UTILITIES by wulinqing



The master plan looks at the following utility infrastructure serving the Ohio
University campus at Athens, Ohio:

Campus Utilities

      Chilled water
      Primary Electric
      Communications - Communication Network Services (CNS)
      Cable TV - CATVision

      Public Utilities

      Water (Athens)
      Gas (Columbia Gas)
      Sanitary sewers (Athens)
      Storm sewers (Athens)
      Electric (AEP)
      Cable TV - Time Warner Cable

The text of the report goes into some detail on the existing capacity and condition
of each utility service. Reference is also made to supplemental data available on
each system. Construction cost estimates are "area of magnitude" conceptual
construction budget estimates only, based upon April 2006 construction costs.

The following is a brief recap of each utility, including issues which need to be

Campus Utilities

A.    Chilled Water

      1.     The West Green chiller plant has one 2500 ton chiller. This chiller is
             presently seriously overloaded and the second 2500 ton chiller for
             this plant needs to be installed as soon as possible.

      2.     The South Green chiller plant at Nelson Hall is in the planning stages
             at this time.
     3.    The Ridges chiller plant has one 600 ton chiller. Plans need to be
           implemented for the next chiller at this plant prior to additional space
           being renovated or added at The Ridges.

     4.    Planning needs to begin for an East Green/North Green chiller plant
           to serve East, North and Campus Green buildings. These buildings
           presently have their own chillers or no chillers and this needs to be
           phased out.

B.   Steam/Condensate

     1.    The Lausche Heating Plant has the capacity to serve the entire Ohio
           University campus with steam for heating. This will permit existing
           buildings presently heated by gas or with gas fired boilers to be
           served by the lower cost steam from the Lausche Heating Plant.

     2.    The existing low pressure steam main to Nelson Hall should be
           converted to 125 psig steam as part of the present South Green
           "Swing" building project. This will set the way for conversion of all
           the South Green buildings from gas to Lausche boiler plant steam.

     3.    Planning should be initiated for the addition of another boiler at the
           Lausche steam plant.

C.   Electric - 15 kV Campus System

     1.    The existing 69 kV substation has two transformers (33 MVA) used
           to supply power to the Athens Campus (not including West State
           Street Research Park). Currently, either transformer can supply
           power to the campus. This allows one transformer to be off-line for
           maintenance, etc. This arrangement should be maintained.

     2.    The peak electrical load on the 69 kV substation in fiscal year
           2004-2005 was approximately 70% of the substation capacity (23.27
           MVA). If two 2500 ton chillers are added, a single substation
           transformer will be loaded to approximately 86% of capacity. This
           does not include any other electrical increases.

     3.    There are two primary options for future electrical growth. Option
           one is to add a second 69 kV substation on the east side of the
           campus or expand the existing 69 kV substation. The second option
           is to allow electrical growth above what one substation transformer
          can carry. This eliminates redundancy on the system and places
          Ohio University at risk of extended electric downtime for a portion of
          the campus if one of the transformers fails or requires repair. We
          recommend option one.

D.   Campus Communications - CNS

     1.   The existing campus communications network distribution system is
          provided and maintained by the University through Communications
          Network Services (CNS).

     2.   CNS is presently in the process of upgrading the existing network to
          a gigabit backbone to accommodate high speed 100 mbps to the
          desktop in all academic buildings on campus. A tentative completion
          date for the entire Athens campus is July 2009. When this project is
          complete, it is estimated that an upgrade to a 10 gigabit/1000 mbps
          system will be needed in 10-20 years based on current technology

     3.   CNS is currently in the process of providing wireless data services
          throughout the student-accessible areas of campus. The estimated
          date of completion for this project is the summer of 2006.

E.   Campus Cable TV - CATVision

     1.   The existing private CATV distribution system is a coaxial cable
          based system with capacity of 76 channels.

     2.   The existing CATV system, as currently constructed, is at its limit
          regarding quantity of channels. If a new channel is to be added, an
          existing channel will need to be deleted.

     3.   The existing coaxial cable distribution system, according to the Ohio
          University CATVision Manager, is maintained adequately and is
          sufficient as it currently exists.

     4.   Expansion of the CATV system is possible but will require either
          additional coaxial cable plant, single mode optical fiber plant or a
          combination of the two.
Public Utilities

A.      Water

        1.      The existing Athens water distribution system has adequate capacity
                and pressure for domestic water and "ordinary hazard" sprinkler
                system service.

        2.      Flow tests should be run for each new building or renovation to verify
                project specific requirements at time of construction.

B.      Gas

        1.      The 50 psig Columbia Gas distribution system in Athens should be
                adequate to service the area for the next ten years.

     C. Sanitary Sewers

        1.      The sanitary sewer system in Athens has a major problem with storm
                water infiltration. This ongoing problem needs to be addressed by
                the City of Athens with support from Ohio University.

        2.      As the campus changes with new construction and with street
                closings and relocations, care will need to be taken to ensure sewers
                are not "built over".

        3.      A new east-west sanitary sewer needs to be installed on the north
                side of The Ridges Complex to permit renovation of the complex.

D.      Storm Sewers

        1.      The storm sewers in Athens appear to have a lot of blockage on the
                branch sewer lines. These need to be cleared to permit better storm
                water flow during rain events.

        2.      A major 36" galvanized storm sewer from the West Green to the
                pumping station at Peden Stadium is collapsed and in poor
                condition. It should be replaced as soon as possible.

E.      Electric

        1.      The existing Ohio University 69 kV substation is served from 69 kV
                American Electric Power (AEP) lines.
2.   To add a new 69 kV substation on the east side of campus will
     require a new AEP 69 kV feed to the new substation location. There
     are two routes to get to the east side of campus. The first route is
     through downtown Athens from the existing substation. The other
     route is from a transmission line northeast of campus at the Stroud's
     Run substation. Costs to get the new 69 kV line to the east side of
     campus will be the responsibility of Ohio University.

The majority of the existing campus heating is provided from the Lausche Heating
Plant located at the west end of the West Green. The Lausche Heating Plant has
a total steam output of 330,000 #/HR from three 70,000 #/HR coal fired Keeler
boilers and one 120,000 #/HR gas-fired, package boiler.

