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Infectious Disease Control Procedure

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					                                OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SAFETY AND WELFARE
                     Infectious Disease Control Procedure

SCOPE
This procedure applies to all DECS employees in schools, pre schools and departmental
offices.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0   DEFINITIONS ...........................................................................................................2
2.0   INFECTION CONTROL FLOWCHART ....................................................................3
3.0   DUTIES OF MANAGERS .........................................................................................4
3.1   RISK MANAGEMENT ..............................................................................................4
3.2   RISK ASSESSMENT................................................................................................4
3.3   RISK CONTROL.......................................................................................................4
4.0   DUTIES OF EMPLOYEES........................................................................................5
5.0   FIRST AID PROVIDERS’ ROLE...............................................................................5
6.0   ELIGIBILITY FOR CENTRALLY FUNDED VACCINATION ....................................5
7.0   RECORDS ................................................................................................................6
8.0   AUTHORISATION ....................................................................................................6
9.0   REFERENCES..........................................................................................................6
  ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FOR VACCINATION PURPOSES..................................7
  APPENDIX B ...................................................................................................................8
  Risk Assessment for Hepatitis A and B .......................................................................8
  RISK ASESSMENT FOR TETANUS ...............................................................................9

PURPOSE
This procedure aims to provide guidance and information to managers, supervisors and
staff to manage the risk of infectious disease. It seeks to ensure that a consistent
approach is taken throughout DECS to identify, assess, control, record, review and
evaluate the workplace hazards associated with infectious diseases.
1.0 DEFINITIONS

Disease                     A pathological condition of a part, organ, or system of an organism
                            resulting from various causes, such as infection, genetic defect, or
                            environmental stress, and characterized by an identifiable group of
                            signs or symptoms.

Designated First            A person who has a current Senior or Occupational First Aid Certificate
Aid Provider                and is designated to provide first aid for staff and students.

Incubation period           The time between becoming infected and developing signs and
                            symptoms of a disease.

Infectious disease          A disease due to a specific agent or its toxic products that can be
                            transmitted from an infected person, animal, plant or inanimate source
                            e.g. water, food, soil etc. to a susceptible host.

Infectious period           The time during which an infected person can infect others. This varies
                            depending on the disease but can last for several days or weeks
                            (influenza, chicken pox) or for a lifetime

HIV / AIDS                  HIV is an infection caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. A
                            person infected with HIV may look and feel healthy for many years but
                            may still transmit the virus to someone else.

                            HIV is transmitted through unprotected sex with someone infected with
                            HIV and sharing needles to inject drugs, tattoos and body piercing with
                            contaminated equipment and dyes.

Hepatitis                   Inflammation of the liver caused by infectious or toxic agents and
                            characterized by jaundice, fever, liver enlargement, and abdominal
                            pain.

Safe Systems of             A safe system of work is an inclusive concept which covers all aspects
work                        of the organization of work processes to ensure the safety of all
                            persons on site; planning; consultation; policies; procedures; the
                            methods of using machinery, plant and equipment; the methods of
                            hiring labour; job training and instruction about hazards associated with
                            the job and their management.

Standard                    The routine use of safe work practices and protective barriers to
precautions                 minimise the spread of infectious diseases; e.g. good hygiene practices
                            relating to hand washing, the use of gloves and other protective
                            clothing and the safe disposal of waste. It is a strategy which assumes
                            that all blood and bodily fluids are potential sources of infection and is
                            consistent with the approach taken by the NHMRC and the Australian
                            National Council on AIDS.

Vaccination                 The process of creating immunity to a disease by introducing a
                            modified form of the disease micro-organism into the person in order to
                            stimulate a degree of immunity.




Infectious Disease Control Procedure                                                                     2
                          2.0 INFECTION CONTROL FLOWCHART

                               Identify potential sources of infection and risk of
                                   infection from occupations/activities; e.g.
                                 unhygienic conditions and providing first aid.




