IEA drafting suggestion on how to distinguish the different naphthas.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:     Light or medium oils distilling between 30ºC and 210ºC, for which there is no
official definition, but which do not meet the standards laid down for motor spirit. The
properties depend upon consumer specification. Different naphthas are distinguished by their
density and the content of paraffins, isoparaffins, olefins, naphthenes and aromatics.
Remark:       The primary uses for naphthas are as feedstock for high octane gasolines and
the manufacture of olefins in the petrochemical industry.




                                                                                          81
Aviation Gasoline
Motor spirit prepared especially for aviation piston engines, with an octane number varying
from 80 to 145 RON and a freezing point of -60 ºC.


DECISIONS

        Agree to include “maximum” -60 for freezing point.
        Investigate the octane range for aviation gasoline.
        Insert the distillation range.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:     High quality motor spirit prepared especially for aviation piston engines with
additives which assure performance under flight conditions. Leaded aviation gasoline
(100LL) has a motor octane number of 99.5 (lean mixture), a performance number of 130
(rich mixture), a distillation range of 75ºC to 135ºC and a maximum freezing point of -58ºC.
Unleaded aviation gasoline (82UL) has a motor octane number of 82 (lean mixture) and a
distillation range of 70ºC to 190ºC.
Explanation: The Motor Octane Rating (MON) is less than the Research Octane Number
(RON) by eight or ten points depending on engine design and operating conditions. The
performance number is an equivalent of the MON for rich fuel mixtures and supercharged
engines.
Remark:       See aviation_tech_review.pdf for a full explanation of avgas characteristics and
requirements available at:
<http://www.chevronglobalaviation.com/docs/aviation_tech_review.pdf>




82
Motor Gasoline
A mixture of light hydrocarbon products distilling between 35 ºC and 215 ºC and additives
which improve performance in spark ignition internal combustion engines. Aircraft engines
are excluded.


DECISIONS

      Will follow up IEA‟s suggestion of including examples of additives.
      Change the wording to use aviation gasoline instead of aircraft engines.
      Refer to biogasoline in the explanatory notes.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:     A mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons with 5 to 12 carbon atoms per molecule
and some aromatics (for example, benzene and toluene) to enhance octane rating. The
distillation range is between 35ºC and 215ºC. Additives are blended to
      further improve octane rating,
      improve combustion performance,
      reduce oxidation during storage,
      maintain cleanliness of the engine and
      improve capture of pollutants by catalytic converters in the exhaust system.
Aviation gasoline is excluded.
Remark:       Motor gasoline may also contain biogasoline products.




                                                                                        83
Gasoline Type Jet Fuel
This includes all light hydrocarbon oils for use in aviation turbine power units, distilling
between 100 ºC and 250 ºC. They are obtained by blending kerosenes and gasoline or naphtha
in such a way that the aromatic content does not exceed 25% in volume, and the vapour
pressure is between 13.7 kPa and 20.6 kPa.


DECISIONS

        Definition stands.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:    This includes all light hydrocarbon oils for use in aviation turbine power units,
distilling between 100ºC and 250ºC. They are obtained by blending kerosenes and gasoline or
naphthas in such a way that the aromatic content does not exceed 25% in volume, and the
vapour pressure is between 13.7 kPa and 20.6 kPa.




84
NEW ADDITIONAL DEFINITION


Kerosene
Definition:   Kerosenes are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons, having carbon numbers
predominantly in the range C9 to C16 and boiling over the temperature interval 145ºC to
300°C but not usually above 250ºC.
Explanation: The chemical composition of kerosenes depends on the nature of the crude oils
from which they are derived and the refinery processes that they have undergone. Kerosenes
obtained from crude oil by atmospheric distillation are known as straight-run kerosenes. Such
streams may be treated by a variety of processes to produce kerosenes that are acceptable for
blending as jet fuels.
Remark:       Kerosenes are primarily used in blending jet fuels. They are also used as
domestic heating fuels and as solvents.




                                                                                          85
Kerosene Type Jet Fuel
This is a distillate used for aviation turbine power units. It distills between 150 ºC and 300 ºC
and has a flash point above 38 ºC. In these respects it is identical to kerosene for other
purposes. In addition, it has particular specifications (such as freezing point) which are
established by the International Air Transport Association (IATA).
This category includes kerosene blending components.


DECISIONS

        Need an umbrella definition for kerosene.
        Blending components sentence will remain.
        250 degree cut will be re-included


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:     Kerosene used for aviation turbine power units. The kerosene distils between
150ºC and 300ºC but not usually above 250ºC and has a flash point above 38ºC. In addition, it
has particular specifications (such as freezing point) which are established by the International
Air Transport Association (IATA).
Remark:        This category includes kerosene blending components used to ensure
satisfactory performance in flight conditions.




