FWA Driver Training - DOC

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     Movement Area
                          TABLE OF CONTENTS
 DEFINITIONS                                     5

 AIRPORT INFORMATION                             9

 GOAL                                            9

 AIR OPERATIONS AREA                             9


 SERVICE ROAD                                    10

 MOVEMENT AREA                                   10

 SPEED LIMITS AND RIGHT OF WAY                   14

 VEHICULAR SAFETY                                15


 FOD (Foreign Object Debris)                     15

 MOTOR VEHICLE OPERATIONS                        16

 GENERAL INFORMATION                             17

 AUTHORIZED AREAS                                18

 VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES                        18

 AIRCRAFT RADIO PROCEDURES                       19

 OTHER SIGNAGE AND MARKING                       21

 CONCLUSION                                      25

 APPENDIX A - PHONETIC ALPHABET                  26


 APPENDIX C - LIGHT GUN SIGNALS                  29

 APPENDIX D - SIGNS AND MARKINGS                 30

 APPENDIX E – AIRPORT DIAGRAM                    32

 APPENDIX F – DESIGNATED AREAS                   33








Authorized Persons

All vehicle operators inside of the Air Operations Area (AOA) must have the approval of
the Executive Director of Airports. Operators of vehicles inside of the AOA must be
properly permitted by the Airport Authority. Permits will be issued by the Airport Public
Safety Department and a copy of the permit will be kept on file. All tenants requiring
employees to obtain an operating permit will complete and sign a form stating the
employee has been trained in FAA radio communications and is familiar with the
airfield. Individuals will then be required to pass a written test with a score of 90% or
better. The tenant must also assume responsibility for their employee’s actions while
operating a vehicle on the airport.

Any person found operating a vehicle: in a manner inconsistent with general safe
practices, that does not comply with FAA Ground Control instructions, in violation of the
Airport Certification Manual, and/or in violation of the Fort Wayne International Airport
Regulations Ordinance may be issued a citation and/or have their operating permit
revoked. Operators with a revoked operating permit shall be denied driving privileges
on the Air Operations Area (AOA).


The Airport Public Safety Department, FAA, TSA, and other authorized officials will
conduct random inspections of vehicle operators in the AOA to ensure individuals are
properly permitted. Permitted Operators are required to report any suspicious or
unauthorized activity to the Airport Public Safety Department to include, but not limited
to, unauthorized vehicle operations in the AOA, violation of any rules or regulations, and
any safety or security infractions. Personnel not properly permitted will be removed
from the area, issued a citation, and have their employer notified.


The following aviation terms may be helpful to you while working at Fort Wayne
International Airport or in the general field of aviation.

Accident – A collision between one aircraft or vehicle and another aircraft, vehicle,
person, or object that results in property damage, personal injury, or death.

Air Cargo Ramp - Apron used for handling of airfreight.

Air Carrier Ramp- A ramp for air carriers. Only authorized personnel and vehicles may
operate on this ramp. Private vehicles and aircraft are prohibited from operating on it.

Airside – Those areas of an airport that support aircraft activities.

Air Operations Area (AOA) - The areas on the airport intended for the movement and
parking of aircraft.

Air Traffic Control (ATC) - A service to promote safe, orderly, and expeditious
movement of air traffic.

Aircraft - A device intended for flight through the air.
Airport - An area used for the landing and takeoff of aircraft. Includes its buildings and

Apron or Ramp - A defined area on an airport accommodating aircraft for the
purpose of loading or unloading passengers and/or air cargo.

Emergency vehicle - Vehicles responding to an emergency.

Escort - An individual meeting safety and/or security requirements taking responsibility
for another individual that is not permitted unescorted access privileges in the AOA.

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) - A division of the Department of
Transportation charged with regulating air commerce to promote safety and
development in the aviation industry.

Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) - Administrative regulations promulgated by the
FAA. Includes regulations concerning aircraft, pilots, airspace, air carriers, and airports.