The Ridges heating load has recently been connected to the Lausche Heating
Plant with the exception of Konnecker Hall, which has its own boilers. These
boilers, however, are in poor condition. Steam and condensate mains should be
extended to Konnecker from The Ridges boiler plant mains. This could be done at
the same time as chilled water main extensions. (Estimate $450,000)

The three Cleaver Brooks packaged, gas-fired boilers at The Ridges heating plant
remain in place for possible back-up use. Total output capacity of 20,000 #/HR.

The peak steam heating loads previously experienced are:

              Lausche Heating Plant                      175,000 #/HR
              Ridges Heating Plant                        11,000 #/HR
                                                         186,000 #/HR

              Buildings with Dedicated Gas Heat          115,000 #/HR
              (not connected to steam lines)             301,000 #/HR

The gas-fired buildings on campus used a peak of 144,000 MCF, equivalent to
approximately 115,000 #/HR of steam.

As can be seen from the above tabulation, if all of the present campus loads are
connected to the Lausche Heating Plant, the plant will be approximately 90%
loaded with all four (4) boilers operating. There is very little growth capacity left in
the Lausche Heating Plant, possibly 400,000 to 1,000,000 square feet of new floor
space at peak operation.

The University Center load of 19,000#/hr is included in the tabulation above.
However, the Integrated Learning Research Building, currently under construction,
has a steam load of approximately 9000 #/hr which will further reduce growth
There are several individual buildings where the boiler plants have been kept
certified so that they can be used as "backup", if the need arises. These include:

             Location                           Capacity

             The Ridges                         20,000 #/HR
             Clippinger                         13,400 #/HR
             Nelson                              8,400 #/HR
             Bromley                             8,400 #/HR

Assuming that the operational boilers in the above buildings are allowed to
constitute the campus "safety capacity", a new coal fired boiler will need to be
installed when the Lausche Heating Plant reaches 330,000 #/HR. The design and
construction should be programmed at least 2-1/2 - 3 years prior to that point,
probably within the next 5 years. It should be noted that existing primary electrical
switchgear will need to be relocated to make space for an additional boiler.
(Estimate $6,500,000)

Since the cost of coal-fired steam is the most economical heating source, we
recommend maximizing the use of the coal-fired boilers. Existing gas-fired loads
should be transferred to the steam system, as renovation or replacement of
existing buildings utilizing natural gas heat, is programmed. New construction
should also be connected to the steam system.

The Lausche Heating Plant is presently scheduled for renovation and upgrades
including boiler retubing, 2 additional baghouse cells, maintenance and
replacement work on the ash system and conveyors and upgrading to Direct
Digital Controls (DDC). These upgrades should extend the existing boiler plant life
expectancy for the next 20 years.

The majority of the campus steam and condensate distribution piping system was
originally installed for 15 psig steam. The Lausche Heating Plant delivers 125 psig
steam with steam pressure reducing stations utilized to reduce the steam to 15
psig. The majority of the distribution piping is run in utility tunnels, with some
direct burial piping and some piping run through the lower level of existing
buildings. All of the main steam distribution piping has been pressure tested at 1.5
times the 125 psig distribution pressure and was found capable of holding a 125
psig steam load.
The existing piping distribution mains, when operating at 125 psig, can deliver
approximately twice the heating capability of 15 psig steam. The existing mains
have the capacity to deliver the entire Lausche heating plant steam output without
increasing the existing steam pipe sizes. We have based our sizing review upon
maximum limits of 2 psig per 100 ft. of piping pressure loss and 12,000 fpm
velocity at 125 psig.

With tunnel or underground piping distribution mains, higher velocities could be
utilized, if needed, since noise in the distribution piping mains is not as critical as in
occupied spaces. This would increase the capacity of the existing piping mains.

The following campus steam distribution mains have already been upgraded to
125 psig:

1.     From Lausche Heating Plant to the Old Heating Plant

2.     From the Old Heating Plant east in the Mulberry Street Tunnel to the New
       University Center connector

3.     From the Lausche Heating Plant to The Ridges Heating Plant

The upgrade of additional steam distribution mains will make the conversion of
many gas-fired buildings to the campus steam system possible. It needs to be
remembered that upgrading from 15 psig to 125 psig steam will require the
following modifications to the steam piping distribution system:

1.     Expansion compensation must be provided based upon the higher
       temperature of 125 psig steam. This will require the addition of new
       expansion joints and guides in the existing mains.

2.     Existing anchors will need to be checked out to make sure that they are
       adequate for the thrust forces of 125 psig steam. Some anchors will need
       to be replaced or upgraded. Additional anchors will also probably be

3.     The existing steam traps on the piping distribution will need to be upgraded
       to high pressure traps. Some additional traps may also be required. Steam
       distribution main drip legs should be full main pipe size.

4.     The piping insulation will, in some cases, need to be replaced to support the
       higher temperatures of the 125 psig steam. Deteriorated insulation should
       also be replaced.
The presently completed upgrade of the Mulberry Street main to 125 psig will
permit most of the College Green to be converted over to high pressure steam.
The next most logical upgrade would be the 14" steam main feed to Nelson
Commons. This would set up the conversion of a large part of West Green and
also allow the conversion of the South Green dormitories from gas to steam.
(Estimate $2,800,000)

Estimates to upgrade remainder of campus:

West Green:         $3,000,000
Campus Green:       $1,600,000
East Green:         $1,600,000
North Green:        $1,100,000
South Green:        $1,200,000

Projected costs for steam piping upgrade to 125 psig are based upon reusing the
existing steam piping with new expansion joints, anchors, guides and insulation
plus all new condensate return.

While the campus steam distribution piping holds at higher pressures and appears
to be in good condition, the condensate return mains show considerable
deterioration. This is true or even more evident on the condensate return lines at
The Ridges. As sections of the distribution system are upgraded to 125 psig, the
associated condensate return lines should be replaced.
                                 CHILLED WATER

Historically, the campus has been developed over the years with local chillers at
individual buildings. A feasibility study done by ZBA, Inc. in 1995 showed the
economic and service value of providing centralized chilled water plants to serve
multiple buildings. There are presently two (2) major central chilled water plants
with a third plant in the planning stages.

One chilled water plant serves The Ridges. This plant presently has one 600 ton
centrifugal water chiller. The piping distribution extending from the plant to the
crawlspace area under The Ridges complex is sized to carry up to 2400 tons of
cooling and the central plant was designed for additional chillers and cooling
towers to meet the projected total load of 1800 to 2200 tons of cooling.

