UTILITIES The master plan looks at the following utility infrastructure serving the Ohio University campus at Athens, Ohio: Campus Utilities Chilled water Steam/condensate Primary Electric Communications - Communication Network Services (CNS) Cable TV - CATVision Public Utilities Water (Athens) Gas (Columbia Gas) Sanitary sewers (Athens) Storm sewers (Athens) Electric (AEP) Cable TV - Time Warner Cable The text of the report goes into some detail on the existing capacity and condition of each utility service. Reference is also made to supplemental data available on each system. Construction cost estimates are "area of magnitude" conceptual construction budget estimates only, based upon April 2006 construction costs. The following is a brief recap of each utility, including issues which need to be addressed: Campus Utilities A. Chilled Water 1. The West Green chiller plant has one 2500 ton chiller. This chiller is presently seriously overloaded and the second 2500 ton chiller for this plant needs to be installed as soon as possible. 2. The South Green chiller plant at Nelson Hall is in the planning stages at this time. 3. The Ridges chiller plant has one 600 ton chiller. Plans need to be implemented for the next chiller at this plant prior to additional space being renovated or added at The Ridges. 4. Planning needs to begin for an East Green/North Green chiller plant to serve East, North and Campus Green buildings. These buildings presently have their own chillers or no chillers and this needs to be phased out. B. Steam/Condensate 1. The Lausche Heating Plant has the capacity to serve the entire Ohio University campus with steam for heating. This will permit existing buildings presently heated by gas or with gas fired boilers to be served by the lower cost steam from the Lausche Heating Plant. 2. The existing low pressure steam main to Nelson Hall should be converted to 125 psig steam as part of the present South Green "Swing" building project. This will set the way for conversion of all the South Green buildings from gas to Lausche boiler plant steam. 3. Planning should be initiated for the addition of another boiler at the Lausche steam plant. C. Electric - 15 kV Campus System 1. The existing 69 kV substation has two transformers (33 MVA) used to supply power to the Athens Campus (not including West State Street Research Park). Currently, either transformer can supply power to the campus. This allows one transformer to be off-line for maintenance, etc. This arrangement should be maintained. 2. The peak electrical load on the 69 kV substation in fiscal year 2004-2005 was approximately 70% of the substation capacity (23.27 MVA). If two 2500 ton chillers are added, a single substation transformer will be loaded to approximately 86% of capacity. This does not include any other electrical increases. 3. There are two primary options for future electrical growth. Option one is to add a second 69 kV substation on the east side of the campus or expand the existing 69 kV substation. The second option is to allow electrical growth above what one substation transformer can carry. This eliminates redundancy on the system and places Ohio University at risk of extended electric downtime for a portion of the campus if one of the transformers fails or requires repair. We recommend option one. D. Campus Communications - CNS 1. The existing campus communications network distribution system is provided and maintained by the University through Communications Network Services (CNS). 2. CNS is presently in the process of upgrading the existing network to a gigabit backbone to accommodate high speed 100 mbps to the desktop in all academic buildings on campus. A tentative completion date for the entire Athens campus is July 2009. When this project is complete, it is estimated that an upgrade to a 10 gigabit/1000 mbps system will be needed in 10-20 years based on current technology growth. 3. CNS is currently in the process of providing wireless data services throughout the student-accessible areas of campus. The estimated date of completion for this project is the summer of 2006. E. Campus Cable TV - CATVision 1. The existing private CATV distribution system is a coaxial cable based system with capacity of 76 channels. 2. The existing CATV system, as currently constructed, is at its limit regarding quantity of channels. If a new channel is to be added, an existing channel will need to be deleted. 3. The existing coaxial cable distribution system, according to the Ohio University CATVision Manager, is maintained adequately and is sufficient as it currently exists. 4. Expansion of the CATV system is possible but will require either additional coaxial cable plant, single mode optical fiber plant or a combination of the two. Public Utilities A. Water 1. The existing Athens water distribution system has adequate capacity and pressure for domestic water and "ordinary hazard" sprinkler system service. 2. Flow tests should be run for each new building or renovation to verify project specific requirements at time of construction. B. Gas 1. The 50 psig Columbia Gas distribution system in Athens should be adequate to service the area for the next ten years. C. Sanitary Sewers 1. The sanitary sewer system in Athens has a major problem with storm water infiltration. This ongoing problem needs to be addressed by the City of Athens with support from Ohio University. 2. As the campus changes with new construction and with street closings and relocations, care will need to be taken to ensure sewers are not "built over". 3. A new east-west sanitary sewer needs to be installed on the north side of The Ridges Complex to permit renovation of the complex. D. Storm Sewers 1. The storm sewers in Athens appear to have a lot of blockage on the branch sewer lines. These need to be cleared to permit better storm water flow during rain events. 2. A major 36" galvanized storm sewer from the West Green to the pumping station at Peden Stadium is collapsed and in poor condition. It should be replaced as soon as possible. E. Electric 1. The existing Ohio University 69 kV substation is served from 69 kV American Electric Power (AEP) lines. 2. To add a new 69 kV substation on the east side of campus will require a new AEP 69 kV feed to the new substation location. There are two routes to get to the east side of campus. The first route is through downtown Athens from the existing substation. The other route is from a transmission line northeast of campus at the Stroud's Run substation. Costs to get the new 69 kV line to the east side of campus will be the responsibility of Ohio University. STEAM AND CONDENSATE The majority of the existing campus heating is provided from the Lausche Heating Plant located at the west end of the West Green. The Lausche Heating Plant has a total steam output of 330,000 #/HR from three 70,000 #/HR coal fired Keeler boilers and one 120,000 #/HR gas-fired, package boiler. The Ridges heating load has recently been connected to the Lausche Heating Plant with the exception of Konnecker Hall, which has its own boilers. These boilers, however, are in poor condition. Steam and condensate mains should be extended to Konnecker from The Ridges boiler plant mains. This could be done at the same time