Fixed Base Operator (FBO) - An on-airport business providing aviation services
usually including: aircraft parking/storage, aircraft fueling, aircraft rental, flight
instruction, and charter services.

Flight Service Station(FSS) - Air-traffic facilities that provide pilot briefings, en-
route communications, and visual flight rules search and rescue services; assist lost
aircraft and aircraft in emergency situations; relay air traffic control clearances;
originate Notice To Airmen (NOTAM); broadcast aviation weather and National
Airspace System information; receive and process instrument flight rules flight
plans; and monitor NAVIDS.

Foreign Object Debris (FOD) - Any loose objects or debris on the AOA.

General Aviation - All of civil aviation except air carriers and military operations.
Glide slope critical area - Area where glide slope signal interference may occur
from either a surface aircraft or vehicle or both.
Ground Support Equipment (GSE) - Equipment used to supply auxiliary needs to
parked aircraft.
Ground Vehicle – All conveyances, except aircraft, used on the ground to transport
persons, cargo, fuel, or equipment.

Guidance sign - Black on yellow airfield directional or identification sign for
taxiways, ramps and terminals.

Hangar - Building used to house aircraft.
Hold bar - A pair of solid and a pair of dashed yellow lines painted on runways
and taxiways marking a designated stopping point.

ILS Critical area - Area where ILS (Instrument Landing System) signals
interference may occur from either a surface vehicle, aircraft, or both.

Jet Blast - High velocity exhaust from jet turbine engines. Can cause extreme injury to
individuals and property.

Law Enforcement Officer (LEO) – Any person vested with police power of arrest under
federal, state, county, or city authority and identifiable by uniform, badge, and other
indication of authority.

Light gun - A handheld directional light-signaling device which emits a brilliant narrow
beam of white, green or red light. The light gun is used by ATC as an alternate form of
communication in the event radio communication is unavailable.

Location sign - Yellow on black background to indicate actual location.
Mobile Fueler – A vehicle owned and/or operated by authorized agents to pump and
despense Jet A and 100 LL fuel at (Airport). This may include fuel tankers, in-to-plane
fueling pumpers, and hydrant carts.

Movement area - The airport runways, taxiways, and safety areas. Does not include
aircraft parking areas. Approval from ATC must be obtained prior to operating in this

Non-movement area - Aprons and parking areas. No ATC clearance is required for
operation in this area.

Non-movement/movement delineator line - A line delineating between a non--
movement area and a movement area. Consists of 1 solid line and 1 dashed line.

Operator – Any person who is in actual physical control of an aircraft or a motor

Owner – A person who holds the legal title of an aircraft or a motor vehicle.

Perimeter roadway/service road - Vehicle roadway established to allow
movement from one side of the airport to the other.

Prop wash - Propeller wash; the backward force provided by a propeller.
Ramp area - A paved or hard-packed area abutting an airfield's buildings and
hangars, where aircraft are parked.
Restricted area – Areas of the airport posted to prohibit or limit entry or access by
the general public. All areas other than public areas.

Runway - A defined rectangular area for aircraft takeoff and landing.
Runway Incursion - Any occurrence at an airport involving an aircraft, vehicle,
person, or object on the ground that creates a collision hazard or results in loss of
separation with an aircraft taking off, intending to take off, landing, or intending to land.

Runway in Use or Active Runway – Any runway or runways currently being used for
takeoff or landing. When multiple runways are used, they are all considered active

Runway Safety area – A defined surface surrounding the runway prepared or suitable
for reducing the risk of damage to airplanes in the event of an undershoot, overshoot, or
excursion from the runway.

Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (SMGCS) – A system comprising
the provisions for guidance to, and control or regulation of all aircraft, ground vehicles,
and personnel of the airport during low-visibility operations. Guidance relates to facilities
and information necessary for pilots and ground vehicle operators to find their way
about the airport. Control or regulation means the measures necessary to prevent
collisions and to ensure that traffic flows smoothly and efficiently.