Konnecker Hall, at the west end of The Ridges complex, is a laboratory facility with
its own chillers. It would be advantageous to extend chilled water mains up the
road from the chilled water plant to Konnecker. This would improve operating and
maintenance costs for The Ridges complex. With separate chilled water mains
between The Ridges chilled water plant and Konnecker Hall, there would be no
reduction in the piping distribution capacity of the existing piping distribution
system. The Konnecker chillers, which are fairly new, could be left in place for
back-up use at peak chiller plant loads. (Estimate $360,000)

A potential new complex at the east end of The Ridges complex to link The Ridges
and the main campus would also be added to the chilled water loop. This might
add 200 to 250 tons of cooling to The Ridges chiller plant.

The total projected chilled water plant load is broken down as follows:

       Main Ridges Complex                       1300 to 1900 tons
       Konnecker Hall                             400 to 400 tons
       Future "Link" Building                     200 to 300 tons

       Projected                                 1900 to 2600 tons

Based upon the above overview, the selection of the next two chillers for the chiller
plant should reflect this capacity, and will be larger than the existing 600 ton
chiller, possibly two 1000 ton chillers. (Estimate $1,000,000 each)

A chiller plant with 2600 tons of capacity will essentially be 100% loaded at the
projected total load, including the future "Link" building. If the existing chillers at
Konnecker are figured in as backup capacity, the total available chiller capacity will
be approximately 80% loaded.
A second chilled water plant is the West Green chiller plant located near the
Lausche Heating Plant. This chiller plant presently has one 2500 ton centrifugal
chiller and has space designed for two additional 2500 ton chillers. The piping
distribution mains, which have been extended around the West Green, are sized
for the full 7500 ton cooling capacity.

The present connected cooling load on this chiller plant is approximately 4935 tons
of cooling when the new University Center load (500 tons) is added. This
connected load exceeds the existing 2500 ton chiller capacity by 2435 tons. The
existing Grover Center chillers are connected into this loop for backup service,
adding an additional 800 tons of cooling capacity. The plant is still seriously
overloaded on peak design days and the second 2500 ton chiller needs to be
installed to meet existing loads, provide backup should the present chiller fail, and
to continue the connection of other West Green buildings to the central plant loop.
In addition, the Integrated Learning Research Facility (ILRF), currently under
construction, will add 375 tons of additional loads. The total connected load, once
ILRF is online, will be 5310 tons. At this point, the connected load will exceed the
total plant capacity even after the additional chiller is installed. The second 2500
ton chiller is an immediate need. (Estimate $2,900,000)

If the remainder of the West Green buildings southwest of Oxbow Trail and the
transportation and parking services are connected to the West Green chiller plant,
the total connected tonnage will be 7969 tons. This will load the 7500 West Green
chiller plant to 106%. If the existing Grover Center chillers remain as backup, the
total West Green chiller capability will be loaded to 96%.

At this loading, there is no capacity for other West Green or College Green growth
and no redundancy in the event one of the 2500 ton chillers is down for repairs.

There is a small chiller plant in the East Green which presently serves Putman,
Jefferson, Johnson, Reed and Biddle. The plant has two 200 ton screw chillers
and a connected load of 425 tons. This plant is also loaded to capacity with no
allowance for growth and no redundancy in the event of a chiller failure.

A new chilled water plant is presently being planned at Nelson Hall in the South
Green. This chiller plant will initially serve the South Green and possibly expand
to East Green buildings. As this plant is developed, several factors should be

1.    Initial chiller plant capacity should be initially sized to handle Nelson Hall
      and the new swing dormitory facility, plus at least 30% growth.
2.     The chiller plant should provide space for additional chillers and cooling
       towers to serve the existing South Green cooling load of 3740 tons, plus the
       new swing building, and some additional future growth. This might result in
       a South Green plant of approximately 5000 tons chiller capacity.

3.     Potential chiller plant noise needs to be carefully considered in the design
       since the Nelson Hall location is in a primarily "housing" area of the
       campus. Noise from both the chillers and the cooling towers should be

The University needs to plan for an additional chiller plant (or two) which can serve
the buildings of College Green, East Green and North Green. The existing
capacity of buildings in these areas are:

       College Green                      4600 tons
       East Green (less 400 tons)         1000 tons
       North Green                        2200 tons
                                          7800 tons

One of the major problems the University faces is that building growth has been
moving in advance of chilled water plant capacity. This results in overloading the
chiller plants. Another side effect is that, because the central plants are
overloaded, there is a tendency to consider the installation of individual building
cooling systems to meet building schedules, rather than increasing the central
plant capacity. Plans should be implemented to install the first chiller and start the
piping distribution system for each of these plants. Estimate ($5,000,000 each)

Each of the central chilled water plants on campus should be designed for multiple
chiller growth so that, as new buildings are planned, and existing buildings are
converted to the central plant, new chillers can be installed ahead of the campus
construction. We recommend that when the connected load at a given chilled
water plant reaches 80% of the total chiller capacity, the next chiller be installed.

Also, in initial planning of the chiller plants, we recommend that the total capacity
of the chiller plant be designed for existing building load plus 20-25% for future
This would indicate potential chiller plant capacities as follows:

              Existing Chiller Projected Total Planned Excess          Total Plant
Plant          Capacity        Capacity          Capacity               Capacity

The Ridges 600 tons        2600 tons              400 (1)              3000 tons
West Green 2500 tons       7500 tons              800 (2)              8300 tons
South Green N/A 4000 tons 1000 (3)                5000 tons
Future College,
East, North
Greens       N/A 7800 tons 1800 (3)               9600 tons

(1)     The Konnecker Hall Chillers (15% of Plant)
(2)     The Grosvenor Hall Chillers (10% of Plant)
(3)     Twenty Five % of Plant

The electric utility rate structure from American Electric Power has peak and
off-peak rates which provide a cost break to their customers who can shift
electrical load from peak to off-peak hours. With the large electrical loads
localized at the central chiller plants, there is a good possibility that chilled water
storage or ice storage at the central plants could be economically beneficial. By
producing and storing chilled water or ice during off-peak hours and then
"bleeding" the stored water or ice into the chilled water during daytime hours,
operating costs may be appreciably reduced.

A life cycle cost evaluation of thermal storage, either chilled water or ice, should be
made to determine the viability of incorporating it into the central chilled water

The university buildings and facilities are connected to the City of Athens water
supply system. The city pumping station has three pumps with a combined
capacity of 9300 gpm at 280 ft. head (122 psig).