86
Other Kerosene
Medium oil distilling between 150 ºC and 300 ºC and a flash point above 38 ºC. It is used as
an illuminant and as a fuel in heating appliances and certain types of spark-ignition engines,
such as those used for agricultural tractors and stationary engines.
Other names for this product are burning oil, vaporizing oil, power kerosene and illuminating
oil.


DECISIONS

      Definition stands. Will not add blending in this definition.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:   Kerosene with distillation range and flash point temperatures identical to those
for Kerosene Type Jet Fuel.
Remark:        It is used for heating, lighting, solvents and internal combustion engines. Other
names for this product are burning oil, vaporizing oil, power kerosene and illuminating oil.




                                                                                             87
Gas/Diesel Oil (Distillate Fuel Oil)
Gas/diesel oil is primarily a medium distillate oil which distills between 180 ºC and 380 ºC.
Several grades are available depending on uses: transport diesel, heating and feedstock use.


DECISIONS

        Umbrella definition will remain with its components defined separately.
        To be renamed “Gasoil/Diesel Oil”.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:    Gas oils are complex and variable mixtures of hydrocarbons, predominantly of
carbon number range C11 to C25 and with a distillation range of 160ºC to 420°C. The chemical
compositions of gas oils depends on the nature of the crude oils from which they are derived
and the refinery processes that they have undergone.
Explanation: The principal marketed products are:
        Automotive fuels for diesel engines
         Automotive gas oil (AGO)
         Automotive diesel fuel (DERV)
         Diesel fuel No. 2
         Railroad engine gas oil
        Heating oils
         Domestic heating oil
         Industrial heating oil
         Industrial gas oil (IGO)
         No. 2 fuel oil
        Marine fuel
         Distillate marine diesel fuel (DMD)
Gas Oils are also used as middle distillate feedstock for the petrocehmical industry and as
solvents.
Remark:      See also <http://www.concawe.be/Content/Default.asp?PageID=35>
         Road Diesel
         Definition:    Automotive gas (diesel) oil (usually of low sulphur content) for fuel
         use in compression ignition (diesel) engines fitted in road vehicles. Distillation range
         is 160ºC to 390ºC.
         Remark:       Additives are used to ensure a suitable cetane number and cleanliness
         of the engine. The cetane number describes the combustion quality of diesel fuel
         during compression ignition.
         Heating and Other Gas Oil
         Definition:    Oils meeting the specifications for Gas/Diesel Oil (see above) which
         are used as a light heating oil for industrial and commercial uses, in marine and rail
         locomotive diesel engines and as a petrochemical feedstock.


88
Transport Diesel
Gas/Diesel oil (usually of low sulphur content) for use in compression ignition (Diesel)
engines fitted in land vehicles.


DECISIONS

      Rename to be “Road diesel”.
      Definition will reflect the change to gasoil/diesel oil.


REVISED DEFINITION

Road Diesel
Definition:  Automotive gas (diesel) oil (usually of low sulphur content) for fuel use in
compression ignition (diesel) engines fitted in road vehicles. Distillation range is 160ºC to
390ºC.
Remark:       Additives are used to ensure a suitable cetane number and cleanliness of the
engine. The cetane number describes the combustion quality of diesel fuel during
compression ignition.




NOTE:
Transport diesel is included in the broader definition of Gas/Diesel Oil (Distillate Fuel Oil).


                                                                                                  89
Heating and Other Gas Oil
Oils meeting the specifications for Gas/Diesel Oil (see above) which are used as a light
heating oil for industrial and commercial uses or in marine and rail locomotive diesel engines.
In addition this category includes other gas oil including heavy gas oils which distil between
380 ºC and 540 ºC and which are used as petrochemical feedstocks.


DECISIONS

        Definition will stand.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:     Oils meeting the specifications for Gas/Diesel Oil (see above) which are used
as a light heating oil for industrial and commercial uses, in marine and rail locomotive diesel
engines and as a petrochemical feedstock.




NOTE:
Heating and Other Gas Oil is included in the broader definition of Gas/Diesel Oil (Distillate
Fuel Oil).


90
Fuel Oil
Comprises residual or heavy fuel oil which is a blended product based on the residues from
various refinery, distillation and cracking processes.
Fuel oils have a kinematic viscosity above 27.5 cSt at 38 ºC. Their flash point is always above
50 ºC and their specific gravity is above 0.90.
Heavy fuel oil is used in medium to large industrial plants, marine applications and power
stations in combustion equipment such as boilers, furnaces and diesel engines.
Heavy fuel oil is a general term and other names commonly used to describe this range of
products include: residual fuel oil, bunker fuel, bunker C, fuel oil No. 6, industrial fuel oil,
marine fuel oil and black oil.