S.I.D.A. (Security Identification Display Area) - Area requiring the most stringent
security requirements as required by the TSA. Only authorized personnel with an
airport-issued or airport-approved identification badge may access the SIDA -
primarily the air carrier ramp.

Taxiway - Paved area for aircraft movement between the runway and parking

Terminal - A building for the efficient movement of passengers in transit between
ground and air transportation.

Tow - The movement of an aircraft on the airport surface by a ground vehicle.

Transportation Security Administration (TSA) - A governmental agency within the
Department of Honmeland Security tasked to protect the Nation's transportation
systems to ensure freedom of movement of people and commerce.

Uncontrolled Airport - An airport without an operating airport traffic control tower, or
when airport traffic control tower is not operating.

UNICOM – A non-Federal communication facility that may peovide airport information at
certain airports. Locations and frequencies of UNICOMs are shown on areonautical
charts and publications.

Wake Turbulence – Phenomenon resulting from the passage of an aircraft through the
atmosphere. The term includes vortices, thrust stream turbulence, jet blast, jet wash,
propeller wash, and rotor wash both on the ground and in the air.


The Fort Wayne International Airport is a full service airport categorized by the Federal
Aviation Administration as a non-hub commercial service airport. The Airport is fully
equipped with all the necessary navigational aids. The Airport is equipped with ASR-9
radar. It consists of three active runways:

Runway 5-23, which is 11,891 feet long and 150 feet wide, is of concrete pavement
and asphalt. The runway is grooved and has precision instrument markings. The
design aircraft for the runway is a Boeing 757 at 175,000 lbs. on dual gear. The dual
tandem rating is 355,000 lbs. The runway can be rated to accommodate aircraft up to
and including the Boeing 747, the DC-10, and the Lockheed L-1011 on a limited basis.
Runway 5 has a CAT-II approach. Runway 23 has a 4 box PAPI.

Runway 14-32 is 8,000 feet long and 150 feet wide. It consists of concrete and
asphalt pavements, which are grooved, with the design aircraft also being the Boeing
757 rated at 175,000 lbs. on dual gear. The dual tandem rating for this runway is
355,000 lbs. Runway 32 has an ALSF CAT-I approach and a 4 box PAPI. Runway
14 has a 4 box PAPI.

Runway 9-27 is 4,000 feet long and 75 feet wide and is primarily used by General
Aviation aircraft. It is constructed with asphalt and concrete. It can handle aircraft up to
group IV with a dual tandem weight of 215,000 lbs.

The Fort Wayne-Allen County Airport Authority Public Safety Department (PSD) is
responsible for providing Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting operations in accordance
with FAR Part 139. PSD is also responsible for all Law Enforcement duties and there
is an armed police officer on duty 24 hours a day. PSD has certified Emergency
Medical Technicians and First Responders on duty 24 hours a day, seven days a


In an effort to familiarize all vehicle and equipment operators with the procedures,
rules and regulations and the requirements necessary for driving on the Air Operations
Area (AOA), and to minimize and eliminate the number of runway incursions, we have
tried to combine all this information into an easy and brief manual for your reference.
Obviously, safety is our first priority. The standards that are in place are designed for
that reason, to ensure the safety of our passengers, employees, the public, and YOU!


There are two types of areas at our airport that everyone should be concerned about:
the AOA and the SIDA. The SIDA is the area defined in the AOA where all personnel in
that area need to display their airport-issued or airport-approved badge. Here at Fort

Wayne International Airport, the SIDA is primarily the air carrier ramp near the south
side of the terminal and the ramp areas at UPS and Fed EX facilities.

All vehicles in the SIDA must be marked with the company name and/or logo. No other
vehicles are allowed in the SIDA. AT NO TIME MAY PERSONAL VEHICLES ENTER
THE COMMERCIAL SIDE OF THE AIRPORT. All vehicles must have logos that can
be seen and must also have public liability insurance with a minimum of $10,000,000
(ten million dollars) coverage, with the airport named as an additional insured. Please
call the Airport Authority for further information.