                              Evaluate the risk of infection. Consider the modes
                               of transmission & type & frequency of exposure.
         C
         o
         m
                                                                                     M
         m
                                                                                     o
         u
                                                                                     n
         n
                                                                                     i
         i                        Develop safe work practices with controls to       t
         c                                      manage risks.
                                                                                     o
         a
                                                                                     r
         t
         e
                                                                                     and
       and
                              Provide appropriate personal protective equipment
                                                                                     R
                                    and ensure the availability of training.         e
         C
                                                                                     v
         o
                                                                                     i
         n
                                                                                     e
         s
                                                                                     w
         u
         l
         t                    Determine need and availability of vaccination (See
                                           6.0 of this procedure)




                              Keep records relating to training, vaccination, risk
                                  controls and safe work practices. Ensure
                                          confidentiality of records



Infectious Disease Control Procedure                                                       3
3.0      DUTIES OF MANAGERS
      Manage the risk of infection through the principles of hazard management; i.e.
      identify, assess, evaluate and control. Deal with Infectious diseases in the workplace
      as hazards.

      3.1 RISK MANAGEMENT

             Hazard Identification

             Staff may be exposed to the following diseases:

                 Airborne              Common Cold, Influenza, Chickenpox, Measles, Mumps,
                                       Rubella, Meningococcal Infection, Legionnaires Disease

                 Faecal – oral         Gastroenteritis, Giardia, Hepatitis A

                 Bodily secretions     Hepatitis B and C, HIV, Meningococcal Infection
                 + blood

                 Soil borne            Tetanus, Legionnaires Disease

             Identify any potential sources of infection, activities and work situations where
             infection hazards exist through:

             3.1.1    consultation with employees
             3.1.2    work injury records (non confidential)
             3.1.3    notifiable diseases’ requirements
             3.1.4    research
             3.1.5    worksite inspection
             3.1.6    advice from the appropriate medical authorities and government agencies
             3.1.7    reports and/or advice from the Manager, Interagency Health Care
             3.1.8    advice from Health and Safety Services

      3.2 RISK ASSESSMENT

             Assess the risk of infection, taking into consideration the likelihood of infection
             from a particular hazard and the consequences if the person is infected. (See
             Risk Management Framework) Consider such factors as the frequency of
             exposure, levels of training and knowledge, existing controls, environmental
             factors and the experience of employees.

             •     Prioritise actions for managing identified risks.

      3.3 RISK CONTROL

             Develop and implement control measures, to eliminate or minimise the risks of
             exposure or transmission. Use the hierarchy of controls i.e.

             3.3.1 Consult with staff to eliminate hazardous practices or try to reduce them
                   in frequency
             3.3.2 Promote a high standard of cleanliness and good hygiene practices in the
                   workplace
Infectious Disease Control Procedure                                                             4
             3.3.3 Ensure that systems are in place for the appropriate disposal of
                    contaminated items.
             3.3.4 Inform staff that vaccination for hepatitis A and B, and tetanus may be
                    provided for staff in high-risk positions e.g. designated first aid providers.
             3.3.5 Ensure that appropriate hand-washing facilities are available.
             3.3.6 Promote the use of standard precautions, e.g. hand washing, washing
                    food and drinking vessels, using PPE.
             3.3.7 Provide training for staff in the use of standard precautions.
             3.3.8 Include infection control in induction processes.
             3.3.9 Provide training for staff in high-risk areas.
             3.3.10 Keep staff well informed about Hepatitis.
             3.3.11 Introduce policies, if needed, which will reduce or eliminate the risk of
                    infection.
             3.3.12 Develop, use and review safe work practices to minimise spread of, and
                    contamination by, blood and faeces (see General Guidelines - OHS&W
                    Manual).
             3.3.13 Inform parents that children who are ill with an infectious disease must
                    not be allowed to attend school (see AIG’s section 3 for details).
             3.3.14 Ensure that employees at significant risk of infection, through exposure to
                    blood or bodily fluid, receive advice from a medical practitioner regarding
                    the appropriateness of gamma globulin treatment within 48 hours.
             3.3.15 Ensure that documented control measures are in place before completing
                    the Risk Assessment form (Appendix B).
             3.3.16 Supply, maintain and use protective equipment to reduce the risk of
                    infection (gloves, goggles).

4.0 DUTIES OF EMPLOYEES
      4.1    Maintain a high standard of cleanliness in the workplace.
      4.2    Consult with management in relation to risk of infection.
      4.3    Practise standard precautions.
      4.4    Follow safe work practices and procedures developed to prevent infection.
      4.5    Use personal protective equipment that is issued.
      4.6    Report any incidents of exposure so that they can be investigated (use an
             accident/incident report form ED 155 if necessary).