Ohio University had Burgess & Niple do a water system analysis in 2002 (Phase I,
July and Phase II, November) to determine if water supply was adequate
throughout the campus areas for both domestic water and for sprinkler system
water supply. Burgess & Niple took hydrant flow tests and also computer modeled
the city water distribution system. They made several recommendations for
improvements which would improve the water distribution system.

The Phase I recommendations have been implemented and included the

1.    City and University check status of water main valves to insure they are all

2.    Extension of Oxbow Drive main to South Green to complete loop.

3.    City of Athens connected the parallel 14 inch and 8 inch water lines at West
      Green near the Lecture Hall at South Green Drive.

Additional recommendations were made in the Phase II part of the study, which
have not yet been implemented. These include:

1.    Replace the 4 inch line along University Terrace with a 6 inch line.

2.    Install a new 8 inch line from University Terrace to Cutler Hall.

3.    Replace 6 inch line with 8 inch line near Hudson and Seigfred Halls.

4.    Replace the 6 inch line along the north side of The Ridges with a 10 inch

Of the above items, The Ridges replacement is the highest priority. All of the
above corrective measures should be implemented to improve the overall water
main flow capacity. (Estimate $1,300,000)
Once all of the above upgrades are made, there will be some areas where the
available water supply pressure may be marginal for sprinkler flow requirements.
For each new or existing building where a sprinkler system is to be installed, flow
tests need to be taken to verify actual conditions at time of installation.

In addition to the City of Athens water, the University also utilizes a pond, located
on the campus golf course for irrigation purposes. The irrigation system does not
currently extend beyond the golf course. At this time, there are no plans for
expansion of this system.
                                STORM SEWERS

The Ridges has an extensive storm sewer system, which discharges to the creek
along Dairy Lane. Most of the storm sewer system is located south of the main
line of buildings. A 12" sewer runs along the south side of the buildings,
connecting to an 18", which then is collected by a 24" sewer, that discharges to
the creek. The design capacity of the existing 24" sewer should handle
approximately a 30 percent increase in impervious area. All of the branch storm
sewers which connect to the 24" main have capacity to accept additional runoff,
except for a 10" sewer between Buildings 32 and 34, which is presently

There is essentially no storm sewer system along the north side of the building
complex. As future renovation and/or replacement is considered, the addition of
storm sewer drainage on the north side for parking and drive drainage should be

Storm water detention should also be considered as future development occurs.
There is presently no storm detention at The Ridges complex.

The main campus storm sewer system in the City of Athens drains from the higher
elevations at the north to the south and east, where storm water is then pumped
into the Hocking River at one of three Hocking Conservancy District pumping

The majority of the West Green watershed drains to the old riverbed along Oxbow
Trail and the old railroad right-of-way. The south half of College Green watershed
also drains to the old riverbed with its open ditch drainage flowing east to the
pumping station near Peden Stadium.

To the west of Richland Avenue and south of Oxbow Trail and West Green Drive,
the storm water is carried under the playing fields to south of Shafer Street, then
east to the pumping station near Peden Stadium. This main storm sewer is a 36"
corrugated steel pipe, which is badly deteriorated and partially collapsed. This
main trunk needs to be replaced. (Estimate $900,000) Floyd Brown and
Associates of Columbus, Ohio is presently conducting a study of the West Green
storm sewers for Ohio University.

The South Green watershed system main runs along South Green Drive to the
Hocking Conservancy District pumping station, near Smith and True dormitories.
The East Green watershed system extends eastward, along the north leg of South
Green Drive (north of Pickering). The 48" main storm sewer discharges to the
Hocking Conservancy District pumping station, located at the east end of the north
leg of South Green Drive. Ohio University has a current project to extend this 48"
storm sewer west to increase the capacity of the East Green watershed storm
sewer system. Jones and Stuckey of Columbus, Ohio is designing the sewer main

The North Green watershed drains east, from College Street, in a 24" main, which
runs east of Stewart Street, then north along Elliott, to another Hocking
Conservancy District pumping station.

Jones and Stuckey made video camera studies of the East Green sewer main, for
which they are designing an upgrade. Preliminary reports indicated that while the
main storm sewer trunk was clear, most, if not all, branch connections showed
substantial debris buildup blocking the free flow of storm water. Logic would
dictate that if the branches are partially blocked, storm water will be backed up at
the drainage areas. These branches need to be cleared.

It would also seem likely that, if this condition exists along the East Green main
storm sewer trunk, it also probably exists throughout the other watershed drainage
systems. A video survey of other areas should also be made, and if branch
conditions are similar, this branch lines should be cleared of debris.

As part of the Master Plan analysis, we did not attempt to identify individual
problem issues, such as the storm water backup at the east end of Park Place,
where it intersects University Terrace. A solution to this particular individual
problem would be to regrade Park Place, from approximately 200 feet west of
University Terrace, so that it is raised approximately 4-5" at the intersection with
University Terrace. This would eliminate the "damming" effect at University
Terrace permitting the storm water to flow south. The reworking of curbs,
sidewalks and brick pavement does not appear as if it would be a major problem.
A civil engineering study could resolve the question of applicability and cost.
Other specific storm water issues will also need to be analyzed on an individual

The main campus storm collection system does not address the issue of storm
water detention. When major new construction projects are proposed, each
should be evaluated for storm water detention possibilities.
                              SANITARY SEWERS

The University is connected to the City of Athens sanitary sewer system. At The
Ridges, the sanitary sewers west of the main complex (Building 22) are connected
to a 12" trunk sewer. East of the main complex (Building 20), an 18" sewer flows
down the hill to connect to the city sewer system at Richland Avenue.

An old, hand-laid, oval brick sewer runs under The Ridges main building complex,
from a manhole outside Building 22, to a manhole outside Building 20. This oval
brick sewer is approximately 4 feet wide by 3 feet high.

No one knows the condition of the brick sewer. This could be determined by a
video study. Even if the sewer is in good condition, we recommend that a new 12"
sanitary sewer be routed around the north side of the main building complex. This
would permit renovation projects to connect to a new "accessible" sewer, and
eliminate the probability of potential problems in modifying existing connectors and
adding new connections to the brick sewer.