as chilled water main extensions. (Estimate $450,000) The three Cleaver Brooks packaged, gas-fired boilers at The Ridges heating plant remain in place for possible back-up use. Total output capacity of 20,000 #/HR. The peak steam heating loads previously experienced are: Lausche Heating Plant 175,000 #/HR Ridges Heating Plant 11,000 #/HR 186,000 #/HR Buildings with Dedicated Gas Heat 115,000 #/HR (not connected to steam lines) 301,000 #/HR The gas-fired buildings on campus used a peak of 144,000 MCF, equivalent to approximately 115,000 #/HR of steam. As can be seen from the above tabulation, if all of the present campus loads are connected to the Lausche Heating Plant, the plant will be approximately 90% loaded with all four (4) boilers operating. There is very little growth capacity left in the Lausche Heating Plant, possibly 400,000 to 1,000,000 square feet of new floor space at peak operation. The University Center load of 19,000#/hr is included in the tabulation above. However, the Integrated Learning Research Building, currently under construction, has a steam load of approximately 9000 #/hr which will further reduce growth capacity. There are several individual buildings where the boiler plants have been kept certified so that they can be used as "backup", if the need arises. These include: Location Capacity The Ridges 20,000 #/HR Clippinger 13,400 #/HR Nelson 8,400 #/HR Bromley 8,400 #/HR Assuming that the operational boilers in the above buildings are allowed to constitute the campus "safety capacity", a new coal fired boiler will need to be installed when the Lausche Heating Plant reaches 330,000 #/HR. The design and construction should be programmed at least 2-1/2 - 3 years prior to that point, probably within the next 5 years. It should be noted that existing primary electrical switchgear will need to be relocated to make space for an additional boiler. (Estimate $6,500,000) Since the cost of coal-fired steam is the most economical heating source, we recommend maximizing the use of the coal-fired boilers. Existing gas-fired loads should be transferred to the steam system, as renovation or replacement of existing buildings utilizing natural gas heat, is programmed. New construction should also be connected to the steam system. The Lausche Heating Plant is presently scheduled for renovation and upgrades including boiler retubing, 2 additional baghouse cells, maintenance and replacement work on the ash system and conveyors and upgrading to Direct Digital Controls (DDC). These upgrades should extend the existing boiler plant life expectancy for the next 20 years. The majority of the campus steam and condensate distribution piping system was originally installed for 15 psig steam. The Lausche Heating Plant delivers 125 psig steam with steam pressure reducing stations utilized to reduce the steam to 15 psig. The majority of the distribution piping is run in utility tunnels, with some direct burial piping and some piping run through the lower level of existing buildings. All of the main steam distribution piping has been pressure tested at 1.5 times the 125 psig distribution pressure and was found capable of holding a 125 psig steam load. The existing piping distribution mains, when operating at 125 psig, can deliver approximately twice the heating capability of 15 psig steam. The existing mains have the capacity to deliver the entire Lausche heating plant steam output without increasing the existing steam pipe sizes. We have based our sizing review upon maximum limits of 2 psig per 100 ft. of piping pressure loss and 12,000 fpm velocity at 125 psig. With tunnel or underground piping distribution mains, higher velocities could be utilized, if needed, since noise in the distribution piping mains is not as critical as in occupied spaces. This would increase the capacity of the existing piping mains. The following campus steam distribution mains have already been upgraded to 125 psig: 1. From Lausche Heating Plant to the Old Heating Plant 2. From the Old Heating Plant east in the Mulberry Street Tunnel to the New University Center connector 3. From the Lausche Heating Plant to The Ridges Heating Plant The upgrade of additional steam distribution mains will make the conversion of many gas-fired buildings to the campus steam system possible. It needs to be remembered that upgrading from 15 psig to 125 psig steam will require the following modifications to the steam piping distribution system: 1. Expansion compensation must be provided based upon the higher temperature of 125 psig steam. This will require the addition of new expansion joints and guides in the existing mains. 2. Existing anchors will need to be checked out to make sure that they are adequate for the thrust forces of 125 psig steam. Some anchors will need to be replaced or upgraded. Additional anchors will also probably be required. 3. The existing steam traps on the piping distribution will need to be upgraded to high pressure traps. Some additional traps may also be required. Steam distribution main drip legs should be full main pipe size. 4. The piping insulation will, in some cases, need to be replaced to support the higher temperatures of the 125 psig steam. Deteriorated insulation should also be replaced. The presently completed upgrade of the Mulberry Street main to 125 psig will permit most of the College Green to be converted over to high pressure steam. The next most logical upgrade would be the 14" steam main feed to Nelson Commons. This would set up the conversion of a large part of West Green and also allow the conversion of the South Green dormitories from gas to steam. (Estimate $2,800,000) Estimates to upgrade remainder of campus: West Green: $3,000,000 Campus Green: $1,600,000 East Green: $1,600,000 North Green: $1,100,000 South Green: $1,200,000 Projected costs for steam piping upgrade to 125 psig are based upon reusing the existing steam piping with new expansion joints, anchors, guides and insulation plus all new condensate return. While the campus steam distribution piping holds at higher pressures and appears to be in good condition, the condensate return mains show considerable deterioration. This is true or even more evident on the condensate return lines at The Ridges. As sections of the distribution system are upgraded to 125 psig, the associated condensate return lines should be replaced. CHILLED WATER Historically, the campus has been developed over the years with local chillers at individual buildings. A feasibility study done by ZBA, Inc. in 1995 showed the economic and service value of providing centralized chilled water plants to serve multiple buildings. There are presently two (2) major central chilled water plants with a third plant in the planning stages. One chilled water plant serves The Ridges. This plant presently has one 600 ton centrifugal water chiller. The piping distribution extending from the plant to the crawlspace area under The Ridges complex is sized to carry up to 2400 tons of cooling and the central plant was designed for additional chillers and cooling towers to meet the projected total load of 1800 to 2200 tons of cooling. Konnecker Hall, at the west end of The Ridges complex, is a laboratory facility with its own chillers. It would be advantageous