DECISIONS

      Will incorporate reference to “usually blended”.
      Difficult to find a uniform standard for viscosity but will investigate further.
      Will add types of fuel oil and their specifications.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:    Fuel oil comprises residual fuel oil and heavy fuel oil which is usually a
blended product based on the residues from various refinery, distillation and cracking
processes. Fuel oils have a kinematic viscosity in the range 6 to 55 cSt at 100ºC. Their flash
point is always above 60ºC and their specific gravity is above 0.95.
Explanation: Residual and Heavy fuel oil are used in medium to large industrial plants,
marine applications and power stations in combustion equipment such as boilers, furnaces and
diesel engines. Residual fuel oil is also used as fuel within the refinery.
Heavy fuel oil is a general term and other names commonly used to describe this range of
products include: bunker fuel, bunker C, fuel oil No. 6, industrial fuel oil, marine fuel oil and
black oil.
Remark:          Historically residual fuel oil was the residue from atmospheric distillation and
heavy fuel oils the result of blending residual oils from various processes and, possibly, with
distillate oils. The distinction is now losing its value as the terms residual and heavy are often
applied without discrimination.
See also <http://www.concawe.be/Content/Default.asp?PageID=35>.




                                                                                               91
White Spirit and SBP
White Spirit and SBP (Special Boiling Point Industrial Spirits) are defined as refined distillate
intermediates with a distillation in the naphtha/kerosene range. They are mainly used for non-
fuel purposes and sub-divided as:
        Industrial Spirit (SBP): Light oils distilling between 30 ºC and 200 ºC. There are 7 or
         8 grades of industrial spirit, depending on the position of the cut in the distillation
         range. The grades are defined according to the temperature difference between the 5%
         volume and 90% volume distillation points (which is not more than 60 ºC).
        White Spirit: Industrial spirit with a flash point above 30 ºC. The distillation range of
         white spirit is 135 ºC to 200 ºC.


DECISIONS

        Add the uses for the products.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:     White Spirit and SBP (Special Boiling Point Industrial Spirits) are defined as
refined distillate intermediates with a distillation in the naphtha/kerosene range. They are
mainly used for non-fuel purposes and sub-divided as:
        Industrial Spirit (SBP): Light oils distilling between 30ºC and 200ºC. There are 7 or 8
         grades of industrial spirit, depending on the position of the cut in the distillation range.
         The grades are defined according to the temperature difference between the 5%
         volume and 90% volume distillation points (which is not more than 60ºC).
        White Spirit: Industrial spirit with a flash point above 30ºC. The distillation range of
         white spirit is 135ºC to 200ºC.
Remark:         White spirit and Industrial spirits are mostly used as thinners and solvents.




92
Lubricants
Oils produced from the vacuum distillation of residues from atmospheric distillation. They are
subjected to further processing depending on the lubricant base stock required. Lubricants are
mainly used to reduce friction on sliding surfaces and in metal cutting operations. In both
cases they also carry heat away from surfaces in contact. Engine oils often contain additives
with the lubricant base stock which help carry particles in suspension.


DECISIONS

      The last 2 sentences should be moved to the explanatory text.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:     Oils produced from the vacuum distillation of residues from atmospheric
distillation. They are subjected to further processing depending on the lubricant base stock
required.
Explanation: Lubricants are mainly used to reduce friction on sliding surfaces and in metal
cutting operations. Engine oils often contain additives with the lubricant base stock which
help carry particles in suspension.




                                                                                           93
Paraffin Waxes
These are residues extracted when dewaxing lubricant oils. They have a crystalline structure
which is more-or-less fine according to the grade and are colourless, odourless and
translucent, with a melting point above 45 ºC.


DECISIONS

        Add reference to “petroleum waxes”.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:     Paraffin waxes are residues extracted when dewaxing lubricant oils. They have
a crystalline structure which is more-or-less fine according to the grade and are colourless,
odourless and translucent, with a melting point above 45ºC.
Remark:        Paraffin waxes are also known as Petroleum waxes.




94
Petroleum Coke
Petroleum coke is a black solid obtained mainly by cracking and carbonising heavy
hydrocarbon oils and tars and pitches. It consists mainly of carbon (90 to 95%) and has a low
ash content.
The two most important categories are "green coke" and "calcined coke".
Green coke (Raw coke) is the primary solid carbonization product from high boiling
hydrocarbon fractions obtained at temperatures below 630 ºC. It contains 4 -15 per cent by
weight of matter that can be released as volatiles during subsequent heat treatment at
temperatures up to approximately 1330 ºC.
Calcined coke is a petroleum coke or coal-derived pitch coke obtained by heat treatment of
green coke to about 1330 ºC. It will normally have a hydrogen content of less than 0.1 wt.%.