All vehicles while entering or exiting any area inside the perimeter fence must wait for
the gate to close behind them before proceeding. Failure to wait for the gate to close,
excessive speed or any other infraction could result in a Notice of Violation and/or
removal of your driving privilege.

No vehicle shall be operated in an unsafe
manner. An operator involved in an
accident resulting in any personal injury or
damage to any property should contact
PSD at 260-747-5964.

The service road is the means by which to get from one side of the airport to the other.
While on the service road, obey the speed limit - 30 mph and give way to all aircraft at
all times. While driving around the field, you should listen to ground frequency, if
available, so that you can hear and be able to anticipate any aircraft movements. In
addition, the vehicle shall be properly marked and lighted. The Northwest Perimeter
Road is on the northwest side of the airport near Runway 14. The Southwest Perimeter
Road is on the southwest side of the airport and is parallel to Taxiway Charlie. It
extends from the fuel farm to the cargo facility.


The movement area consists of the runways and taxiways and most individuals will
not have a need to enter the movement area. In fact, only individuals who have had
proper training and authorization may enter the movement area if and when
necessary. However, everybody who works at the Fort Wayne International Airport
and has authorization to operate on the AOA should be familiar with the airport layout.
They should also know correct procedures so that runway incursions can be


Runways are orientated by their compass heading. At FWA we have a
northeast/southwest Runway (5/23), a northwest/southeast Runway (14/32), and an
east/west Runway (9/27). The number designation used for a particular runway
depends on the direction of travel used by aircraft, not necessarily your direction of


At FWA, we have Taxiways Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Golf, Sierra, Foxtrot, Echo, Mike
and Yankee. You should become familiar with their locations. The Taxiway throats,
also known as connector taxiways, are designated in an orderly fashion. For the
northeast/southwest runway, numbering begins on the northeast end with 1 and
moves southwest. Each connector is designated by the taxiway that it is connected to
and the number, i.e., C-l, C-2, etc... For the northwest/southeast runway, the
numbering begins on the northwest end and continues to the southeast i.e. Y-1, Y-2,
etc. The east/west runway doesn’t have any connectors. It connects directly to the
Bravo, Charlie, and Delta taxiways.

Markings and Lighting

All runways and taxiways are specifically marked and lighted to assist pilots. Runway
markings are painted in white. All taxiway centerlines and edge lines are yellow. Other
markings on the runway tell pilots different information such as distances, centerlines,
etc. There is more specific information in the FAA Aeronautical Information Manual.
All runway edge lights are white, except the last 2,000 feet of runway are amber
colored. The end of the runway is marked by a row of red lights, whereas on the
other side, the lenses are green to indicate the beginning of the runway. All taxiway
lights are blue. An airport layout map is included for you to familiarize yourself with
the taxiway and runway designations.

At no time should the taxiways or runways be used as a short cut.
Taxiway edge lines are painted yellow. You should not enter any movement
area without first contacting and receiving permission from ATC on 121.9

                                   Yellow taxiway edge lines

Taxiway edge lines will be two solid yellow lines either continuous or in a broken pattern
as above. Not all taxiways at FWA have edge lines.

                              Enhanced Taxiway Centerline Marking

Enhanced taxiway centerlines are used to make markings more visible to pilots during
bad weather conditions.

Taxiways are designated with Blue lights along the edges also.

A non-movement/movement area delineator line separates the boundary between
the non-movement area (not within the control of ATC) and the movement area (in
control of ATC). The solid line refers to the non-movement side while the dashed
line refers to the movement side. You must receive permission from the ATCT
ground controller to enter all movement areas.

