HOW TO WRITE A SCIENTIFIC PAPER
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HOW TO WRITE A SCIENTIFIC PAPER Judges will read your research paper. Your paper THE DISCUSSION TALKS ABOUT YOUR DATA. SHOULD have eight sections: Title page, Table of The discussion of your project is the heart of the paper. It will Contents, Summary, Introduction, Methodology, usually contain several subsections. A good way to begin is to Discussion, Conclusions, Credits and References. present all of your observations and data, in both as-collected and processed forms. Discuss how and why you processed YOU START WITH A TITLE. Use the same title for your data. Explain anything you assumed to process the data. your paper that you used for your project. Center the title near Tables, charts and graphs are very helpful. Place all graphics the middle of the page. Towards the lower right corner, place in the paper near the paragraphs in which they are discussed. your name, the name of your school and your grade level. Clearly label and identify all columns, axes and data. Each item must have its own title. THE TABLE OF CONTENTS is written after your paper is complete and after you have numbered all the pages. A complete paper will include a discussion of possible errors. How did the data vary between repeated observations of AN ABSTRACT IS AN OVERVIEW. The first part of similar events? How were your results affected by uncontrolled your paper is the part that you write last. Your abstract is a events? What are the sources of possible error? How large are short section, approximately 250 words. It contains clear but these errors? What would you do differently if you were to brief summary statements. You summarize: (a) the problem or repeat this project? What other experiments still need to be question(s) you are studying, (b) the action that you took in conducted? your investigation, (c) the results of your experiment(s) and (d) your most important conclusions based on your results. Display THE CONCLUSION IS A SUMMARY OF YOUR a copy on your project. RESULTS. The conclusion restates briefly the findings and results detailed in your discussions. Do not mention new topics THE INTRODUCTION TELLS WHAT YOU ARE or speculations unless you referred to them in the discussion. GOING TO DO. This sets the scene for your report. The Conclusions are based on your work and experiments. They do introduction explains what prompted your research and what not come from news articles and textbooks. Make a you hoped to achieve. The first part of the introduction tells the comparison with theories, commonly held beliefs and/or reader your understanding of the subject when you started expected results. Your conclusions and implications should your project. Next tell how you became interested in your flow smoothly and logically from your data. Be thorough. Let project. Then describe some information that you found when your readers know exactly what you did. Let them follow your you studied your subject, for example: historical and scientific train of thought. background, similar experiments; done by others, and any contradictions or unanswered questions you may have found. GIVE CREDIT WHERE CREDIT IS DUE. The last Finish the section with statements that; (1) describe exactly section of your paper gives credit to other people for their work what you want to prove or disprove, (2) tell why this proof and assistance. First, a list of credits recognizes the aid given should be done, (3) detail the information that you want to to you by people, business and institutions. Second, list the obtain from your project and (4) tell how this information could references you used. This is called a bibliography. This be used. The time to write the initial version of the introduction recognizes the information taken from the works and writings of is while you are planning and starting your project! other people. There are standard bibliography forms. See your English teacher. METHODOLOGY TELLS HOW YOU DID YOUR EXPERIMENT. This section gives all the details about how A FIRST-CLASS LOOK REQUIRES EXTRA you conducted the experiment. Describe in detail how you CARE. Carefully review your first draft. Check for correct derived your data and observations. It is so precise that spelling. Since you are very familiar with your project it is easy another person could repeat your work just by following your to leave out important details. Let an adult who is not familiar instructions. List all materials that you used. Any apparatus you with your project read your constructed should be photographed or drawn and discussed. paper. If they have trouble The Deadline! Photographs, sketches and diagrams help to make your ideas understanding your paper, clear. maybe you left something out. Have your paper Answer questions that apply to your project, such as: What and proofread a final time, then how was it measured? What variables did you collect data for! type the final draft with How did you run the control experiment? What subjects did you double spaced lines. If you use? How or where were your supplies mixed, made or grown? can’t type, get help from someone who can.