to extend chilled water mains up the road from the chilled water plant to Konnecker. This would improve operating and maintenance costs for The Ridges complex. With separate chilled water mains between The Ridges chilled water plant and Konnecker Hall, there would be no reduction in the piping distribution capacity of the existing piping distribution system. The Konnecker chillers, which are fairly new, could be left in place for back-up use at peak chiller plant loads. (Estimate $360,000) A potential new complex at the east end of The Ridges complex to link The Ridges and the main campus would also be added to the chilled water loop. This might add 200 to 250 tons of cooling to The Ridges chiller plant. The total projected chilled water plant load is broken down as follows: Main Ridges Complex 1300 to 1900 tons Konnecker Hall 400 to 400 tons Future "Link" Building 200 to 300 tons Projected 1900 to 2600 tons Based upon the above overview, the selection of the next two chillers for the chiller plant should reflect this capacity, and will be larger than the existing 600 ton chiller, possibly two 1000 ton chillers. (Estimate $1,000,000 each) A chiller plant with 2600 tons of capacity will essentially be 100% loaded at the projected total load, including the future "Link" building. If the existing chillers at Konnecker are figured in as backup capacity, the total available chiller capacity will be approximately 80% loaded. A second chilled water plant is the West Green chiller plant located near the Lausche Heating Plant. This chiller plant presently has one 2500 ton centrifugal chiller and has space designed for two additional 2500 ton chillers. The piping distribution mains, which have been extended around the West Green, are sized for the full 7500 ton cooling capacity. The present connected cooling load on this chiller plant is approximately 4935 tons of cooling when the new University Center load (500 tons) is added. This connected load exceeds the existing 2500 ton chiller capacity by 2435 tons. The existing Grover Center chillers are connected into this loop for backup service, adding an additional 800 tons of cooling capacity. The plant is still seriously overloaded on peak design days and the second 2500 ton chiller needs to be installed to meet existing loads, provide backup should the present chiller fail, and to continue the connection of other West Green buildings to the central plant loop. In addition, the Integrated Learning Research Facility (ILRF), currently under construction, will add 375 tons of additional loads. The total connected load, once ILRF is online, will be 5310 tons. At this point, the connected load will exceed the total plant capacity even after the additional chiller is installed. The second 2500 ton chiller is an immediate need. (Estimate $2,900,000) If the remainder of the West Green buildings southwest of Oxbow Trail and the transportation and parking services are connected to the West Green chiller plant, the total connected tonnage will be 7969 tons. This will load the 7500 West Green chiller plant to 106%. If the existing Grover Center chillers remain as backup, the total West Green chiller capability will be loaded to 96%. At this loading, there is no capacity for other West Green or College Green growth and no redundancy in the event one of the 2500 ton chillers is down for repairs. There is a small chiller plant in the East Green which presently serves Putman, Jefferson, Johnson, Reed and Biddle. The plant has two 200 ton screw chillers and a connected load of 425 tons. This plant is also loaded to capacity with no allowance for growth and no redundancy in the event of a chiller failure. A new chilled water plant is presently being planned at Nelson Hall in the South Green. This chiller plant will initially serve the South Green and possibly expand to East Green buildings. As this plant is developed, several factors should be considered: 1. Initial chiller plant capacity should be initially sized to handle Nelson Hall and the new swing dormitory facility, plus at least 30% growth. 2. The chiller plant should provide space for additional chillers and cooling towers to serve the existing South Green cooling load of 3740 tons, plus the new swing building, and some additional future growth. This might result in a South Green plant of approximately 5000 tons chiller capacity. 3. Potential chiller plant noise needs to be carefully considered in the design since the Nelson Hall location is in a primarily "housing" area of the campus. Noise from both the chillers and the cooling towers should be addressed. The University needs to plan for an additional chiller plant (or two) which can serve the buildings of College Green, East Green and North Green. The existing capacity of buildings in these areas are: College Green 4600 tons East Green (less 400 tons) 1000 tons North Green 2200 tons 7800 tons One of the major problems the University faces is that building growth has been moving in advance of chilled water plant capacity. This results in overloading the chiller plants. Another side effect is that, because the central plants are overloaded, there is a tendency to consider the installation of individual building cooling systems to meet building schedules, rather than increasing the central plant capacity. Plans should be implemented to install the first chiller and start the piping distribution system for each of these plants. Estimate ($5,000,000 each) Each of the central chilled water plants on campus should be designed for multiple chiller growth so that, as new buildings are planned, and existing buildings are converted to the central plant, new chillers can be installed ahead of the campus construction. We recommend that when the connected load at a given chilled water plant reaches 80% of the total chiller capacity, the next chiller be installed. Also, in initial planning of the chiller plants, we recommend that the total capacity of the chiller plant be designed for existing building load plus 20-25% for future growth. This would indicate potential chiller plant capacities as follows: Existing Chiller Projected Total Planned Excess Total Plant Plant Capacity Capacity Capacity Capacity The Ridges 600 tons 2600 tons 400 (1) 3000 tons West Green 2500 tons 7500 tons 800 (2) 8300 tons South Green N/A 4000 tons 1000 (3) 5000 tons Future College, East, North Greens N/A 7800 tons 1800 (3) 9600 tons (1) The Konnecker Hall Chillers (15% of Plant) (2) The Grosvenor Hall Chillers (10% of Plant) (3) Twenty Five % of Plant The electric utility rate structure from American Electric Power has peak and off-peak rates which provide a cost break to their customers who can shift electrical load from peak to off-peak hours. With the large electrical loads localized at the central chiller plants, there is a good possibility that chilled water storage or ice storage at the central plants could be economically beneficial. By producing and storing chilled water or ice during off-peak hours and then "bleeding" the stored water or ice into the chilled water during daytime hours, operating costs may be appreciably reduced. A life cycle cost evaluation of thermal storage, either chilled water or ice, should be made to determine the viability of incorporating it into the central chilled water plants. WATER The university buildings and facilities are connected to the City of Athens water supply system. The city pumping station has three pumps with a combined capacity of 9300 gpm at 280 ft. head (122 psig). Ohio University had Burgess & Niple do a water system analysis in 2002 (Phase I, July and Phase II, November) to determine if water supply was adequate throughout the campus areas for both domestic water and for sprinkler system water supply. Burgess & Niple took hydrant flow tests and also computer modeled the city water distribution system. They made several recommendations for improvements which would improve the water distribution system. The Phase I recommendations have been implemented and included the following: 1. City and University check status of water main valves to insure they are all "open". 