                 Non-movement/movement area delineator line


The ramp speed is10 miles per hour unless otherwise posted. All aircraft have the right
of way and then ground service equipment (GSE) vehicles on or near the vicinity of the
ramp have the right of way. Most GSE are not equipped with mirrors, turn-signals or
other normal motor vehicle equipment; therefore, all automobiles should give way. All
emergency vehicles or any vehicles responding to an emergency have the right of way.
They will be driving with their lights on to identify that they are responding to an

There are certain dangers that you should be aware of while on the AOA: prop wash
and jet blast. Even at idle, an aircraft engine can produce enough thrust to pick up
items and throw them. These include rocks and other debris. The thrust, depending on
the aircraft, can also throw your vehicle. Therefore, you should always be aware of any
aircraft that you pass behind. One way to tell if an aircraft is about to start its engine or
if the engine is running is to look for rotating red or white anti-collision lights flashing on
the top or belly of the aircraft. While at the gate area and when approaching the rear of
an aircraft that could be pushed back at any moment, make contact with ground
personnel by flashing your lights. They will either wave you on or advise you to hold up.
When advised to hold up, do not attempt to pass; the pilot is about to or has already
started the aircraft engines, producing enough thrust to seriously damage your vehicle
or injure yourself.

While driving, you must be cautious at all times for aircraft exiting the runways into
the terminal ramp areas.

Poor weather conditions (snow, fog, rain, etc.) might obscure visual cues, roadway
markings, and airport signs. Vehicle operators should remain vigilant of their
suuroundings and operating boundaries. Watch out for snow removal equipment and
aircraft operating in the vicinity under low-visibility conditions. There are additional
risks present under these conditions.

Foreign object debris can cause serious damage to aircraft, other equipment, or
people if projected by jet blast. Therefore, be especially careful not to allow any object,
no matter how heavy, to remain on the ramp. If you see any trash, rocks, tools, nails,
or other small pieces of material, please pick them up and dispose of the items.


The following is an excerpt from the Fort Wayne International Airport’s
Regulation Ordinance:

1.44 Air Operations Area; Prohibited Activities; Motor Vehicle

       It shall be unlawful and a violation of this ordinance for any Person to do or
cause to be done any of the following in the Air Operations Area and other areas of the
Airport as specified herein:

       (1) Operate a Motor Vehicle on the Aircraft parking aprons at a speed in excess
of 10 mph.

     (2) Operate a Motor Vehicle if it is so constructed, equipped, or loaded as to
endanger Persons or property.

       (3) Operate any Motor Vehicle unless equipped with two headlights and one or
more red taillights. The headlights shall be of sufficient brilliance to assure safety in
driving at night, and all lights shall be kept lighted at all times from sunset to sunrise
unless the Vehicle is in a designated parking area or during fueling operations.

      (4) Operate any Motor Vehicle of any type across any passenger loading gates
between an Aircraft and the gate during any loading or unloading Operations.

       (5) Operate a Motor Vehicle in a reckless manner.

       (6) Operate a Motor Vehicle at a speed that endangers property or Persons in
the area.

       (7) Operate a Motor Vehicle while the Operator is under the influence of an
intoxicant or a controlled substance or a combination of an intoxicant and a controlled
substance, under the influence of any other drug to the degree which renders him or
her incapable of safely Operating the Vehicle, or under the combined influence of an
intoxicant and any other drug to a degree which renders him or her incapable of safely
Operating the Vehicle.

      (8) As Operator of a Motor Vehicle, fail to yield the right of way in the Air
Operations Area to all Aircraft under all conditions.

       (9) Operate any Motor Vehicle on the Air Operations Area, except in
designated non-control movement areas as delineated in the Airport Certification
Manual, unless such Motor Vehicle is authorized by the Director, equipped with a
functioning two-way radio capable of communication with the Control Tower and an
operable amber beacon. Motor Vehicles accompanied by an approved and properly
equipped escort Vehicle with such radio communication capability shall be exempt
from application of this subsection.
       (10) Park a Motor Vehicle, for loading, unloading, or any other purpose, on the
Airport other than on the areas specifically established for parking and in the manner
prescribed by signs, lines, or other means. This subsection shall not apply to those
Vehicles authorized by the Director to be parked contrary to posted signs or other
regulations while the driver thereof is actually engaged in the authorized activity.