5.0 FIRST AID PROVIDERS’ ROLE
      5.4 Assume any one they are treating is infectious
      5.5 Adopt standard precautions i.e. avoid contact with any bodily fluids - wear
          gloves (and goggles if necessary) and dispose of any dressings contaminated
          with bodily fluids appropriately.
      5.6 Report any incidents of exposure for investigation.
      5.7 Ensure their vaccination status for hepatitis A and B is current.

6.0 ELIGIBILITY FOR CENTRALLY FUNDED VACCINATION
      Worksite managers may apply to the Manager; Injury Prevention for the
      reimbursement of vaccination costs incurred by staff whose activities expose them to
      a high risk of infection. Hepatitis A&B vaccination is centrally funded and
      recommended for the following groups:

      6.1 Designated First Aid Providers
      6.2 Staff and their dependants of Aboriginal schools on traditional lands
Infectious Disease Control Procedure                                                            5
      6.3 Staff in special education sites and units
      6.4 Staff exposed to high risk, new arrival students

      Vaccinations for other employees may be approved on the completion of a risk
      assessment (See appendix 2). Contact your Occupational Health and Safety Adviser
      for further advice on this matter if required.

7.0 RECORDS
      Maintain the confidentiality of all records of employees who have been exposed to
      blood or bodily fluids. Release information only in a form that has been approved
      through prior consultation with relevant stakeholders.

        Records relating to hazard identification and risk assessment                TEMPORARY
        related to infectious diseases in DECS workplaces. Includes                  Retain until 2040,
        measures taken to eliminate or control risks.                                retention subject to a
                                                                                     review at that date.

        Records of vaccination programs                                              Temporary
                                                                                     Retain for 30 years

        Vaccination records for first aid personnel and any other staff in           Temporary
        identified high-risk areas.                                                  Retain for 7 years



       Records may only be destroyed in accordance with the State Records Act 1997
       Guidelines, with approval by State Records of SA. To assist with disposal of
       agency records refer to the DECS Records Management Unit Disposal Schedule
       Inquiry System (http://www.decs.sa.gov.au/rmp/).

8.0 AUTHORISATION
        Procedure         Infectious Disease Control   Compliance     Mandatory
                          Procedure
        Version           Version 4                    Status         Approved by State OHS&W
                                                                      Consultative Committee
        Issued            June 2007                    Review date    June 2010
        Author            Health and Safety Services   Location       R/OHS/Policy/Procedures
        Authority         Chief Executive              File details   05 / 0469
        Owned by          Executive Director, Human    Office         Human Resources & Workforce
                          Resources & Workforce                       Development
                          Development



9.0      REFERENCES
         •   OHSW Act 1986 section 19 (1) (a) Duty of care to provide a safe workplace and
             safe systems of work
         •   NOHSC Standard HIV/Hepatitis B and the Workplace, WorkSafe Australia
             Code1993
         •   DECS Hazard Management Procedure
         •   DECS OHSW `Training Procedure
         •   “You’ve Got What”? Disease Prevention. Department of Human Services (SA)
             1998
         •   Administrative Instructions and Guidelines - DECS



Infectious Disease Control Procedure                                                                          6
                                                                                      Appendix A

                ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FOR VACCINATION PURPOSES


Hepatitis A             Hepatitis A is transmitted by the faecal oral route and is generally
                        acquired by eating or drinking contaminated or unclean food and water.
                        Hand washing after toilet use is very important in preventing the spread
                        of hepatitis A.

                        It is recommended that staff practise good personal hygiene especially
                        in relation to hand washing after working with students and before
                        eating, drinking or smoking. A vaccine is available for the prevention of
                        hepatitis A.

Hepatitis B             Hepatitis B is transmitted via exposure to infected blood and to a lesser
                        degree bodily secretions (saliva and semen). It may be transmitted by
                        sexual contact and from contaminated tattoo, acupuncture or IV drug
                        use equipment.

                        Standard precautions need to be practised during the handling or
                        treatment of any person who is bleeding. Treat all blood and bodily
                        secretions as though they are contaminated.

                        A vaccine is available for the prevention of hepatitis B.


Hepatitis C             Hepatitis C virus is transmitted by infected blood. Having one form of
                        hepatitis does not protect a person from contracting other forms.
                        Persons with hepatitis C who also contract hepatitis A are at high risk for
                        fulminant hepatitis – a deadly form of the disease. It is therefore
                        recommended that hepatitis C patients be vaccinated against hepatitis
                        A.