There has been a problem with the infiltration/inflow of storm water into the
sanitary sewer system, during rain events. This was noted in the NBBJ Ridges
Master Plan Study done in 2000. Subsequently, Burgess & Niple did flow
monitoring and smoke testing in 2001 and 2002. These two studies identified
several areas of correction to reduce the infiltration/inflow of storm water. These

1.    Raising a number of manhole lid elevations to prevent submergence during
      rain events.

2.    Replace manhole lid and frame with watertight frame and gasketed lid at
      numerous manholes.

3.    Replace grad rings at several manholes.

4.    Rebuild several manholes.

5.    Plug storm overflow connection at Manhole No. 5 and storm inlet that
      discharges into Manhole No. 37.

6.    Reroute several storm drains away from sanitary lines.
The report also recommended a video monitoring study of the sanitary system.
This would show the condition of the brick sewer under the building and also could
identify specific areas of high infiltration/inflow.

The main campus sanitary sewers are also connected into the City of Athens
sanitary sewer system. These sewers have the same infiltration/inflow issues as
the sanitary sewers at The Ridges. During rain events, there are issues with
sanitary sewers overloading and "popping" their manhole covers. One particular
location is at South Green Drive near Clippinger Lab, where an 18" and 24" sewer
flow east along the old railroad embankment, from the University Center, and
combine into a single 24" sewer, which runs east along South Green Drive. This
24" line extends to east of McKinley, then turns north along Stewart, to the State
Street sewage treatment plant. The addition of the new residence hall, located on
South Green, will add capacity to the existing sanitary system. The existing
sanitary mains, under normal conditions, appear to have capacity for this new
load. Since the adverse conditions are caused by significant rain, the addition of
the new facility should not worsen the overloading. However, the problem will
remain until the storm system is addressed.

A second major trunk line, a 30" storm sewer flows east, south of South Green
Drive, until it turns north west of McKinley, then parallels the above 24" main, back
to the State Street sewage treatment plant.

As new construction on campus is considered, including the relocation of
roadways, thought needs to be given to relocating sanitary (and storm) sewers,
particularly main lines, so that they are not under the new buildings. Care will
need to be taken with the new residence hall, which is near the location where the
two main sanitary sewers turn north, near South Green Drive and McKinley.

The State Street sewage treatment plant has an average daily flow of slightly over
3.0 million gallons per day, and a capacity of 4.8 million gallons per day. Rain
water infiltration is, however, a major problem which needs to be addressed by the
City of Athens. Ohio University, as the largest user of the system, also needs to
do their part to minimize rain water infiltration/inflow, from the University branch
lines connected to the city sanitary system.
                                NATURAL GAS

Athens, Ohio and Ohio University are served by Columbia Gas of Ohio. The
piping distribution throughout the area is medium pressure (50 psig). Columbia
Gas has experienced no problems with gas pressure in the area, even during
periods of maximum load. They do not anticipate any major issues with projected
growth over the next 10-20 years.

As the University continues to grow and develop, it will at times probably be
necessary to coordinate with Columbia Gas on the relocation of existing gas mains
relative to specific building construction or abandoning or rerouting of roadways.
This needs to be evaluated for every new construction project.

                                69 kV Substation

The Athens campus is served primarily from a University-owned 69 kV-12.47 kV
substation located near Facilities Management on the northwest side of campus.
The 69 kV feed to the substation is from American Electric Power (AEP). The
substation has two 20/28/33.3 MVA substation transformers each with dual stage
cooling fans. This equates to a maximum rating of approximately 1,540 amps at
12.47 kV for each transformer. Note that all references to ampacity in this Master
Plan are based on 12.47 kV - 3 phase service unless otherwise noted. The
substation transformers each supply one 12.47 kV circuit identified as OU1 and
OU2. The substation is currently set up with an automatic transfer system to allow
one transformer to carry the load of both electrical circuits, OU1 and OU2, in a
main-transfer switch-main arrangement.        It is important to maintain this
arrangement. This arrangement not only allows routine maintenance of either
transformer but maintains power to the campus should a transformer fail. If the
campus electrical consumption continues to grow and exceeds the rating of the
substation transformer then, should a transformer failure occur, a significant
portion of the campus could be without power for an extended period of time.
Depending on what type of failure occurs and the availability of emergency back-
up equipment and/or load shedding, the extended period of time could be
measured in days not hours.

The peak electrical load on the 69 kV substation for the 2004-2005 period was
23.27 MVA on 6/6/05. The average load from 2004-2005 was approximately 14.2
MVA. Typically, the months with the highest average and peak loads have been
May/June (prior to graduation) and September/October (beginning of the fall
quarter). The following is a list of previous peak electrical loads by fiscal year:

                                                               Three Year Annual
        OU                Annual                  Annual        Growth Moving
    Fiscal Year          Peak MVA                 Growth            Average
       96-97               15.00                     --                 --
       97-98               15.77                   5.2%                 --
       98-99               18.88                  19.7%                 --
       99-00               20.16                   6.8%              10.6%
       00-01               20.35                   0.9%               9.1%
       01-02               20.81                   2.3%               3.3%
      02-03*               22.84                   9.8%               4.3%
       03-04               22.95                   0.5%               4.2%
       04-05               23.27                   1.4%               3.9%

*     West Green 2,500 ton chiller started 8/02
Annual peak electrical loads have grown over the past nine fiscal years from 15.00
MVA to 23.27 MVA, an average rise of slightly under 6% per year. The Three
Year Annual Growth Moving Average shows a growth average greater than 4.1%
over the last three cycles. Much of the load growth during that period can be
traced to the 2,500 ton West Green Chiller that was started in 2002-2003. If 4%
annual growth is projected out over the next several years, the ability to switch all
electrical load to one substation transformer during peak loading will be exceeded
in fiscal year 2014-2015. This schedule will be significantly accelerated if
additional chiller plant growth is added as noted below and recommended in the
Chilled Water Section.