      (11) Leave parked any unattended Motor Vehicle on any active part of the Air
Operations Area except in approved designated areas.

       (12) Operate a Motor Vehicle (other than an Aircraft) on controlled movement
areas unless the Vehicle and driver are registered with the Director to do so or unless
there exists an agreement with the Airport for such Operation, and the driver is in
possession of a valid Motor Vehicle Operator's license issued by this or another state.

      (13) Walk or Operate a Motor Vehicle on the movement areas of the Airport
without proper authorization of Air Traffic Control personnel (airfield incursion).

       (14) During the hours between one-half hour before sunset and one-half hour
after sunrise and during other times when visibility is less than three (3) miles, Operate
any Motor Vehicle (other than an Aircraft) on controlled movement areas of the Airport
unless equipped with a functioning amber light beacon which is actually in use. Motor
Vehicles accompanied by an approved escort Vehicle with the approved amber
beacon shall be exempt from application of this subsection.

      (15) Clean or make repairs to Motor Vehicles anywhere on the Airport, except
those Motor Vehicles owned or Operated by a tenant or lessee. All approved cleaning
and repair of Motor Vehicles shall be performed in areas designated by the Director
meeting federal, state, and local laws and regulations covering Motor Vehicle cleaning
and repair activities.


A.       No person under the influence of intoxicants, intoxicating liquor or
         narcotics, shall operate any vehicle or aircraft upon Authority property.
B.       All individuals should be aware of the dangers of jet blast and should not
         be behind an aircraft while the engines are being started, nor behind an
         aircraft before take-off.
C.       Stop at all aircraft boarding gates. Do not attempt to pass behind an aircraft
         until you are positive the engines are not about to be started or that the
         plane is not about to be pushed back. First check the air stairs, the beacon
         on the bottom of the aircraft and either the wingman or the tug driver for
         instruction on whether to proceed or not. They will either wave you on or
         they will cross their arms over their head to indicate to stop and do not

D.        Before using any vehicle or ground service equipment, it should be checked
          to see that all equipment is in working order. Such items include but are not
          limited to:
               1.   Headlights
               2.   Taillights
               3.   Brakes
               4.   Rear view mirror
               5.   Horn
E.        Each vehicle operator using an airport perimeter (security) gate shall
          ensure the gate closes behind the vehicle prior to leaving the vicinity of the
          gate. The vehicle operator shall also ensure no unauthorized vehicle or
          persons gain access to the airside while the gate is open.

Each person is required to have an Airport Authority issued badge to drive in the
AOA, unless otherwise approved by the Executive Director of Airports. Each badge
differs in color based on the areas the badge holder is authorized to be in. As part of
the driver’s training program, you will be required to learn the badge colors and to
each area that the badge has access. Please see Exhibit F for these restrictive

Any person, who does not comply with any of the provisions of these Rules and
Regulations, or any lawful order issued pursuant thereto, will be subject to
progressive penalties for repeat violations.
Persons found on the AOA in non–compliance will be cited for unauthorized
presence in the AOA.
Any individual involved in a runway incursion will be issued a $100.00 (one hundred
dollar) citation and shall have their airfield driver privilege revoked and be required to
complete remedial airfield driver training.


This section is intended to provide additional information and training for those
employees who have an operational need to enter into the movement area.
Authorization to employees to enter the movement area will be given if the
following criteria are met:
        The employer has an operational need for their employees to enter the
         movement area
        Training has been received from an airport-approved trainer
        Passing a written test

The Fort Wayne-Allen County Airport Authority will provide you with an airfield
check ride after completion of the training to ensure that each operator can drive
on the airfield in a safe manner.