2. Extension of Oxbow Drive main to South Green to complete loop. 3. City of Athens connected the parallel 14 inch and 8 inch water lines at West Green near the Lecture Hall at South Green Drive. Additional recommendations were made in the Phase II part of the study, which have not yet been implemented. These include: 1. Replace the 4 inch line along University Terrace with a 6 inch line. 2. Install a new 8 inch line from University Terrace to Cutler Hall. 3. Replace 6 inch line with 8 inch line near Hudson and Seigfred Halls. 4. Replace the 6 inch line along the north side of The Ridges with a 10 inch line. Of the above items, The Ridges replacement is the highest priority. All of the above corrective measures should be implemented to improve the overall water main flow capacity. (Estimate $1,300,000) Once all of the above upgrades are made, there will be some areas where the available water supply pressure may be marginal for sprinkler flow requirements. For each new or existing building where a sprinkler system is to be installed, flow tests need to be taken to verify actual conditions at time of installation. In addition to the City of Athens water, the University also utilizes a pond, located on the campus golf course for irrigation purposes. The irrigation system does not currently extend beyond the golf course. At this time, there are no plans for expansion of this system. STORM SEWERS The Ridges has an extensive storm sewer system, which discharges to the creek along Dairy Lane. Most of the storm sewer system is located south of the main line of buildings. A 12" sewer runs along the south side of the buildings, connecting to an 18", which then is collected by a 24" sewer, that discharges to the creek. The design capacity of the existing 24" sewer should handle approximately a 30 percent increase in impervious area. All of the branch storm sewers which connect to the 24" main have capacity to accept additional runoff, except for a 10" sewer between Buildings 32 and 34, which is presently undersized. There is essentially no storm sewer system along the north side of the building complex. As future renovation and/or replacement is considered, the addition of storm sewer drainage on the north side for parking and drive drainage should be included. Storm water detention should also be considered as future development occurs. There is presently no storm detention at The Ridges complex. The main campus storm sewer system in the City of Athens drains from the higher elevations at the north to the south and east, where storm water is then pumped into the Hocking River at one of three Hocking Conservancy District pumping stations. The majority of the West Green watershed drains to the old riverbed along Oxbow Trail and the old railroad right-of-way. The south half of College Green watershed also drains to the old riverbed with its open ditch drainage flowing east to the pumping station near Peden Stadium. To the west of Richland Avenue and south of Oxbow Trail and West Green Drive, the storm water is carried under the playing fields to south of Shafer Street, then east to the pumping station near Peden Stadium. This main storm sewer is a 36" corrugated steel pipe, which is badly deteriorated and partially collapsed. This main trunk needs to be replaced. (Estimate $900,000) Floyd Brown and Associates of Columbus, Ohio is presently conducting a study of the West Green storm sewers for Ohio University. The South Green watershed system main runs along South Green Drive to the Hocking Conservancy District pumping station, near Smith and True dormitories. The East Green watershed system extends eastward, along the north leg of South Green Drive (north of Pickering). The 48" main storm sewer discharges to the Hocking Conservancy District pumping station, located at the east end of the north leg of South Green Drive. Ohio University has a current project to extend this 48" storm sewer west to increase the capacity of the East Green watershed storm sewer system. Jones and Stuckey of Columbus, Ohio is designing the sewer main improvements. The North Green watershed drains east, from College Street, in a 24" main, which runs east of Stewart Street, then north along Elliott, to another Hocking Conservancy District pumping station. Jones and Stuckey made video camera studies of the East Green sewer main, for which they are designing an upgrade. Preliminary reports indicated that while the main storm sewer trunk was clear, most, if not all, branch connections showed substantial debris buildup blocking the free flow of storm water. Logic would dictate that if the branches are partially blocked, storm water will be backed up at the drainage areas. These branches need to be cleared. It would also seem likely that, if this condition exists along the East Green main storm sewer trunk, it also probably exists throughout the other watershed drainage systems. A video survey of other areas should also be made, and if branch conditions are similar, this branch lines should be cleared of debris. As part of the Master Plan analysis, we did not attempt to identify individual problem issues, such as the storm water backup at the east end of Park Place, where it intersects University Terrace. A solution to this particular individual problem would be to regrade Park Place, from approximately 200 feet west of University Terrace, so that it is raised approximately 4-5" at the intersection with University Terrace. This would eliminate the "damming" effect at University Terrace permitting the storm water to flow south. The reworking of curbs, sidewalks and brick pavement does not appear as if it would be a major problem. A civil engineering study could resolve the question of applicability and cost. Other specific storm water issues will also need to be analyzed on an individual basis. The main campus storm collection system does not address the issue of storm water detention. When major new construction projects are proposed, each should be evaluated for storm water detention possibilities. SANITARY SEWERS The University is connected to the City of Athens sanitary sewer system. At The Ridges, the sanitary sewers west of the main complex (Building 22) are connected to a 12" trunk sewer. East of the main complex (Building 20), an 18" sewer flows down the hill to connect to the city sewer system at Richland Avenue. An old, hand-laid, oval