Projected infrastructure growth areas as noted in this Master Plan include the
following areas:

      West Green (OU1) - chiller plant (115 amps x 2 - 2500 ton chillers = 230
      South Green/Nelson (OU2) - chiller plant (115 amps x 2 - 2500 ton chillers
       = 230 amps)
      Ridges (OU1) - chiller plant (60-90 amps maximum)
      College/East/North Green (OU2) - chiller plant(s) (115 amps x 3 - 2500 ton
       chillers = 345 amps)

The South Green/Nelson chiller plant is currently in design. The West Green
chiller plant, as noted in the Chilled Water Section, is the highest priority item.
Assuming only one 2500 ton chiller is added at the West Green chiller plant and
one 2500 ton chiller is added at the South Green/Nelson chiller plant, the projected
peak electric load jumps from 23.27 MVA (2004-2005) to approximately 28.24
MVA or an increase of 21.3%. This assumes both chiller plants at 1 KVA/ton
(includes chillers, pumps, cooling towers, etc.) and both chillers running at 100%
load. When these two chillers come on-line and if all of the electric load was
switched to one of the 69 kV substation transformers, the transformer will be
loaded to approximately 86% of capacity. Assuming a slightly conservative 6%
annual electric load growth and the addition of the two chillers mentioned above
during fiscal year 2007-2008, the ability to switch all electrical load to one
substation transformer during peak loading will be exceeded in fiscal year 2009-
2010. This schedule will be accelerated if other chiller plants are added. The
pace of acceleration will be based on the size of the chiller plant.

The following is a list of other currently planned or proposed projects/buildings that
will increase load to the 69 kV substation over the next few years. The circuit that
will receive the load is in parenthesis:
     University Center (OU1) - estimated peak demand is approximately 90
     Life Science Addition (OU1)
     East Green Dorm Swing Building (OU2)
     Renovation of East Green Dorms (OU2)
     Seigfred Electrical Upgrade (OU1)
     Proposed Transition of Various Buildings (i.e. Pilcher House, Konnecker
      Alumni, etc.) from AEP to OU Power Grid (OU1 & OU2)
     Integrated Learning and Research Facility (ILRF) - (OU1)

To delay these schedules, measures should be taken to reduce electrical
consumption during peak demand times. This also has the net affect of not setting
a new AEP peak demand which will elevate electric utility costs. Typical steps
taken to reduce electrical load during peak hours/days include the following:

     Cooling - utilize steam fed chillers in lieu of electric
     Cooling Reduction - cycle cooling to specific buildings
     Cooling Reduction - disconnect cooling to specific low priority buildings
     Cooling Reduction - produce chilled water or ice during off peak load times
      to utilize reduced utility rate
     Lighting Reduction - turn off large spot lighting loads
     Lighting Reduction - disconnect lighting to low priority buildings
     Lighting Reduction - implement occupancy sensor driven lighting in existing
      and new buildings
     Electric Reduction - load shedding in various buildings with power to be
      provided for each building from the local stand-by generator

Each of the options above should be studied further to determine a specific course
of action.

Electrical Distribution Adjacent to the 69 kV Substation

Circuits OU1 and OU2 have capacity concerns. Reference the existing 69 kV
Substation One-Line Diagram on the next page. Circuit OU1 (including The
Ridges feed and West Green Chiller Plant) had a previous peak load of 529 amps
on 7/29/05. The maximum load on circuit OU1 (not including either The Ridges or
West Green Chiller Plant, OU1-A) was 459 amps on 6/6/05. The peak load for
The Ridges and West Green Chiller Plant (OU1-A) was 269 amps on 5/05/04.
The peak demand on circuit OU2 was 436 amps on 9/15/05. Both substation
circuits, OU1 and OU2, feed two 1,200 amp frame circuit breakers. One of the
OU1 circuit breakers (OU1-A) feeds The Ridges substation and West Green
Chiller Plant. The second OU1 circuit breaker (OU1-B) feeds the following areas:
College Green, East Green, North Green, various buildings east of the College
Green near West Union Street, and an alternate source to The Ridges. One of the
OU2 circuit breakers (OU2-A) is a spare. The second circuit breaker (OU2-B)
feeds the following areas: West Green, South Green, Sports Complex and the
Service Center. Both circuits, OU1-B and OU2-B, feed into two switches in the
Old Laundry Building (OLB).

These switches are rated at 1200 amps and fused at 600 amps. The feeder to
each of these switches is two underground parallel sets of 350 kcmil cables rated
at 660 amps. Both of the OLB switches feed into a puffer switch located in the
substation yard. The puffer switch is rated for 600 amps. The feed from each
circuit, OU1-B and OU2-B, is one set of 750 kcmil wire rated at 610 amps. The
feeder out of the puffer switch for OU1-B splits at a load break T-splice, into two
500 kcmil feeders to the Old Heating Plant (OHP). The OU2-B feeder out of the
puffer switch splits at another load break T-splice with two 500 kcmil feeders to the
Lausche Heating Plant substation.

The addition of one 2500 ton chiller for the South Green/Nelson Chiller Plant will
increase the OU2-B circuit peak electrical load to approximately 550 amps. This
increase, without factoring in any other electrical load growth, will place the feeder
above its maximum wire rating capacity at the puffer switch.

Alternative fuel supplies (i.e. steam) should be considered for new chiller plants.
As can be seen on the existing 69 kV Substation One-Line Diagram (next page),
the circuits from OU1 and OU2 have a few restrictions or bottle-necks at
equipment and/or cables. The One-Line Diagram and the "Growing Electrical
Consumption Concerns" white paper by David Mace (OU Electrical Project
Manager) in the accompanying electrical binder show a rudimentary 1-line
diagram with restrictions highlighted.

The following items are restrictions at or near the 69 kV substation with possible
solutions. The proposed solutions require further study but are provided as options
to consider. Note that these proposed solutions are for both circuits OU1 and

1.     Restriction: The 600 amp rated puffer switch and associated cables rated
       at 535 amps. According to Ohio University Facilities Maintenance, the
       puffer switches have not been operated in at least twenty years. The puffer
       switch enclosure is primarily a large junction box as it is currently used. The
       OLB fused switches serve as the primary fault and overcurrent protection.
       The 500 kcmil cable from the puffer switch to the splices restricts the
       capacity of the system.
       Proposed Solution (A): Remove the puffer switch from the system and add
       a parallel 750 kcmil cable from the OLB to new splices at the 500 kcmil
       cables which currently feed out of the puffer switch. This splits the OU1
       and OU2 feeders at the load break T-splice location and increases cable
       capacity up to the puffer switch location. (Estimate: $135,000)

       Proposed Solution (B): In lieu of splices above, add a new 1200 amp rated
       switch line-up for distribution. This provides separation and individual
       switching/fusing for each of the currently spliced feeders. This also
       increases the circuit capacity. (Estimate: $200,000)

2.     Restriction: Cable from the OU1-B and OU2-B 1200 amp circuit breakers
       to the OLB 1200 amp rated switch is rated for 660 amps. Fuses at the OLB
       are 600 amps.