Before entering any movement area, you must gain permission and communicate
directly with Air Traffic Control (ATC).

When communicating with ATC, you should do the following:
         Always know where you are
         Know what you want to say
         Understand your instructions before proceeding

Do not use 10-Codes, the Aviation Phonetic Alphabet shall be used; See Appendix A.

There is a standard way to communicate and standard phraseology to use
when communicating with ATC. See Appendix B.

Before you begin, you should confirm that you are on the proper frequency. At Fort
Wayne International Airport, all communications for ground vehicles are coordinated
through ground frequency, 121.9, unless otherwise directed by ATC.

Confirm that nobody else is transmitting on the frequency or in the middle of a

Think about what you want to say. ALWAYS STATE YOUR FULL ROUTE WHEN

We communicate with ATC by identifying ourselves by the vehicle number that we are
in, i.e. Airport 1, Broom 39, FAA Maintenance, etc...

State whom you are calling and who you are. i.e. - You = "Ground, Airport 1"

When they acknowledge, you will again state who you are, where you are and
your request or destination.

       You = "Airport 1 at the terminal ramp, request to cross Runway 32 at Y-5 to
Acknowledge their instructions and be sure to repeat all instructions - especially all
hold short instructions.

       ATC = "Airport 1, cross Runway 32, drive to maintenance.

       You = "Airport 1 crossing Runway 32 driving to maintenance.

You should always report when you are off of runways and taxiways.

You = “Ground Airport 1 off runway 32”

If you are ever unsure, even slightly, do not proceed until you have
confirmed with ATC.

We do not cross any runway or taxiway on a daily basis to expedite movement
from one side of the field to the other.

In the event that you lose radio communications with ATC while in the movement
area, turn toward the tower and flash your headlights. They will then use light gun
signals to direct you. See Appendix C for light gun signals and what they mean. Try
to contact someone on your company radio frequency for assistance.

   Aircraft approaching a runway for landing follow a pattern. In most cases, the
        pattern is a rectangular box with the pilot making all turns to the left.

                       Standard Traffic Pattern to Runway 9

Again, however, only those with an operational need shall enter the movement area;
otherwise the perimeter road shall be used.

Location Sign

A location sign shall have a black background and yellow letters. This tells you
where you are.

Guidance Sign

A guidance sign shall have a yellow background and black letters and will show you
in which direction you may find another taxiway, ramp area and/or other services.

Runway Hold Bar
Hold bar is a combination of two solid lines and two dashed lines, with the solid lines
on the side of the taxiway. This is where you hold until given permission by ATC to
enter the runway and/or cross it. You are clear of the runway when you are on the
solid line side of the bar.

                                   Runway hold bar

In-pavement Hold Short Sign
An In-Pavement Hold Short Sign shows the runway you are holding short of in white
letters on a red background. An In-Pavement Hold Short Sign will always be
accompanied by hold short lines on the pavement.

                             In-Pavement Hold Short Sign
Runway Guard Light or Wig Wag
At some taxiway/runway intersections are Runway Guard Lights (RGL's). Each side
has two lights that alternately flash. These are located at the hold short marking and
indicate you are approaching a runway. These are designed to prevent runway

                                 Runway Guard Light

Runway Hold Sign
A runway hold sign will have a red background and white letters with black outline.
The sign will indicate which runway you are approaching. This is the same as a hold
bar. When you approach this sign, this is another visual reference that you will need
permission from ATC before proceeding past this point.

                   Mandatory Hold Short Sign for Runway 32-14

An ILS Critical Area marking/sign is where you should hold short when instructed to by
Ground Control. This will usually be further from the runway than the runway hold short

          ILS Critical Area Sign               ILS Critical Area Hold Short marking

Runway Lights
Runways are designated with white lights and white edge markings.

                                   Runway Edge Light

The most important aspect to remember is safety. Maintain constant situational
awareness and follow all air traffic control instructions. And remember, if you see any of
the following signs, lights, or markings, you are about to enter a runway which requires
permission from the air traffic control tower.