brick sewer runs under The Ridges main building complex, from a manhole outside Building 22, to a manhole outside Building 20. This oval brick sewer is approximately 4 feet wide by 3 feet high. No one knows the condition of the brick sewer. This could be determined by a video study. Even if the sewer is in good condition, we recommend that a new 12" sanitary sewer be routed around the north side of the main building complex. This would permit renovation projects to connect to a new "accessible" sewer, and eliminate the probability of potential problems in modifying existing connectors and adding new connections to the brick sewer. There has been a problem with the infiltration/inflow of storm water into the sanitary sewer system, during rain events. This was noted in the NBBJ Ridges Master Plan Study done in 2000. Subsequently, Burgess & Niple did flow monitoring and smoke testing in 2001 and 2002. These two studies identified several areas of correction to reduce the infiltration/inflow of storm water. These include: 1. Raising a number of manhole lid elevations to prevent submergence during rain events. 2. Replace manhole lid and frame with watertight frame and gasketed lid at numerous manholes. 3. Replace grad rings at several manholes. 4. Rebuild several manholes. 5. Plug storm overflow connection at Manhole No. 5 and storm inlet that discharges into Manhole No. 37. 6. Reroute several storm drains away from sanitary lines. The report also recommended a video monitoring study of the sanitary system. This would show the condition of the brick sewer under the building and also could identify specific areas of high infiltration/inflow. The main campus sanitary sewers are also connected into the City of Athens sanitary sewer system. These sewers have the same infiltration/inflow issues as the sanitary sewers at The Ridges. During rain events, there are issues with sanitary sewers overloading and "popping" their manhole covers. One particular location is at South Green Drive near Clippinger Lab, where an 18" and 24" sewer flow east along the old railroad embankment, from the University Center, and combine into a single 24" sewer, which runs east along South Green Drive. This 24" line extends to east of McKinley, then turns north along Stewart, to the State Street sewage treatment plant. The addition of the new residence hall, located on South Green, will add capacity to the existing sanitary system. The existing sanitary mains, under normal conditions, appear to have capacity for this new load. Since the adverse conditions are caused by significant rain, the addition of the new facility should not worsen the overloading. However, the problem will remain until the storm system is addressed. A second major trunk line, a 30" storm sewer flows east, south of South Green Drive, until it turns north west of McKinley, then parallels the above 24" main, back to the State Street sewage treatment plant. As new construction on campus is considered, including the relocation of roadways, thought needs to be given to relocating sanitary (and storm) sewers, particularly main lines, so that they are not under the new buildings. Care will need to be taken with the new residence hall, which is near the location where the two main sanitary sewers turn north, near South Green Drive and McKinley. The State Street sewage treatment plant has an average daily flow of slightly over 3.0 million gallons per day, and a capacity of 4.8 million gallons per day. Rain water infiltration is, however, a major problem which needs to be addressed by the City of Athens. Ohio University, as the largest user of the system, also needs to do their part to minimize rain water infiltration/inflow, from the University branch lines connected to the city sanitary system. NATURAL GAS Athens, Ohio and Ohio University are served by Columbia Gas of Ohio. The piping distribution throughout the area is medium pressure (50 psig). Columbia Gas has experienced no problems with gas pressure in the area, even during periods of maximum load. They do not anticipate any major issues with projected growth over the next 10-20 years. As the University continues to grow and develop, it will at times probably be necessary to coordinate with Columbia Gas on the relocation of existing gas mains relative to specific building construction or abandoning or rerouting of roadways. This needs to be evaluated for every new construction project. ELECTRIC 69 kV Substation The Athens campus is served primarily from a University-owned 69 kV-12.47 kV substation located near Facilities Management on the northwest side of campus. The 69 kV feed to the substation is from American Electric Power (AEP). The substation has two 20/28/33.3 MVA substation transformers each with dual stage cooling fans. This equates to a maximum rating of approximately 1,540 amps at 12.47 kV for each transformer. Note that all references to ampacity in this Master Plan are based on 12.47 kV - 3 phase service unless otherwise noted. The substation transformers each supply one 12.47 kV circuit identified as OU1 and OU2. The substation is currently set up with an automatic transfer system to allow one transformer to carry the load of both electrical circuits, OU1 and OU2, in a main-transfer switch-main arrangement. It is important to maintain this arrangement. This arrangement not only allows routine maintenance of either transformer but maintains power to the campus should a transformer fail. If the campus electrical consumption continues to grow and exceeds the rating of the substation transformer then, should a transformer failure occur, a significant portion of the campus could be without power for an extended period of time. Depending on what type of failure occurs and the availability of emergency back- up equipment and/or load shedding, the extended period of time could be measured in days not hours. The peak electrical load on the 69 kV substation for the 2004-2005 period was 23.27 MVA on 6/6/05. The average load from 2004-2005 was approximately 14.2 MVA. Typically, the months with the highest average and peak loads have been May/June (prior to graduation) and September/October (beginning of the fall quarter). The following is a list of previous peak electrical loads by fiscal year: Three Year Annual OU Annual Annual Growth Moving Fiscal Year Peak MVA Growth Average 96-97 15.00 -- -- 97-98 15.77 5.2% -- 98-99 18.88 19.7% -- 99-00 20.16 6.8% 10.6% 00-01 20.35 0.9% 9.1% 01-02 20.81 2.3% 3.3% 02-03* 22.84 9.8% 4.3% 03-04 22.95 0.5% 4.2% 04-05 23.27 1.4% 3.9% * West Green 2,500 ton chiller started 8/02 Annual peak electrical loads have grown over the past nine fiscal years from 15.00 MVA to 23.27 MVA, an average rise of slightly under 6% per year. The Three Year Annual Growth Moving Average shows a growth average greater than 4.1% over the last three cycles. Much of the load growth during that period can be traced to the 2,500 ton West Green Chiller that was started in 2002-2003. If 4% annual growth is projected out over the next several years, the ability to switch all electrical load to one substation transformer during peak loading will be exceeded in fiscal year 2014-2015. This schedule will be significantly accelerated if additional chiller plant growth is