       Proposed Solution: Replace the 660 amp capacity cable with 1200 amp
       capacity cable. Increase the OLB fuse size to correspond with the
       increased cable size. (Estimate: $100,000)

The changes noted above will require further study. Note that an increase in wire
size may affect short circuit coordination at existing buildings.

                    Electrical Distribution on the Athens Campus

The three circuits from the 69 kV substation (OU1-A: The Ridges, OU1-B and
OU2-B) feed the majority of the Athens campus. Circuit OU1-B has main
distribution points (i.e. switch line-ups, unit substations with distribution, etc.) at the
following buildings/locations:

      The Old Heating Plant
      Radio-Television (RTV) - North Green
      Music - North Green
      Alden Library - College Green
      Morton - East Green

There are two feeders from the 69 kV substation yard to the OHP. These two
feeders (500 kcmil each) feed multiple switch line-ups. These switch line-ups
have two main switches. The switches are rated at 600 amps and fused at 400
amps. One of the switches feeds the Alden substation, Music substation, RTV
substation, Morton substation and two 2,400 volt switch line-ups at the OHP.
Most feeders from these switches to the other substations/switch line-ups are
either #2/0 or #2 AWG 15 kV cable. The feeder to the University Center project,
which is currently under construction, is 500 kcmil. A spare 15 kV switch is
located inside the University Center for future use. The Music building substation
feeder is #2 AWG and is rated for approximately 200 amps. Note that this feeder
is routed predominantly through utility tunnels over a distance of approximately
3,000 feet.

The Master Plan proposes significant growth in the area near the Music building.
This growth, along with other anticipated changes such as adding the Mill Street
Housing to OU's power grid, will quickly outpace the capacity of the feeder. There
are a few items to consider when addressing the needs of the Music substation in
conjunction with proposed growth through the Master Plan. The following are a
few options to consider:

Option A: Upgrade the feeder to the Music substation (minimum 350 kcmil cable).
Expand or add a switch line-up for proposed growth in the North Green. This
option allows expansion in the North Green but does not otherwise address
proposed growth. (Estimate: $275,000)

Option B: Provide a new feeder from the 1200 amp spare circuit breaker on
Circuit OU2 to a new switch line-up on the east side of campus. Further study is
required to determine a location for this switch line-up. This option allows
development in the North, East and possibly the South Green areas as well as the
Mill Street Housing & Retirement Center, both which are currently served from
AEP. Depending on the final location for the switch line-up, this option would
require a feeder that approaches one mile in length. This would add load to Circuit
OU2, which is currently the least loaded of the two circuits. For the estimate, we
have assumed parallel 750 kcmil cables (as a minimum) through existing
tunnel/duct banks. (Estimate: $850,000)

Option C: Develop a new 69 kV substation located near the East Green area.
The approximate size of the substation would be in the 20-35 MVA range. Actual
size of the new substation requires additional study. This substation should
incorporate the same main-transfer switch-main arrangement as noted for the
existing 69 kV substation to allow maintenance. The substation could feed new
development as proposed in this Master Plan and areas currently served by AEP
(i.e. Mill Street Housing, etc.). The new substation could also be used to reduce
load on the existing circuits, OU1 & OU2, by back-feeding existing buildings. This
choice would be the most costly, but provide the most benefit and long term
sustainability of Ohio University's electrical needs. Preliminary discussions with
AEP indicate there are two 69 kV feeds that can be used. One of the 69 kV feeds
is the existing OU substation feed. To extend this feed to the new substation
would likely require a route through downtown Athens. The other choice is to
provide an extension to the Stroud's Run substation northeast of downtown
Athens. According to AEP, Ohio University would be responsible for the 69 kV
feeder installation costs for either of these choices. Note this estimate does not
include easement or land acquisition costs, only the substation cost along with
AEP's preliminary estimate. (Estimate: $10,000,000)

Circuit OU2-B has primary distribution points at the following buildings/locations:

      Boyd - West Green
      Grover - Sports Complex
      Clippinger - South Green
      Nelson - South Green

There are two feeders from the 69 kV substation yard to the switch line-ups at
Lausche. The feeders are 500 kcmil each. The switch line-ups at Lausche have
two main switches. The switch line-ups are rated at 600 amps and are fused at
400 amps. One of the switches feeds the Convocation Center, Boyd I and II,
Grosvenor, Laundry and Clippinger. The other switch feeds switches for Sorb
Tech, Lausche, Facilities Maintenance buildings, Stocker, Porter and the Heating
Plant. Most feeds from these line-ups are #2 or #2/0. The Boyd II feeder is 500
kcmil. Expansion of the Lausche Heating Plant may require relocation of the
existing switch lineups and feeders. Refer to the Steam/Condensate Section of
this Master Plan.

There is currently a utility bridge located northwest of Stocker in the West Green.
This bridge runs from near Lausche to Stocker. Planning and Implementation has
expressed an interest in removing this bridge. A proposed plan to eliminate the
electrical feeders crossing this bridge has been developed by David Mace -
Facilities Maintenance Electrical Project Manager. A copy of this plan is included
in the Electrical binder. This cable relocation should be studied further, to coincide
and anticipate the possible expansion of the Lausche Heating Plant.

The Ridges feeder OU1-A, runs from the 69 kV substation 1200 amp circuit
breaker through switching in the substation yard to a 1200 amp switch line-up
located on the hillside northwest of The Ridges Auditorium along North Ridge
Drive. The circuit is subdivided into two circuits fused at 600 amps, R1 and R2,
prior to leaving the substation yard. The underground wiring for these circuits is
750 kcmil (475 amp capacity for each set of cables). The wiring is run
underground primarily except at the Hocking River. At the river, the wiring runs
overhead and spans the river. The circuits terminate into an exterior 15 kV switch
line-up. This switch line-up has three feeder switches to the following areas:
      Building 32 (200 amp fuses) - indoor 15 kV switch line-up
      Konnecker Research Center (300 amp fuses - two feeds) primary &
       alternate source from Building 32 switch and indoor 1500 KVA unit
      Building 33 (300 amp fuses, Boiler Plant) - indoor 15 kV switch line-up
      This switch feeds the chiller plant, Museum, 2.4 kV transformer at Building
       33, Building 1 and Building 32A.