Tetanus                 Protection against Tetanus is usually provided by tetanus vaccine (ADT)
                        from childhood with booster doses for maintenance of immunity every
                        10 years.

                        Tetanus bacteria may be present in soil and faecal matter
                        After injury particularly if the wound is deep, dirty or contains a foreign
                        object (eg wood, splinter) the wound should be disinfected and medical
                        advice sought regarding the need for further treatment to prevent
                        tetanus.




.

.


Infectious Disease Control Procedure                                                             7
                                                                                                APPENDIX B

        Risk Assessment for Hepatitis A and B
   This Risk Assessment must be completed by managers wanting to access departmental
   funding for the vaccination of employees concerned about contracting Hepatitis while at
   work, but who are not recommended within the DECS Infectious Control Procedure,
   section 6.0 Eligibility for Centrally Funded Vaccination.
   Please ensure documented control measures are in place before completing this Risk Assessment.


    Site Name:                                                 Site Manager:

    Name(s) of person(s)                                                      Vaccination requested
    seeking vaccination.                  Position              Hepatitis A       Hepatitis B     Hepatitis A&B




   Documented control measures are in place to address points 1 – 5 below.
   (Please circle) Yes / No

 Responding in the affirmative will indicate a high risk.                                       Yes    No
 I have ascertained the following:
 1. The work role of the employees listed above exposes them to the bodily
    fluids/wastes of others on a daily basis.
 2. The employees listed above are exposed to needlestick injuries and or body fluid
    splashes to mucous membranes (e.g. nose, mouth, or eyes) on a regular basis.
 3. Accident / incident information exists to support the risk of exposure to Hepatitis A
    and or Hepatitis B.
 4. To my knowledge Hepatitis A / Hepatitis B (please circle) has been contracted by
    at least one person at this worksite within the last year.
 5. Staff support the notion that the employees listed above are at risk of contracting
    Hepatitis A or Hepatitis B (please circle).
 6. Local public health authorities support my opinion that the employees listed above
    are at a significant risk of contracting Hepatitis A or Hepatitis B (please circle).
 Supporting documentation is attached. Worksite managers are required to provide
 supporting documentation with this Risk Assessment.

 Signed:                                               Date:

Please forward the above risk assessment and supporting documentation to the:
Manager Injury Preventions, Level 3, Education Centre, 31 Flinders Street, ADELAIDE 5000
Courier number R11/7 or Fax to 8226 1177.




   Infectious Disease Control Procedure                                                                     8
                                                                                                        APPENDIX C

                            RISK ASESSMENT FOR TETANUS
This risk assessment form is based on the prevention of occupational transmission of tetanus and is
linked to work where there is a risk of a contaminated puncture wound or burn. This situation is most
likely to be faced by ground staff working with soils, tools, wood, heat where a skin puncture or burn
may become contaminated. It is based on the premise that there is existing immunity to tetanus.
After identifying high risk practices or situations, site managers and/or staff should be aware of their
responsibility to ensure that they:

•   retain a copy of the department’s infectious disease control procedure and ensure that it is
    readily available (see the policy list under Resources on the OHS&W website.)
•   introduce procedures, if needed, which will reduce or eliminate the risk of infection
•   keep staff well informed about Tetanus
•   use safe work practices
•   maintain a clean and tidy work environment
•   identify and eliminate high risk practices and situations
•   supply, maintain and use protective equipment to reduce the risk of wounds (gloves, safety
    boots)
•   provide effective training to employees to avoid exposure
•   eliminate or guard objects that are likely to cause puncture wounds or cuts
•   review safe work practices regularly for their effectiveness


Site managers must ensure that documented control measures are in place before completing the
Risk Assessment.

Site Name ....................................... Site Manager ............................................................

      Name of Person                                 Position                                Tetanus Status




Responding in the affirmative indicates high risk

I have ascertained the following:                                                                            YES       NO
The role of the employee exposes him/her to the risk of contracting tetanus
Injury/incident reports support this risk!
Those named are exposed to the risk of puncture wounds which may be contaminated

The listed control measures have been implemented.
Supporting documentation is attached.




Signed..................................................………….Dated ......................................................


Please forward this Risk Assessment and supporting documentation to the Manager, Injury
Prevention, 12th Floor, 31 Flinders St Adelaide 5000, Courier number R11/7 or fax to 82261177.

Infectious Disease Control Procedure                                                                                     9

				
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