added as noted below and recommended in the Chilled Water Section. Projected infrastructure growth areas as noted in this Master Plan include the following areas: West Green (OU1) - chiller plant (115 amps x 2 - 2500 ton chillers = 230 amps) South Green/Nelson (OU2) - chiller plant (115 amps x 2 - 2500 ton chillers = 230 amps) Ridges (OU1) - chiller plant (60-90 amps maximum) College/East/North Green (OU2) - chiller plant(s) (115 amps x 3 - 2500 ton chillers = 345 amps) The South Green/Nelson chiller plant is currently in design. The West Green chiller plant, as noted in the Chilled Water Section, is the highest priority item. Assuming only one 2500 ton chiller is added at the West Green chiller plant and one 2500 ton chiller is added at the South Green/Nelson chiller plant, the projected peak electric load jumps from 23.27 MVA (2004-2005) to approximately 28.24 MVA or an increase of 21.3%. This assumes both chiller plants at 1 KVA/ton (includes chillers, pumps, cooling towers, etc.) and both chillers running at 100% load. When these two chillers come on-line and if all of the electric load was switched to one of the 69 kV substation transformers, the transformer will be loaded to approximately 86% of capacity. Assuming a slightly conservative 6% annual electric load growth and the addition of the two chillers mentioned above during fiscal year 2007-2008, the ability to switch all electrical load to one substation transformer during peak loading will be exceeded in fiscal year 2009- 2010. This schedule will be accelerated if other chiller plants are added. The pace of acceleration will be based on the size of the chiller plant. The following is a list of other currently planned or proposed projects/buildings that will increase load to the 69 kV substation over the next few years. The circuit that will receive the load is in parenthesis: University Center (OU1) - estimated peak demand is approximately 90 amps Life Science Addition (OU1) East Green Dorm Swing Building (OU2) Renovation of East Green Dorms (OU2) Seigfred Electrical Upgrade (OU1) Proposed Transition of Various Buildings (i.e. Pilcher House, Konnecker Alumni, etc.) from AEP to OU Power Grid (OU1 & OU2) Integrated Learning and Research Facility (ILRF) - (OU1) To delay these schedules, measures should be taken to reduce electrical consumption during peak demand times. This also has the net affect of not setting a new AEP peak demand which will elevate electric utility costs. Typical steps taken to reduce electrical load during peak hours/days include the following: Cooling - utilize steam fed chillers in lieu of electric Cooling Reduction - cycle cooling to specific buildings Cooling Reduction - disconnect cooling to specific low priority buildings Cooling Reduction - produce chilled water or ice during off peak load times to utilize reduced utility rate Lighting Reduction - turn off large spot lighting loads Lighting Reduction - disconnect lighting to low priority buildings Lighting Reduction - implement occupancy sensor driven lighting in existing and new buildings Electric Reduction - load shedding in various buildings with power to be provided for each building from the local stand-by generator Each of the options above should be studied further to determine a specific course of action. Electrical Distribution Adjacent to the 69 kV Substation Circuits OU1 and OU2 have capacity concerns. Reference the existing 69 kV Substation One-Line Diagram on the next page. Circuit OU1 (including The Ridges feed and West Green Chiller Plant) had a previous peak load of 529 amps on 7/29/05. The maximum load on circuit OU1 (not including either The Ridges or West Green Chiller Plant, OU1-A) was 459 amps on 6/6/05. The peak load for The Ridges and West Green Chiller Plant (OU1-A) was 269 amps on 5/05/04. The peak demand on circuit OU2 was 436 amps on 9/15/05. Both substation circuits, OU1 and OU2, feed two 1,200 amp frame circuit breakers. One of the OU1 circuit breakers (OU1-A) feeds The Ridges substation and West Green Chiller Plant. The second OU1 circuit breaker (OU1-B) feeds the following areas: College Green, East Green, North Green, various buildings east of the College Green near West Union Street, and an alternate source to The Ridges. One of the OU2 circuit breakers (OU2-A) is a spare. The second circuit breaker (OU2-B) feeds the following areas: West Green, South Green, Sports Complex and the Service Center. Both circuits, OU1-B and OU2-B, feed into two switches in the Old Laundry Building (OLB). These switches are rated at 1200 amps and fused at 600 amps. The feeder to each of these switches is two underground parallel sets of 350 kcmil cables rated at 660 amps. Both of the OLB switches feed into a puffer switch located in the substation yard. The puffer switch is rated for 600 amps. The feed from each circuit, OU1-B and OU2-B, is one set of 750 kcmil wire rated at 610 amps. The feeder out of the puffer switch for OU1-B splits at a load break T-splice, into two 500 kcmil feeders to the Old Heating Plant (OHP). The OU2-B feeder out of the puffer switch splits at another load break T-splice with two 500 kcmil feeders to the Lausche Heating Plant substation. The addition of one 2500 ton chiller for the South Green/Nelson Chiller Plant will increase the OU2-B circuit peak electrical load to approximately 550 amps. This increase, without factoring in any other electrical load growth, will place the feeder above its maximum wire rating capacity at the puffer switch. Alternative fuel supplies (i.e. steam) should be considered for new chiller plants. As can be seen on the existing 69 kV Substation One-Line Diagram (next page), the circuits from OU1 and OU2 have a few restrictions or bottle-necks at equipment and/or cables. The One-Line Diagram and the "Growing Electrical Consumption Concerns" white paper by David Mace (OU Electrical Project Manager) in the accompanying electrical binder show a rudimentary 1-line diagram with restrictions highlighted. The following items are restrictions at or near the 69 kV substation with possible solutions. The proposed solutions require further study but are provided as options to consider. Note that these proposed solutions are for both circuits OU1 and OU2. 