DECISIONS

      Will put types in the explanatory text.
      Outstanding issue with catalyst coke.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:   Petroleum coke is a black solid obtained mainly by cracking and carbonising
heavy hydrocarbon oils and tars and pitches. It consists mainly of carbon (90 to 95%) and has
a low ash content.
Explanation: The two most important categories are "green coke" and "calcined coke".
      Green coke (Raw coke) is the primary solid carbonization product from high boiling
       hydrocarbon fractions obtained at temperatures below 630ºC. It contains 4 -15 per cent
       by weight of matter that can be released as volatiles during subsequent heat treatment
       at temperatures up to approximately 1330ºC.
      Calcined coke is a petroleum coke or coal-derived pitch coke obtained by heat
       treatment of green coke to about 1330ºC. It will normally have a hydrogen content of
       less than 0.1 wt.%.
Remark:        In many catalytic operations (e.g., catalytic cracking) carbon or catalytic coke
is deposited on the catalyst, thus deactivating it. The catalyst is reactivated by burning off the
coke which is used as a fuel in the refining process. The coke is not recoverable in a
concentrated form.




                                                                                               95
Bitumen
Bitumen is a solid, semi-solid or viscous hydrocarbon with a colloidal structure, being brown
to black in colour, obtained as a residue in the distillation of crude oil, by vacuum distillation
of oil residues from atmospheric distillation. Bitumen is also known as asphalt, a name used
in some countries for the mixture of bitumen and stone aggregate used for road pavements. In
addition to its major use for road pavements, bitumen is also used as an adhesive and
waterproofing agent for roof coverings.


DECISIONS

        Add a reference to the fact that bitumen can also be used for energy purposes.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition: Bitumen is a solid, semi-solid or viscous hydrocarbon with a colloidal structure,
being brown to black in colour. It is obtained as a residue in the distillation of crude oil and by
vacuum distillation of oil residues from atmospheric distillation.
Remark:      In addition to its major use for road pavements, bitumen is also used as an
adhesive, a waterproofing agent for roof coverings and as a binder in the manufacture of
patent fuel.
Bitumen is also known as asphalt, a name used in some countries for the mixture of bitumen
and stone aggregate used for road pavements. For a fuller account of the various uses of the
name see:
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bitumen>




96
Other Products
Products of petroleum origin (including partly refined products) not specified above.
They will include basic organic chemicals destined for use within the refinery or for sale to or
processing in the chemical industry.


DECISIONS

      Change name to be “Other petroleum products”.
      Add examples of what is included.


REVISED DEFINITION

Other Petroleum Products
Definition:    Products of petroleum origin (including partly refined products) not specified
above.
Explanation: They will include basic chemicals and organic chemicals destined for use
within the refinery or for sale to or processing in the chemical industry such as propylene,
benzene, toluene, xylene, hydrogen and methane.




                                                                                             97
                                      Natural Gas


Natural Gas
Natural gas comprises gases, extracted from geologically ancient underground deposits,
whether liquefied or gaseous, consisting mainly of methane. It includes both "non-associated"
gas originating from fields producing hydrocarbons only in gaseous form, and "associated"
gas produced in association with crude oil as well as methane recovered from coal mines
(colliery gas) or from coal seams (coal seam gas)


DECISIONS

      LNG is not a different product – it is used for storage and transportation purposes.
      Should have definitions in the flows for venting, flaring and energy used for the
       production (but these are not included in “marketable”).
      Include the concept of marketable gas.


REVISED DEFINITION
Definition:    A complex gaseous mixture of hydrocarbons, primarily methane, but generally
also including ethane, propane and higher hydrocarbons in much smaller amounts and some
non combustible gases such as nitrogen and carbon dioxide.
Explanation: It includes both "non-associated" gas originating from fields producing
hydrocarbons only in gaseous form, and "associated" gas produced in association with crude
oil, as well as methane recovered from coal mines (colliery gas) or from coal seams (coal
seam gas)
Remark:        Natural gas as extracted from the well may be wet, that is, containing gases in
liquid form. The natural gas liquids (NGL) are removed from the wet gas before its sale as dry
gas.
Natural gas may be liquefied (LNG) to simplify storage and transportation when production
sites are remote from centres of consumption and pipeline transporation is not economically
practicable.




                                                                                              99

				
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