An Argumentative Essay - PowerPoint

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					An Argumentative Essay

  How to...
            Before Writing...
   Brainstorm ideas on the subject.
   Identify the main topics.
   Use these topics as headings for organising
    your notes.
   Decide which side you are on i.e. which
    arguments are most convincing. Make sure
    you choose the side that you can fully support.
   Plan and write an outline for your essay noting
    down the information you will include in each
    paragraph.
            Example Outline
Thesis Statement:
Because of its cost, risk and alternatives, the building of
   nuclear reactors should not continue.
Topic Sentence 1:
The first problem with nuclear reactors is their cost.
Topic Sentence 2:
Another problem is the serious consequences of
   accidents.
Refutation:
Some people might claim that there is no real alternative
   to nuclear power.
Concluding Statement:
In short, although nuclear power is an attractive option, it
   has too many disadvantages.
     Introductory Paragraph
Your introduction should:
 Introduce the topic with a general statement
 State why it is important
 State there is a difference of opinion about this
  topic
 Thesis statement must state what YOUR claim
  is and can include the “parts” of the argument
  you are going to state.
Example Introductory Paragraph
  There has been much discussion about the
  use of nuclear power ever since the first
  reactor was built. People who support nuclear
  power think that it provides a cheap and
  effective means of supplying energy needs.
  However, in reality it is not cheap at all and the
  dangers are well-known after the accidents at
  Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. The fact is
  that nuclear power is a tried, tested and failed
  technology. Because of its cost, risk and
  alternatives, the building of nuclear reactors
  should not continue.
            Body Paragraphs
   Arguments for: The reasons “parts” of your thesis
    statement will be in your body paragraphs.
   Give clear arguments for your claim with support
    (examples, statistics, explanations, etc.)
   Use transition words as you move from paragraph to
    paragraph (Firstly, secondly, furthermore, in addition,
    moreover, finally).
   You can also use any of the transitions from the other
    essay types as long as they are appropriate for your
    argument. (You may want to compare/contrast things,
    give reasons/results, descriptions, definitions etc.)
     Refutation Paragraph


 This is also used to support your claim.
 Use the counter arguments to show that
  your idea is the stronger one.
 Do not focus only on the opposing ideas.
      Useful words and phrases

     When you can think of the opposing
     opinion but you have not seen it written
     anywhere:

      could be claimed
It    may be asserted that... However,
      might be argued
  Useful words and phrases contd.

   When you have seen the opposing
   opinion written in another text:

            claimed
It has been asserted that... However,
            argued
    Example Refutation
Some people might claim that there is no
real alternative to a new generation of
nuclear reactors. However, combined heat
and power units, which generate electricity,
are already economical for large houses or
blocks of flats and smaller units will be on
the market next year. Local generation of
electricity eliminates the enormous losses
of wasted heat in electricity generation by
fossil fuels or nuclear reactors. Wind
turbines and solar cells on the roof can
also provide home solutions and will
become more economical as costs come
down with mass production.
     Concluding paragraph
  Your conclusion should:
 Restate the main claim
 Present one or two general sentences which
  accurately summarise your arguments which
  support the main premise
 Provide a general warning of the
  consequences of not following the premise
  that you put forward and/or a general
  statement of how the community will benefit
  from following that premise
            Your turn

    Choose one of the topics below,
    brainstorm and write a thesis statement.

 Using animals for scientific and medical
  research
 Killing animals for food
 Cloning humans