1. Restriction: The 600 amp rated puffer switch and associated cables rated at 535 amps. According to Ohio University Facilities Maintenance, the puffer switches have not been operated in at least twenty years. The puffer switch enclosure is primarily a large junction box as it is currently used. The OLB fused switches serve as the primary fault and overcurrent protection. The 500 kcmil cable from the puffer switch to the splices restricts the capacity of the system. Proposed Solution (A): Remove the puffer switch from the system and add a parallel 750 kcmil cable from the OLB to new splices at the 500 kcmil cables which currently feed out of the puffer switch. This splits the OU1 and OU2 feeders at the load break T-splice location and increases cable capacity up to the puffer switch location. (Estimate: $135,000) Proposed Solution (B): In lieu of splices above, add a new 1200 amp rated switch line-up for distribution. This provides separation and individual switching/fusing for each of the currently spliced feeders. This also increases the circuit capacity. (Estimate: $200,000) 2. Restriction: Cable from the OU1-B and OU2-B 1200 amp circuit breakers to the OLB 1200 amp rated switch is rated for 660 amps. Fuses at the OLB are 600 amps. Proposed Solution: Replace the 660 amp capacity cable with 1200 amp capacity cable. Increase the OLB fuse size to correspond with the increased cable size. (Estimate: $100,000) The changes noted above will require further study. Note that an increase in wire size may affect short circuit coordination at existing buildings. Electrical Distribution on the Athens Campus The three circuits from the 69 kV substation (OU1-A: The Ridges, OU1-B and OU2-B) feed the majority of the Athens campus. Circuit OU1-B has main distribution points (i.e. switch line-ups, unit substations with distribution, etc.) at the following buildings/locations: The Old Heating Plant Radio-Television (RTV) - North Green Music - North Green Alden Library - College Green Morton - East Green There are two feeders from the 69 kV substation yard to the OHP. These two feeders (500 kcmil each) feed multiple switch line-ups. These switch line-ups have two main switches. The switches are rated at 600 amps and fused at 400 amps. One of the switches feeds the Alden substation, Music substation, RTV substation, Morton substation and two 2,400 volt switch line-ups at the OHP. Most feeders from these switches to the other substations/switch line-ups are either #2/0 or #2 AWG 15 kV cable. The feeder to the University Center project, which is currently under construction, is 500 kcmil. A spare 15 kV switch is located inside the University Center for future use. The Music building substation feeder is #2 AWG and is rated for approximately 200 amps. Note that this feeder is routed predominantly through utility tunnels over a distance of approximately 3,000 feet. The Master Plan proposes significant growth in the area near the Music building. This growth, along with other anticipated changes such as adding the Mill Street Housing to OU's power grid, will quickly outpace the capacity of the feeder. There are a few items to consider when addressing the needs of the Music substation in conjunction with proposed growth through the Master Plan. The following are a few options to consider: Option A: Upgrade the feeder to the Music substation (minimum 350 kcmil cable). Expand or add a switch line-up for proposed growth in the North Green. This option allows expansion in the North Green but does not otherwise address proposed growth. (Estimate: $275,000) Option B: Provide a new feeder from the 1200 amp spare circuit breaker on Circuit OU2 to a new switch line-up on the east side of campus. Further study is required to determine a location for this switch line-up. This option allows development in the North, East and possibly the South Green areas as well as the Mill Street Housing & Retirement Center, both which are currently served from AEP. Depending on the final location for the switch line-up, this option would require a feeder that approaches one mile in length. This would add load to Circuit OU2, which is currently the least loaded of the two circuits. For the estimate, we have assumed parallel 750 kcmil cables (as a minimum) through existing tunnel/duct banks. (Estimate: $850,000) Option C: Develop a new 69 kV substation located near the East Green area. The approximate size of the substation would be in the 20-35 MVA range. Actual size of the new substation requires additional study. This substation should incorporate the same main-transfer switch-main arrangement as noted for the existing 69 kV substation to allow maintenance. The substation could feed new development as proposed in this Master Plan and areas currently served by AEP (i.e. Mill Street Housing, etc.). The new substation could also be used to reduce load on the existing circuits, OU1 & OU2, by back-feeding existing buildings. This choice would be the most costly, but provide the most benefit and long term sustainability of Ohio University's electrical needs. Preliminary discussions with AEP indicate there are two 69 kV feeds that can be used. One of the 69 kV feeds is the existing OU substation feed. To extend this feed to the new substation would likely require a route through downtown Athens. The other choice is to provide an extension to the Stroud's Run substation northeast of downtown Athens. According to AEP, Ohio University would be responsible for the 69 kV feeder installation costs for either of these choices. Note this estimate does not include easement or land acquisition costs, only the substation cost along with AEP's preliminary estimate. (Estimate: $10,000,000) Circuit OU2-B has primary distribution points at the following buildings/locations: Boyd - West Green Grover - Sports Complex Clippinger - South Green Nelson - South Green There are two feeders from the 69 kV substation yard to the switch line-ups at Lausche. The feeders are 500 kcmil each. The switch line-ups at Lausche have two main switches. The switch line-ups are rated at 600 amps and are fused at 400 amps. One of the switches feeds the Convocation Center, Boyd I and II, Grosvenor, Laundry and Clippinger. The other switch feeds switches for Sorb Tech, Lausche, Facilities Maintenance buildings, Stocker, Porter and the Heating Plant. Most feeds from these line-ups are #2 or #2/0. The Boyd II feeder is 500 kcmil. Expansion of the Lausche Heating Plant may require relocation of the existing switch lineups and feeders. Refer to the Steam/Condensate Section of this Master Plan. There is currently a utility bridge located northwest of Stocker in the West Green. This bridge runs from near Lausche to Stocker. Planning and Implementation has expressed an interest in removing this bridge. A proposed plan to eliminate the electrical feeders crossing this bridge has been developed by David Mace - Facilities Maintenance Electrical Project Manager. A copy of this plan is included in the Electrical binder. This cable relocation should be studied further, to coincide and anticipate the possible expansion of the Lausche Heating Plant. The Ridges feeder OU1-A, runs from the 69 kV substation 1200 amp circuit breaker through switching in the substation yard to a 1200 amp switch line-up located on the hillside northwest of The Ridges Auditorium along North Ridge Drive. The circuit is subdivided into two circuits fused at 600 amps, R1 and R2, prior to leaving the substation yard. The underground wiring for these circuits is 750 kcmil (475 amp capacity for each set of cables). The wiring is run underground primarily except at the Hocking River. At the river, the wiring runs overhead and spans the river. The circuits terminate into an exterior 15 kV switch line-up. This switch line-up has three feeder switches to the following areas: Building 32 (200 amp fuses) - indoor 15 kV switch line-up Konnecker Research Center (300 amp fuses - two feeds) primary & alternate source from Building 32 switch and indoor 1500 KVA unit substation Building 33 (300 amp fuses, Boiler Plant) - indoor 15 kV switch line-up This switch feeds the chiller plant, Museum, 2.4 kV transformer at Building 33, Building 1 and Building 32A. The maximum electrical load on The Ridges feeder in 2004-2005 was 269 