  Mandatory Runway                    Runway Guard Light             Runway Hold Bar
  Hold Short Sign

Appendix A – Aviation Phonetic Alphabet

   A   Alpha
   B   Bravo
   C   Charlie
   D   Delta
   E   Echo
   F   Foxtrot
   G   Golf
   H   Hotel
   I   India
   J   Juliet
   K   Kilo
   L   Lima
   M   Mike
   N   November
   O   Oscar
   P   Papa
   Q   Quebec
   R   Romeo
   S   Sierra
   T   Tango
   U   Uniform
   V   Victor
   W   Whiskey
   X   X-Ray
   Y   Yankee
   Z   Zulu

Appendix B- ATC Communications Glossary

   Acknowledge - Let me know that you have received my message.

   Advise intentions - Tell me what you plan to do.

   Affirmative – Yes

   Aircraft Movement Area - All areas under positive control of Air Traffic Control
   and requiring communications with FAA ATC personnel. All vehicles operating
   on a designated movement area must be identifiable and equipped with an
   amber beacon, a two- way radio in contact with Ground control, or be escorted
   by a vehicle with a two-way radio in contact with the tower.

   Aircraft Non-Movement Area - Those areas on the AOA not under positive
   control by Ground Control.

   Approach End of Runway - End of runway which is used for departure. The
   first portion a landing aircraft encounters. End where the numbers are painted.

   Approved as Requested - Proceed to destination via route originally asked.

   Apron/Ramp - A defined area on an airport or heliport intended to
   accommodate aircraft for purposes of loading or unloading passengers or
   cargo, refueling, parking, or maintenance.

   Correction - An error has been made in the transmission and the correct
   version follows.

   Cross - Proceed through an intersection.

   Departure End of Runway - End of runway where a landing aircraft turns off.

   Expedite - Used by ATC when prompt compliance is required to avoid the
   development of an imminent situation.

   Final - Commonly used to mean that an aircraft is on the final approach course
   or is aligned with a landing area.

   Give Way To - Remain clear of an aircraft or vehicle.

   Go Ahead - Proceed with your message. Not to be used for any other purpose.

   Hold - Stay in place; where you are currently located.

   Hold Short - Proceed up to, but not through a certain intersection.

How do you hear me - A question relating to the quality of the transmission or
to determine how well the transmission is being received.

Immediately - Used by ATC when such action compliance is required to avoid
an imminent situation.

Negative - "No" or "permission not granted," or that is not correct."

Out - The conversation is ended and no response is expected.

Over - My transmission is ended; I expect a response.

Proceed - Authorization to begin/continue on authorized routes.

Read back - Repeat my message back to me.

Roger - I have received all of your last transmission. It should not be used to
answer a question requiring a yes or a no answer.

Say again - Used to request a repeat of the last transmission. Usually specifies
transmission or portion thereof not understood or received.

Speak slower - Used in verbal communications as a request to reduce speech

Stand by - Means the controller or pilot must pause for a few seconds, usually
to attend to other duties of a higher priority. Also means to wait - as in "stand by
for clearance." If a delay is lengthy, the caller should reestablish contact.

That is correct - The understanding you have is right.

Unable - Indicates inability to comply with a specific instruction, request or

Verify - Request confirmation of information

Without delay - With a sense of urgency, proceed with approved instructions in
a rapid manner.

Wilco - I have received your message, understand it, and will comply.


         Color and Type of Signal                      Meaning
Steady red                          Stop.
Steady green                        Okay to cross runway or taxiway; proceed; go.

Flashing red                        Clear the taxiway/runway
Flashing white                      Return to the starting point
Alternating red and green           General warning signal. Use extreme caution.
                                    Note: the warning signal is not a prohibitive signal
                                    and can be followed by any other light signal as
                                    circumstances permit.