The maximum electrical load on The Ridges feeder in 2004-2005 was 269 amps
on 5/5/04. The Master Plan indicates that a significant portion of the existing
buildings may be renovated or demolished and replaced. The new buildings will
either be research or housing. Housing will not present a significant load increase.
Research development will place a greater burden on The Ridges circuit, however,
the anticipated additional load should not exceed the available wiring capacity.
Assuming 200,000 square feet of research area is added through renovation or
demolition/new construction, the additional load expected (10 VA/SF peak) should
not exceed 100 amps at 12.47 kV. This would bring the peak load to 369 amps.
Projected chiller plant growth, as noted in the chilled water section, would increase
the peak load by 60-90 amps. This brings the peak total to approximately 460
amps, on either circuit R1 or R2. Circuits R1 and R2 are fused at 600 amps with
475 amp cable capacity. If one circuit carried the entire load, the peak load will
approach the circuit capacity.

There are quite a few areas on campus with 2,400 volt electric services, including
The Ridges. At Building 33 on The Ridges, there is a 2,400 volt distribution line-up
that distributes power to most of the buildings (approximately 32). The 12.47
kV-2.4 kV transformer that feeds the line-up is an old oil-filled transformer. This
transformer should be checked to see if it has PCB's in the transformer coolant.
This line-up has an auto-transfer controller which, upon normal power loss,
switches power to an alternate source. The alternate source is a 750 KW
generator located in Building 33. There are various other buildings and distribution
points throughout the campus with 2,400 volt electrical services (i.e. OHP
substation, Alden substation, Lasher, Boyd substation, Grover Center substation,
etc.). It has been Ohio University's policy in the past to upgrade electrical services
from 2,400 volts to 12.47 kV during renovations, when possible. We recommend
continuing this practice to eventually change all distribution to match the campus
standard of 12.47 kV. This will also achieve the goal of replacing older, and in
many cases, obsolete electrical equipment.
                       Research Park At West State Street

The Research Park off West State Street currently is served from its own Ohio
University owned 69 kV substation. This substation serves the following buildings:
The Innovation Center, Biochemistry Facility (which contains Diagnostic Hybrids,
Inc. - DHI) and the Corrosion Center.              This substation was installed in
approximately 2002.        The existing substation has a single 10/14.4 MVA
transformer with single stage fan cooling. This transformer's previous peak load
was approximately 1.29 MVA on 6/25/2005.                This peak load means the
transformer runs at less than 13% of its capacity without fan cooling. While the
Master Plan does not propose any significant growth in this area, the existing
substation could handle significantly more load. The existing substation currently
only has one transformer. The Innovation Center and Biochemistry Facility have
standby generators that provide power for emergency as well as select other
equipment. These generators do not provide backup power for the entire building.
Based upon the type of work done in these two buildings (research and
temperature sensitive production), backup power for each building should be
considered. A second substation transformer could provide the ability to perform
maintenance on the first substation but still requires the same 69 kV feed from
AEP. We recommend providing backup power through standby power generators.
This is because it will likely cost significantly more to add a second transformer to
the 69 kV substation than to add standby generators to each building. Also,
adding a second transformer will allow transformer maintenance but still leaves
each building subject to any volatilities on AEP's 69 kV line.
                               ELECTRIC SUMMARY

The Master Plan proposes growth, including the utility infrastructure, in quite a few
areas. With this proposed growth, the University will be required to decide how it
wants to address this growth. With regard to the electrical system, the following
question must first be addressed: Will the University allow electrical growth to
exceed the capacity of one of the two existing 69 kV substation transformers? The
Master Plan recommends this not be allowed to occur in order to maintain
redundancy for maintenance or a catastrophic transformer failure. If the University
decides to allow electrical load to exceed the capacity of one transformer, then the
69 kV substation has adequate capacity for the foreseeable future. If the Master
Plan recommendation is used, then the existing 69 kV substation capacity will
need a resolution in the next three to five years. Therefore, planning to address
this should be started in the next few years.

Distribution from the existing 69 kV substation will need to be addressed soon.
Many of the electric distribution issues will occur based on mechanical
infrastructure upgrades (i.e. chiller plants). The current electric distribution system
near the 69 kV substation has cable and/or equipment restrictions that need to be
addressed to allow continued campus growth. The table below summarizes
maximum projected peak electrical loads and estimated growth on the 12.47 kV
electrical system. The total reflects estimated growth over the next ten years.
Note that the peak estimated loads exceed the rating of one transformer at the 69
kV substation.

                    Estimated Peak Electrical Loads for Feeders

Circuit OU1-A

Existing Peak Load                                                269 amps
Added West Green Chiller (2500 tons)                              115 amps
Added Ridges Chiller                                               90 amps
Proposed Ridges Growth (maximum)                                  100 amps
Total                                                             574 amps

Circuit OU1-B

Existing Peak Load                                                459 amps
University Center (estimate)                                       90 amps
Life Science Addition, Seigfred,
Various Buildings Added to OU Grid (estimate)                      61 amps
Total                                                             610 amps

Circuit OU1 Total                                            1,184 amps or
                                                 25.57 MVA at 12.47 kV - 3
Circuit OU2-B

Existing Peak Load                                             436 amps
South Green/Nelson Chillers (2-2500 ton)                       230 amps
College/East/North Green Chillers (3-2500 ton)                 345 amps
East Green Dorm Swing Building,
East Green Dorm Renovations,
Various Buildings Added to OU Grid (estimate)                   30 amps
Total                                                        1,041 amps or
                                                 22.48 MVA at 12.47 kV - 3

Total 69 kV Substation
Peak Estimated Loads (OU1 & OU2)                             2,225 amps or
                                                 48.06 MVA or 12.47 kV - 3

As can be seen above, much of the electric growth is through mechanical
infrastructure growth. The calculations above assume that all of the chillers listed
in the Chilled Water Section of this Master Plan will be added over the next ten
years. The total peak estimated loads noted above exceed the capacity of one
transformer at the 69 kV substation. The peak estimated load is approximately
71% of the total capacity of the 69 kV substation using both transformers.

The Master Plan proposes growth in multiple areas on campus. While the
projected Master Plan floor space growth is not extraordinary, there are also
mechanical infrastructure upgrades that will place a significant electrical load on
the current electrical system. With planning and foresight, Ohio University can
overcome any of the obstacles noted in this Master Plan and provide sufficient
electrical infrastructure to meet the University's long term needs.

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