amps on 5/5/04. The Master Plan indicates that a significant portion of the existing buildings may be renovated or demolished and replaced. The new buildings will either be research or housing. Housing will not present a significant load increase. Research development will place a greater burden on The Ridges circuit, however, the anticipated additional load should not exceed the available wiring capacity. Assuming 200,000 square feet of research area is added through renovation or demolition/new construction, the additional load expected (10 VA/SF peak) should not exceed 100 amps at 12.47 kV. This would bring the peak load to 369 amps. Projected chiller plant growth, as noted in the chilled water section, would increase the peak load by 60-90 amps. This brings the peak total to approximately 460 amps, on either circuit R1 or R2. Circuits R1 and R2 are fused at 600 amps with 475 amp cable capacity. If one circuit carried the entire load, the peak load will approach the circuit capacity. There are quite a few areas on campus with 2,400 volt electric services, including The Ridges. At Building 33 on The Ridges, there is a 2,400 volt distribution line-up that distributes power to most of the buildings (approximately 32). The 12.47 kV-2.4 kV transformer that feeds the line-up is an old oil-filled transformer. This transformer should be checked to see if it has PCB's in the transformer coolant. This line-up has an auto-transfer controller which, upon normal power loss, switches power to an alternate source. The alternate source is a 750 KW generator located in Building 33. There are various other buildings and distribution points throughout the campus with 2,400 volt electrical services (i.e. OHP substation, Alden substation, Lasher, Boyd substation, Grover Center substation, etc.). It has been Ohio University's policy in the past to upgrade electrical services from 2,400 volts to 12.47 kV during renovations, when possible. We recommend continuing this practice to eventually change all distribution to match the campus standard of 12.47 kV. This will also achieve the goal of replacing older, and in many cases, obsolete electrical equipment. Research Park At West State Street The Research Park off West State Street currently is served from its own Ohio University owned 69 kV substation. This substation serves the following buildings: The Innovation Center, Biochemistry Facility (which contains Diagnostic Hybrids, Inc. - DHI) and the Corrosion Center. This substation was installed in approximately 2002. The existing substation has a single 10/14.4 MVA transformer with single stage fan cooling. This transformer's previous peak load was approximately 1.29 MVA on 6/25/2005. This peak load means the transformer runs at less than 13% of its capacity without fan cooling. While the Master Plan does not propose any significant growth in this area, the existing substation could handle significantly more load. The existing substation currently only has one transformer. The Innovation Center and Biochemistry Facility have standby generators that provide power for emergency as well as select other equipment. These generators do not provide backup power for the entire building. Based upon the type of work done in these two buildings (research and temperature sensitive production), backup power for each building should be considered. A second substation transformer could provide the ability to perform maintenance on the first substation but still requires the same 69 kV feed from AEP. We recommend providing backup power through standby power generators. This is because it will likely cost significantly more to add a second transformer to the 69 kV substation than to add standby generators to each building. Also, adding a second transformer will allow transformer maintenance but still leaves each building subject to any volatilities on AEP's 69 kV line. ELECTRIC SUMMARY The Master Plan proposes growth, including the utility infrastructure, in quite a few areas. With this proposed growth, the University will be required to decide how it wants to address this growth. With regard to the electrical system, the following question must first be addressed: Will the University allow electrical growth to exceed the capacity of one of the two existing 69 kV substation transformers? The Master Plan recommends this not be allowed to occur in order to maintain redundancy for maintenance or a catastrophic transformer failure. If the University decides to allow electrical load to exceed the capacity of one transformer, then the 69 kV substation has adequate capacity for the foreseeable future. If the Master Plan recommendation is used, then the existing 69 kV substation capacity will need a resolution in the next three to five years. Therefore, planning to address this should be started in the next few years. Distribution from the existing 69 kV substation will need to be addressed soon. Many of the electric distribution issues will occur based on mechanical infrastructure upgrades (i.e. chiller plants). The current electric distribution system near the 69 kV substation has cable and/or equipment restrictions that need to be addressed to allow continued campus growth. The table below summarizes maximum projected peak electrical loads and estimated growth on the 12.47 kV electrical system. The total reflects estimated growth over the next ten years. Note that the peak estimated loads exceed the rating of one transformer at the 69 kV substation. Estimated Peak Electrical Loads for Feeders Circuit OU1-A Existing Peak Load 269 amps Added West Green Chiller (2500 tons) 115 amps Added Ridges Chiller 90 amps Proposed Ridges Growth (maximum) 100 amps Total 574 amps Circuit OU1-B Existing Peak Load 459 amps University Center (estimate) 90 amps Life Science Addition, Seigfred, Various Buildings Added to OU Grid (estimate) 61 amps Total 610 amps Circuit OU1 Total 1,184 amps or 25.57 MVA at 12.47 kV - 3 Circuit OU2-B Existing Peak Load 436 amps South Green/Nelson Chillers (2-2500 ton) 230 amps College/East/North Green Chillers (3-2500 ton) 345 amps East Green Dorm Swing Building, East Green Dorm Renovations, Various Buildings Added to OU Grid (estimate) 30 amps Total 1,041 amps or 22.48 MVA at 12.47 kV - 3 Total 69 kV Substation Peak Estimated Loads (OU1 & OU2) 2,225 amps or 48.06 MVA or 12.47 kV - 3 As can be seen above, much of the electric growth is through mechanical infrastructure growth. The calculations above assume that all of the chillers listed in the Chilled Water Section of this Master Plan will be added over the next ten years. The total peak estimated loads noted above exceed the capacity of one transformer at the 69 kV substation. The peak estimated load is approximately 71% of the total capacity of the 69 kV substation using both transformers. The Master Plan proposes growth in multiple areas on campus. While the projected Master Plan floor space growth is not extraordinary, there are also mechanical infrastructure upgrades that will place a significant electrical load on the current electrical system. With planning and foresight, Ohio University can overcome any of the obstacles noted in this Master Plan and provide sufficient electrical infrastructure to meet the University's long term needs.